Civil War Battles | HistoryNet MENU

Civil War Battles

Major battles from the American Civil War

Civil War Battles Facts




Eastern Theater
Western Theater
Gulf Coast
Sioux Uprising

Civil War Battles Articles

Explore articles from the History Net archives about Civil War Battles

» See all Civil War Battles Articles

Civil War Battles summary: The Civil War consisted of nearly 10,500 battles, engagements, and other military actions including nearly 50 major battles and about 100 others that had major significance. The remainder were skirmishes, reconnaissances, naval engagements, sieges, bombardments, etc. The engagements were fought in 23 different states and resulted in a total of over 650,000 casualties.

style=”display:block” data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7459104103345814″ data-ad-slot=”9852498000″ data-ad-format=”auto”>

The battles are divided amongst designated theaters including the Eastern Theater, Western Theater, Trans-Mississippi Theater, Gulf Coast and Sioux (Dakota) Uprising.

Below is a chronological list of the more famous and important Civil War battles.

Civil War Battles: 1861

Eastern Theater
April 12

Battle of Fort Sumter

Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.

The bombardment/siege and ultimate surrender of Fort Sumter by Brig. General P.G.T. Beauregard was the official start of the Civil War.
June 3

Battle of Philippi

(West) Virginia

A skirmish involving over 3,000 soldiers, Philippi was the first battle of the American Civil War.
June 10

Big Bethel


The skirmish of Big Bethel was the first land battle of the civil war and was a portent of the carnage that was to come.
July 11

Rich Mountain (West) Virginia


July 21

First Battle of Bull Run

Manassas, Virginia

Also known as First Manassas, the first major engagement of the American Civil War was a shocking rout of Union soldiers by confederates at Manassas Junction, VA.
August 28–29

Hatteras Inlet North Carolina

September 10

Carnifax Ferry, (West) Virginia

September 12–15

Cheat Mountain, (West) Virginia

October 3

Greenbrier River (West) Virginia

October 21

Ball’s Bluff, Virginia

October 9

Battle of Santa Rosa Island

Santa Rosa Island (Florida)

The Battle of Santa Rosa Island was a failed attempt by Confederate forces to take the Union-held Fort Pickens.
style=”display:block” data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7459104103345814″ data-ad-slot=”9852498000″ data-ad-format=”auto”>
November 7–8

Battle of Port Royal Sound

Port Royal Sound, South Carolina

The battle of Port Royal was one of the earliest amphibious operations of the American Civil War.
December 13

Camp Alleghany, (West) Virginia

December 20

Dranesville, Virginia

Western Theater
September 19

Barbourville, Kentucky

October 21

Wildcat Mountain (Wildcat Camp), Kentucky

December 17

Rowlett’s Station, Kentucky

June 17

Booneville, Missouri

August 10

Battle of Wilson’s Creek

Wilson’s Creek/Oak Hills, Missouri

The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, aka Battle of Oak Hills, was the first major battle of the Western Theater and is often called the “Bull Run of the West.”
September 13–20

Siege of Lexington, Missouri

October 25

Springfield, Missouri

November 7

Battle of Belmont

Belmont, Missouri

General Ulysses S. Grant took command and began his Civil War career.
November 19

Round Mountain, Indian Territory

December 9

Chusto–Talasah, Indian Territory

December 26

Chustenahlah, Indian Territory

December 28

Mount Zion Church, Missouri

Civil War Battles: 1862

Eastern Theater
February 8

Roanoke Island, North Carolina

March 8–9
style=”display:block” data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7459104103345814″ data-ad-slot=”9852498000″ data-ad-format=”auto”>

Battle Of Hampton Roads

Hampton Roads, Virginia

First battle between the ironclad warships; often called the battle between the Monitor & the Merrimack, the Merrimack had already been renamed Virginia when it was converted to an ironclad by the Confederacy.
March 14

New Berne, North Carolina

March 23

Kernstown, Virginia

March 23–April 26

Siege of Fort Macon, North Carolina

April 5–May 4

Siege of Yorktown, Virginia

April 10–11

Fort Pulaski, Georgia

May 5

Williamsburg, Virginia

May 7

Eltham’s Landing, Virginia

May 8

McDowell, Virginia

May 23

Front Royal, Virginia

May 25

Battle Of Winchester

Winchester, Virginia

The town of Winchester, Virginia’s strategic location makes it the site of numerous Civil War engagements.
May 27

Hanover Courthouse, Virginia

May 31–June 1
June 5

Tranter’s Creek, North Carolina

June 8

Cross Keys, Virginia

June 9

Port Republic, Virginia

June 16

Secessionville, South Carolina

June 21

Simmon’s Bluff, South Carolina

June 25

Oak Grove, Virginia

June 26

Beaver Dam Creek, Virginia*

June 27–28

Garnett’s Farm and Golding’s Farm, Virginia*

June 29

Savage Station and Allen’s Farm, Virginia*

June 30

White Oak Swamp, Virginia*

June 30

Glendale, Virginia*

June 25-July 1

*The Seven Days Battle

(Collectively known as) Henrico County, Virginia

The Seven Days Battle was a series of battles in the Peninsula Campaign consisting of a Confederate counter-offensive which drove the Union Army away from the Confederate capitol of Richmond down the Virginia Peninsula. The list of individual battles appears above, beginning with Beaver Dam Creek and ending with Malvern Hill.
August 9

Cedar Mountain, Virginia

August 22–25

Rappahannock Station, Virginia

August 25–27

Manassas, Virginia (Prelude to Second Bull Run/Manassas)

August 28

Thoroughfare Gap, Virginia

August 28–30

Second Battle of Bull Run

Manassas, Virginia

The Second Battle of Bull Run, also called Second Manassas, resulted in a second defeat for Union troops in the area of First Bull Run (First Manassas), though it was not a complete rout like the first battle was. The Confederate victory set the stage for Robert E. Lee‘s first invasion of the North, which would result in the Battle of Antietam.
September 1

Battle of Ox Hill

Chantilly, Virginia

The Battle of Ox Hill, aka Battle of Chantilly, was the final battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign Learn more about the Battle of Ox Hill
September 12–15
September 14

Battle of South Mountain

Frederick County and Washington County, Maryland

The Battle of South Mountain, aka the Battle of Boonsborough Gap, was part of the Maryland Campaign and found Robert E. Lee delaying George Mcclellan‘s Army of Northern Virginia through three mountain passes.
September 17
style=”display:block” data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7459104103345814″ data-ad-slot=”9852498000″ data-ad-format=”auto”>

Battle of Antietam

Sharpsburg, Maryland

The bloodiest single day in American history, the Battle of Antietam turned back Robert E. Lee‘s first Northern invasion. Though tactically a draw, it was enough of a win to permit President Abraham Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation in its wake. When Lee’s adversary, Major General George B. McClellan failed to pursue following the battle, Lincoln removed him from command.
September 19-20

Battle of Shepherdstown

Shepherdstown, (West) Virginia

The Battle of Shepherdstown, aka Battle of Boteler’s Ford, was the final battle of the Maryland Campaign.
December 11–15

Battle of Fredericksburg

Fredericksburg, Virginia

More troops were present at the Battle of Fredericksburg than at any other battle of the American Civil War, including Gettysburg. Poor coordination of attacks by Union commanders, combined with strong Confederate defensive positions, resulted in a lopsided slaughter of Federal troops.
December 14

Kinston, North Carolina

December 16

White Hall, North Carolina

December 17

Goldsborough Bridge, North Carolina

Western Theater
January 19

Mill Springs, Kentucky

February 6

Battle of Fort Henry

Fort Henry, Tennessee

The Battle of Fort Henry was the first major victory for the Union in the Western Theater, led by Brig. General Ulysses S. Grant.
February 11–16, Siege of

Battle of Fort Donelson

Fort Donelson, Tennessee

The Battle of Fort Donelson saw Union General Ulysses S. Grant capture the fort, gaining him recognition as well as the nickname “Undonditional Surrender.”
March 3–April 8

Siege of New Madrid and Island No. 10, Missouri (Mississippi River)

April 6–7

Battle of Shiloh

Shiloh, Tennessee

The casualty totals of the Battle of Shiloh shocked Americans both North and South, with the two-day total exceeding that of all previous American wars combined. The battle turned back a Confederate attempt to re-capture Middle Tennessee and contributed to Union Major General Ulysses S. Grant‘s reputation as a leader who would keep fighting even in adverse circumstances.
May 25–30

Siege of Corinth

Corinth, Mississippi

Henry Halleck took Corinth after a month-long siege.
June 28

Battle of Vicksburg

Vicksburg, Mississippi

“The Confederate Gibraltar,” Vicksburg, Mississippi, had to be captured before Union ships could safely traverse the entire length of the Mississippi. The Vicksburg Campaign lasted many months, leading to the Battle of Vicksburg in May 1863. After Federal assaults repulsed on May 19 and 22, the Union commander, Ulysses S. Grant, settled into siege warfare.
August 29

Battle of Richmond

Richmond, Kentucky

The Battle of Richmond was the first major battle of the Kentucky Campaign and a stunning victory for Confederate forces.
September 14–17

Siege of Munfordville, Kentucky

September 19

Iuka, Mississippi

October 3–4

Battle of Corinth

Corinth, Mississippi

Two months after the Siege of Corinth, Maj. General William S. Rosecrans defeated the Confederate Army.
October 5

Hatchie’s Bridge, Tennessee

October 8

Battle of Perryville

Perryville, Kentucky.

Account of the 21st Wisconsin Infantry Regiment’s harrowing fight.
December 19

Jackson, Tennessee

December 26–29

Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi

December 31

Parker’s Crossroads, Tennessee

December 31–January 2

Battle of Stones River

Murfreesboro, Tennessee

The culmination of the Stones River Campaign, the battle of Stones River resulted in a 29% casualty rate, the same percentage as Chickamauga and behind only Gettysburg‘s 31%.
February 20–21

Valverde, New Mexico

March 8

Battle of Pea Ridge

Pea Ridge, Arkansas

The Battle of Pea Ridge, also called the Battle of Elkhorn Tavern, in Arkansas, marked a failed attempt by Confederate major general Earl Van Dorn to destroy the Union Army of the Southwest under Brigadier General Samuel Curtis. The victory solidified Union control over the state of Missouri for the next two years.
March 26–28

Glorietta Pass, New Mexico

June 17

Saint Charles, Arkansas

July 7

Hill’s Plantation, Arkansas

August 6–9

Kirksville, Missouri

August 11

Independence, Missouri

August 15–16

Lone Jack, Missouri

September 24–25
September 30

Newtonia, Missouri

October 4

Galveston, Texas

October 22

Old Fort Wayne, Indian Territory

November 7

Clark’s Mill, Missouri

November 28

Cane Hill, Arkansas

December 7

Prairie Grove, Arkansas

Gulf Coast
April 16–28

Forts Jackson and Saint Phillip, Louisiana

August 9

Donaldsonville, Louisiana

August 5

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

October 1–3

St. Johns Bluff, Florida

October 27

Georgia Landing, Louisiana

November 28

Kock’s Plantation, Louisiana

Sioux Uprising
August 20–22

Fort Ridgely, Minnesota

September 23

Wood Lake, Minnesota

Civil War Battles: 1863

Eastern Theater
March 3

Fort McAllister, Georgia

March 13–15

Fort Anderson, North Carolina

March 17

Kelly’s Ford, Virginia

March 30–15

Siege of Washington, North Carolina

April 13–15

Suffolk, Virginia

April 30–May 6

Battle of Chancellorsville

Chancellorsville, Virginia

The Battle of Chancellorsville is widely regarded as General Robert E. Lee‘s greatest victory. It turned back the Union Army of the Potomac under Joseph “Fighting Joe” Hooker, but it was a costly victory. Lee’s brilliant and aggressive corps commander Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was mortally wounded by his own men, who mistook him and his staff for Union cavalry.
May 3

Second Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia

May 3–4

Salem Church, Virginia

June 9

Brandy Station, Virginia

June 13-15

Second Battle Of Winchester

Winchester, Virginia

The town of Winchester, Virginia, is the site of another battle.
June 30

Battle of Hanover

Hanover, Pennsylvania

The Battle of Hanover was part of Robert E. Lee‘s Gettysburg Campaign.
July 1–3

Battle of Gettysburg

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

The largest battle ever fought on the North American continent, Gettysburg marked the end of Robert E. Lee‘s second invasion of the North and was a turning point in the Civil War.
July 8

Boonsborough, Maryland

July 16

Grimball’s Landing, South Carolina

July 18–Sept 7

Siege of Fort Wagner, South Carolina

July 19

Buffington Island, Ohio River (Ohio and West Virginia)

July 23

Manassas Gap, Virginia

October 14

Bristoe Station, Virginia

November 6

Droop Mountain, West Virginia

November 7

Rappahanock Station

Nov 27–Dec 2

Mine Run, Virginia

Western Theater
February 3

Dover, Tennessee

March 5

Thompson’s Station, Tennessee

March 25

Brentwood, Tennessee

April 29–May 1

Snyder’s Bluff, Mississippi

April 30

Day’s Gap, Alabama

May 1

Port Gibson, Mississippi

May 12

Battle Of Raymond

Raymond, Mississippi

The Battle Of Raymond was a key victory for Grant as part of his Vicksburg Campaign.
May 17

Big Black River Bridge, Mississippi

May 18–July 4

Siege of Vicksburg

Vicksburg, Mississippi

The Siege of Vicksburg represented the last phase of the Vicksburg Campaign where General Grant surrounded the city of Vicksburg, which finally surrendered on July 4.
June 24–26

Hoover’s Gap, Tennessee

July 9

Corydon, Indiana

August 17–23

Bombardment of Fort Sumter, South Carolina

September 7–8

Charleston Harbor, South Carolina

September 10

Davis Crossroads, Georgia

September 18

Battle Of Chickamauga

Chickamauga, Georgia

The largest battle fought in the Western Theater of the Civil War, Chickamauga was one of the few Confederate victories in that theater. Braxton Bragg‘s Confederate Army of Tennessee, reinforced by a corps from the Army of Northern Virginia, routed the forces of Major General William S. Rosecrans. Bragg’s failure to follow up aggressively reduced an overwhelming Confederate victory to merely a tactical one.
Sept 23–Oct 30

Siege of Chattanooga, Tennessee

October 28–29

Wauhatchie, Tennessee

November 3

Collierville, Tennessee

November 16

Campbell’s Station, Tennessee

November 23-25

Battle Of Chattanooga

Chattanooga, Tennessee

The Union victory at Chattanooga in November 1863 opened the road to Atlanta for Federal armies. Following the Battle of Chickamauga in September, Confederate troops besieged those of the Union in Chattanooga. After Ulysses S. Grant took command, the siege was broken, and the thinly stretched Confederates were driven from the ridges above the town by an impromptu charge by the Army of the Cumberland.
November 24

Lookout Mountain (Chattanooga), Tennessee

November 25

Missionary Ridge (Chattanooga), Tennessee

December 29

Mossy Creek, Tennessee

January 1

Galveston, Texas

January 8

Springfield, Missouri

January 9

Hartsville, Missouri

January 9–11

Arkansas Post, Arkansas

April 26

Cape Girardeau, Missouri

May 1–2

Chalk Bluff, Arkansas

July 1–2

Cabin Creek, Indian Territory

July 4

Helena, Arkansas

July 17

Honey Springs, Indian Territory

September 8

Sabine Pass, Texas

September 10

Bayou Forche, Arkansas

October 6

Baxter Springs, Kansas

October 25

Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Gulf Coast
April 12–13

Fort Bisland, Louisiana

April 14

Irish Bend, Louisiana

April 17

Vermillion Bayou Louisiana

May 21

Plains Store, Louisiana

June 20–21

La Fourche Crossing, Louisiana

June 28

Donaldsonville, Louisiana

June 29–30

Goodrich Landing, Louisiana

September 29

Sterling’s Plantation, Louisiana

October 16–18

Fort Brooke, Florida

Civil War Battles: 1864

Eastern Theater
Feburary 6–7

Morton’s Ford, Virginia

March 22

Walkerton, Virginia

April 17–20

Plymouth, North Carolina

May 5–7

Battle Of The Wilderness

Spotsylvania County, Virginia

The Battle of the Wilderness was the first clash between Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant. Three days of close-quarters fighting in woods and tangled underbrush resulted in nearly 20,000 total casualties. Although the Confederates could claim a tactical victory, the battle showed that the North’s largest army would no longer retreat after a reverse, and Lee’s army was slowly pushed back to trenches around Richmond and Petersburg.
May 6–7

Port Walthall Junction, Virginia

May 8–21

Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse

Spotsylvania County, Virginia

Part of Ulysses S. Grant‘s Overland Campaign in Virginia in the summer of 1864, the Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse was a costly tactical victory for Robert E. Lee‘s Army of Northern Virginia, which could not hope to win a war of attrition.
May 9

Swift Creek, Virginia

May 9

Cloyd’s Mountain, Virginia

May 10

Chester Station, Virginia

May 10

Cove Mountain, Virginia

May 11

Battle of Yellow Tavern

Henrico County, Virginia

The Battle of Yellow Tavern was a cavalry battle which was part of the Overland Campaign which saw J.E.B. Stuart mortally wounded.
May 12–16

Proctor’s Creek, Virginia

May 15

Battle of New Market

Shenandoah County, Virginia

The Confederates, along with cadets from VMI, drove Union General Franz Sigel out of the Shenandoah Valley.
May 20

Ware Bottom Church, Virginia

May 23–26

North Anna, Virginia

May 24

Wilson’s Wharf, Virginia

May 31-June 12

Battle of Cold Harbor

Cold Harbor, Virginia

The Battle of Cold Harbor marked the end of Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant’s Overland Campaign known for the 7,000 Union Casualties suffered in under an hour in a frontal assault on Confederate lines.
June 15–18

Battle of Petersburg

Petersburg, Virginia

The Battle of Petersburg, Virginia (siege of Petersburg), June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, marked a change in tactics in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. Instead of the campaigns of maneuver that had characterized the war up to that point, Union and Confederate armies fought a series of trench-warfare battles more like those of World War I than of the Civil War.
June 17–18

Leesburg, Virginia

June 21–24

Jerusalem Plank Road, Virginia

June 24

Saint Mary’s Church, Virginia

June 25

Stanton River Bridge, Virginia

June 28

Sappony Church, Virginia

June 29

Ream’s Station, Virginia

July 9

Monocacy, Maryland

July 11–12

Fort Stevens, Washington, DC

July 17–18

Cool Spring, Virginia

July 20

Rutherford Farm, Virginia

July 27–29

Deep Bottom, Virginia

July 30

Battle of the Crater, Siege of Petersburg, Virginia

August 1

Folcks Mill, Maryland

August 7

Moorefield, West Virginia

August 13–20

Deep Bottom, Virginia

August 16

Guard Hill, Virginia

August 18–21

Globe Tavern, Virginia

August 25

Ream’s Station, Virginia

August 25–29

Smithfield Crossing, Virginia

September 3–4

Berryville, Virginia

September 19

Opequon, Virginia

September 21–24

Battle of Fisher’s Hill

Fisher’s Hill, Virginia

Union Major General Philip H. Sheridan attacked the seemingly impregnable heights of Fisher’s Hill, grandly known as the ‘Gibraltar of the Shenandoah Valley.’
September 29–30

Chaffin’s Farm, Virginia

Sept 30–Oct 2

Peeble’s Farm, Virginia

October 2

Saltville, Virginia

October 7

Darbytown & New Market roads, Virginia

October 9

Tom’s Brook, Virginia

October 13

Darbytown Road, Virginia

October 19

Cedar Creek, Virginia

October 27–28

Boydton Plank Road, Virginia

October 27–28

Fair Oaks & Darbytown Road

December 17–18

Marion, Virginia

December 20–21

Saltville, Virginia

Western Theater
January 17

Dandridge, Tennessee

January 26

Athens, Alabama

January 27

Fair Garden, Tennessee

February 22

Okalona, Mississippi

February 22–27

Dalton, Georgia

March 25

Paducah, Kentucky

April 12

Battle of Fort Pillow

Fort Pillow, Tennessee

Nathan Bedford Forrest‘s command captures a Mississippi River fort in Tennessee, leading to a massacre of many of the United States Colored Troops defending the fort.
May 7–13

Rocky Face, Georgia

May 13–15

Battle of Resaca

Resaca, Georgia

Major General William T. Sherman took on Joseph E. Johnston during the Atlanta campaign.
May 17

Adairsville, Georgia

May 25–26

New Hope Church, Georgia

June 22

Kolb’s Farm, Georgia

July 14–15

Tupelo, Mississippi

July 20

Battle Of Peachtree Creek

Peach Tree Creek, Georgia

The Battle of Peachtree Creek was part of the Atlanta Campaign and was the first major attack by Lt. General John B.Hood.
July 22

Battle of Atlanta

Atlanta, Georgia

Union victory in the Battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864, is often credited as the turning point that allowed Abraham Lincoln to be re-elected president instead of his opponent, George B. McClellan, who would have sought peace terms with the Confederacy. After the battle, Confederate troops set fire to the city before evacuating, to deny its resources to William T. Sherman‘s Federal troops.
July 28

Ezra Church, Georgia

August 5–7

Utoy Creek, Georgia

August 15–15

Dalton, Georgia

August 20

Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia

August 31–Sep 1

Jonesborough, Georgia

October 5

Allatoona, Georgia

October 26–29

Decatur, Alabama

November 4–5

Johnsonville, Tennessee

November 11–13

Bull’s Gap, Tennessee

November 22

Griswoldville, Georgia

November 28

Buck Head, Georgia

November 29

Spring Hill, Tennessee

November 30

Battle of Franklin

Franklin, Tennessee

Account of the bloody confederate slaughter in Franklin, Tennessee.
November 30

Honey Hill, South Carolina

December 4

Battle of Waynesborough

Waynesborough, Georgia

The Battle of Waynesborough was one of the later battles of Sherman’s March to the Sea and opened the route to Savannah.
December 13

Fort McAllister, Georgia

December 15–16

Battle of Nashville

Atlanta, Georgia

The battle of Nashville was the last major battle in the Western Theater and a major victory for the Union.
December 24–27

Fort Fisher, North Carolina

February 13

Middle Boggy Depot, Indian Territory

April 3–4

Elkin’s Ferry, Arkansas

April 8

Mansfield, Louisiana

April 9

Pleasant Hill, Louisiana

April 9

Prairie D’Ane, Arkansas

April 12–13

Blairs Landing, Louisiana

April 23

Monetts Ferry, Louisiana

April 30

Jenkins Ferry, Arkansas

September 27

Fort Davidson, Missouri

October 15

Glasgow, Missouri

September 19

Lexington, Missouri

October 21

Little Blue River, Missouri

October 22

Independence, Missouri

October 22

Byrams Ford, Missouri

October 23

Westport, Missouri

October 25

Mine Creek, Kansas

Gulf Coast
February 20

Olustee, Florida

March 14

Fort De Russy, Louisiana

August 5

Battle of Mobile Bay

Mobile Bay, Alabama

In the Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama, August 5, 1864, a Union fleet under Rear Admiral David G. Farragut, attacked and defeated a smaller, less well-equipped Confederate naval force. The battle is most often remembered for a line Farragut may or may not have actually spoken: Warned there were torpedoes (mines) floating in the harbor, he reportedly said, “Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!”
Off Cherbourg, France

June 25, USS Kearsarge fights CSS Alabama

Civil War Battles: 1865

Eastern Theater
February 5–7

Hatcher’s Run, Virginia

March 2

Waynesborough, Virginia

March 25

Fort Stedman, Virginia

March 29

Lewis’s Farm, Virginia

March 31

White Oak Road, Virginia

March 31

Dinwiddie Courthouse, Virginia

April 2

Sutherland’s Station, Virginia

April 3

Namozine Church, Virginia

April 5

Amelia Springs, Virginia*

April 6

Rice’s Station, Virginia*

April 6

Battle of Sailor’s Creek

Amelia County, Virginia

The Battle of Sailor’s Creek was part of the Appomattox Campaign during the final days of the civil war and was Robert E. Lee‘s last battle before surrendering at Appomattox Court House.

April 6–7

High Bridge, Virginia*

April 7

Cumberland Church, Virginia*

April 8

Battle of Appomattox Courthouse*

Appomattox Station, Virginia*

The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse was the last battle fought by Robert E. Lee‘s Army of Northern Virginia. After his attempt to break out of a closing trap failed, Lee met with Ulysses S. Grant to surrender his army. Although the Civil War did not end with the surrender at Appomattox, the loss of the South’s largest army was the death knell of the Confederacy.

(*Collectively known as the Appomattox Campaign.)

Western Theater
January 13–15

Fort Fisher, North Carolina

February 3

Rivers Bridge, South Carolina

February 13–21

Wilmington, North Carolina

March 7–10

Wyse Fork, North Carolina

March 10

Monroe’s Crossroads, North Carolina

March 16

Averasborough, North Carolina

March 19–21

Bentonville, North Carolina

April 2

Selma, Alabama

May 12-13

Battle of Palmetto Ranch

Palmetto Ranch, Texas

The Battle of Palmetto Ranch was the final battle of the civil war.
Gulf Coast
March 6

Natural Bridge, Florida

Mar 27–April 8

Siege of Spanish Fort, Alabama

April 2–9

Siege of Fort Blakely, Alabama

 Banner image Battle of Corinth, Miss. Oct. 4th 1862, Currier & Ives, Library of Congress



Articles Featuring Civil War Battles From History Net Magazines

Articles 1

All Things VicksburgThe Union’s eight-month struggle to conquer Vicksburg, Miss., culminated in a 47-day siege that ended on July 4, 1863—one day after the Federal triumph at Gettysburg. Terrence Winschel, former chief historian at Vicksburg National Military Park, has written nine Civil War books, including Triumph and Defeat: The Vicksburg Campaign, first published in 1999. We recently …
Weaponry: The Rifle-Musket and the Minié BallThe Civil War's deadliest weapons were not rapid-fire guns or giant cannon, but the simple rifle-musket and the humble minié ball.
Vicksburg: The Campaign That Opened the Mississippi (Book Review)Reviewed by Mike Oppenheim By Michael B. Ballard University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2004 Popular writers tell us the Confederacy successfully fought off the Union until July 1863. Then came Vicksburg and Gettysburg, after which defeat became inevitable. Meant to satisfy both sides, this traditional view pays too much attention to the stalemate in …
USS Monitor: The Crew Took Great Pride in Serving on the Famous ShipThe crew of Swedish Inventor John Ericsson's Monitor took great pride in serving on the renowned 'cheese box on a raft.'
Picture of the Day: November 19Gettysburg Address President Abraham Lincoln was asked to deliver a few ‘appropriate remarks’ to the crowd at the dedication of the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on November 19, 1863. Lincoln’s address was almost ignored in the wake of the lengthy oration by main speaker Edwin Everett. In fact, Lincoln’s speech was over before …
Picture of the Day: September 17On September 17, 1862, a small, stone-arch bridge that spans Antietam Creek outside Sharpsburg, Maryland, became one of the most hotly contested structures in American history. During the Battle of Antietam, an entire Union corps spent most of the bloodiest single day of the Civil War waiting to cross the creek over that bridge, opposed …
Battle of Gettysburg: Remembering Pickett’s ChargeFew judgments have generated as much controversy as the Confederate decision to make a last desperate attack on the center of the Union lines on the afternoon of July 3, 1863, at Gettysburg.
“Never Were Men So Brave” – December 1998 Civil War Times FeatureNever Were Men So Brave Their casualties were enormous but their courage and capacity for fun were legendary. General Lee, himself, gave highest praise to these Yankees of the Irish Brigade. BY JOHN F. McCORMACK, JR. Out Hanover Street in Fredericksburg they marched that December morning in 1862, sprigs of green in their caps, a …
Remembering Pickett’s Charge at the Battle of GettysburgConfederate Captain Joseph Graham offers a different perspective on the Battle of Gettysburg, particularly its final hours.
Civil War Times: March 1998 LettersLetters - SubmitCivil War TimesRewriting History I read with some misgiving your announcement “Proposed Legislation Could Clear Dr. Mudd” (“News,” December 1997). President Jimmy Carter did not issue a proclamation absolving Mudd of his conviction as a co-conspirator of John Wilkes Booth, as you state. Carter sent a letter to Dr. Richard D. Mudd, grandson …
Civil War Times: May 1998 LettersLetters - SubmitCivil War TimesFrom Fort To Park About 20 years ago I was beginning work on a book on the Battle of Franklin and a biography of John M. Schofield. In 1975, I spent about three days in Franklin, Tennessee, making a thorough inspection of the battlefield and the surrounding country. I knew exactly …
BETRAYAL AT EBENEZER CREEK – October 1998 Civil War Times FeatureBETRAYAL AT EBENEZER CREEK Trapped between charging Rebels and a deadly flooded creek, thousands of fugitive slaves watched in horror as the Union army abandoned them. Then came catastrophe–and excuses. BY EDWARD M. CHURCHILL Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis had few complaints about the able-bodied black men who were supplying the muscle and sweat to …
THE FALL OF A CONFEDERATE COMMANDER – Cover Page: March 1997 Civil War Times FeatureTHE FALL OF A CONFEDERATE COMMANDER EDITED BY CHARLES F. COONEYNotes on the Death of Albert Sidney Johnston In the aftermath of the Battle of Shiloh a perplexing question arose and has continued to be asked. The death of General Albert Sidney Johnston on the first day of that fight created a void in the …
DISASTER AT DOVE CREEK – Cover Page: February 1997 Civil War Times FeatureDISASTERAT DOVECREEK BY PHILLIP RUTHERFORD Captain N.W. Gillitine and twenty-three militiamen of the Texas 2d Military District stared into the grave they had just opened. On the bottom lay a two-year-old Indian girl, dead not 48 hours. To Gillitine, she was less a dead child than the final proof he needed for an alarming report …
Homecoming – December 1997 Civil War Times FeatureHomecoming SUBMITTED BY THOMAS CARTWRIGHT, FRANKLIN, TENNESSEE NAME: Henry J. Walker DATES: February 19, 1842, to April 6, 1862ALLEGIANCE: ConfederateHIGHEST RANK: PrivateUNIT: 24th Tennessee Infantry, Company BSERVICE RECORD: Enlisted in the 24th Tennessee, Company B, on August 24, 1861. Served under Patrick Cleburne in early 1862 when his unit became part of General Albert Sidney …
BLIND JUSTICE- Cover Page: May 1997 Civil War Times FeatureBLIND JUSTICE Should a Texas Ranger Expect Justice or Death From His Union Captors? BY DANIEL E. SUTHERLAND Ephraim Shelby Dodd sat in his Knoxville jail cell and scribbled a note to a local volunteer who was taking care of him and some other Rebel prisoners. He made a modest request–“a piece of soap, towel, …
first thunder at SHILOH – Cover Page: March 1997 Civil War Times Featurefirst thunder at SHILOH A REBEL BATTERY’S FIRST SALVO WAS THE PRELUDE TO A STORM THE UNTESTED CANNONEERS COULD NEVER HAVE IMAGINED JON G. STEPHENSON A Confederate artillery captain peered through his field glasses, calmly studying the distant tree line. It was a lovely day. A breeze ruffled the budding branches of the oaks that …
Prelude to a Duel – June 1997 Civil War Times FeaturePrelude to a Duel Terrified of the South’s new deadly weapon–an ironclad gunboat–the Union navy races its own armored ship to Virginia. Will the Monitor arrive in time to save the Union fleet? BY WILLIAM STILL At ten minutes before ten o’clock on the morning of January 30, 1862, the Monitor slid slowly out of …
Can We Ever Raise The Monitor? – Sidebar: June 1997 Civil War Times FeatureA Floating Revolution The steam-powered ironclad Monitor was a revolutionary weapon. Designed and built by Swedish-born engineer John Ericsson, the ironclad was a bizarre prototype that featured dozens of original inventions. Nicknamed the “cheesebox on a raft” because of her round two-gun turret mounted on a low, flat hull, the Monitor was the first warship …
America’s Civil War: September 1997 From the EditorAt Antietam, George McClellan and his ‘bodyguard’ dawdled throughout a long ‘Fatal Thursday.’ This issue of America’s Civil War takes a close look at the Battle of Antietam on this, the 135th anniversary of the battle. There are feature-length articles on the fighting around Dunker church and Bloody Lane, as well as a "Personality" piece …
Boys in the Bag – August 1997 Civil War Times FeatureBoys in the Bag The 7th U.S. Infantry’s most powerful foe was John Barleycorn. BY THOMAS P. LOWRY In July 1861, three months after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, the 7th Infantry was in southern New Mexico Territory. Companies A, B, D, E, G, I, and K garrisoned Fort Fillmore, the regiment’s headquarters. Companies C, …
Amos Humiston: Union Soldier Who Died at the Battle of GettysburgMortally wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg, Union soldier Amos Humiston died clutching the only clue to his identity:an ambrotype of his three small children.
Battle of Fairfield: Grumble Jones’ Gettysburg Campaign VictoryWhile the Battle of Gettysburg raged a few miles away, two very different cavalrymen fought for control of the strategic Fairfield Gap. At stake was the survival or destruction of General Robert E. Lee's army.
Taking of Burnside Bridge – September ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureTaking of Burnside Bridge By John M. Priest While Union commander George McClellan fumed and the Battle of Antietam hung in the balance, a handful of Rebels held off Federal troops at “Burnside Bridge.” The day–September 17, 1862–promised to be long and hot, and the regimental commanders in Brigadier General Samuel Sturgis’ division of the …
First Eyewitness to War LetterMy Dear Wife, I this morning sat myself down to write you a few lines to let you know that I am in good health. At this time hoping when these few lines come to hand they may find you and the children all well. My dear wife, I want to see you and my …
George Smalley’s Vivid Account of the Battle of AntietamNew York Tribune reporter George Smalley scooped the world with his vivid account of the Battle of Antietam.
Ewell Seizes the Day at Winchester – Mar. ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureEwell Seizes the Day atWINCHESTERBy Dean M. Wells One month after Stonewall Jackson’s death at Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee turned to Stonewall’s trusted lieutenant, Richard Ewell, to cover his invasion of the North. Was ‘Old Bald Head’ up to the challenge? June 14, 1863, was a hot, cloudy day in northern Virginia. A light breeze …
A Tour of ‘Mosby’s Confederacy’ – Jan ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureTRAVELA tour of ‘Mosby’s Confederacy’ gives a taste of thefamed cavalryman’s hair-raising exploits. By Karen M. Laski “They had for us all the glamour of Robin Hood and his merry men, all the courage and bravery of the ancient crusaders, the unexpectedness of benevolent pirates and the stealth of Indians.” So wrote Sam Moore, a …
Return To The Killing Ground – November ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureReturn To The Killing Ground By Jeffry D. Wert Brash, bombastic John Pope tempted fate by returning to the old battleground at Manassas. He thought he had caught Robert E. Lee napping. He was wrong. A heavy, soaking rain fell across northern Virginia on the night of August 30-31, 1862. Despite the storm’s intensity, it …
Eyewitness- May ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureEyewitness to War Confederate Captain Charles Bruce kept his father apprised of conditions during the crucial Peninsula campaign. Submitted by Faye Royster Tuck On March 29, 1859, two years before the beginning of the Civil War, Charles Bruce, 18, was attending the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Little did he know then how …
General Samuel Garland – May ’96 America’s Civil War FeaturePERSONALITY When Samuel Garland fell at South Mountain, the Confederacy lost a promising general and a proven leader. By James K. Swisher In the years following the Civil War, the loss of outstanding young leaders in that fratricidal conflict had an immeasurable effect upon state and local affairs. The war had rapidly expanded to a …
Battle for the Bluegrass – Mar. ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureIt had been almost one month since Confederate General Braxton Bragg had pulled off an organizational masterpiece–four weeks since the first troop trains had rumbled into Chattanooga, Tennessee, completing an improbable 800-mile odyssey. Bragg had engineered one of the most innovative strategic strokes of the Civil War. An entire Confederate Army had been lifted from …

Articles 2

Day One at Chancellorsville – March ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureNew Union commander ‘Fighting Joe’ Hooker planned to encircle Robert E. Lee at the Virginia crossroads hamlet of Chancellorsville. The plan seemed to be working perfectly, until….By Al Hemingway Early in the evening on April 29, 1863, Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart rode up to the Chancellor farmhouse, a well-known inn 11 miles west …
Father John B. Tabb Aboard Confederate Blockade Runners: Jan ’96: America’s Civil War FeaturePERSONALITYFather John B. Tabb, an unreconstructed Rebel to the end, had served the Confederacy aboard blockade runners. By Charles A. Earp The Tabbs of Amelia County were one of the oldest and wealthiest families in Vir-ginia, owning vast acreage and many slaves. When the Civil War came, 16-year-old Johnny Tabb wanted to join his brothers …
The 44th Georgia Suffered Some of the Heaviest Losses – March ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureThe hard-fighting 44th Georgia suffered some of the heaviest losses of any regiment in the Civil War.By Gerald J. Smith On March 10, 1862, companies of Georgians from Henry, Jasper, Clarke, Spalding, Clayton, Putnam, Fayette, Pike, Morgan, Henry and Greene counties all assembled at Camp Stephens, outside Griffin. Responding to Governor Joseph Brown’s mandate to …
Eyewitness to War: Stonewall Jackson’s Final Days – November ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureDr. Hunter McGuire, Stonewall Jackson’s 27-year-old medical director, chronicled the general’s last days. By Joe D. Haines, Jr. The circumstances surrounding the death of Lieutenant General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson are well known. Following perhaps his greatest performance, leading a brilliant flanking maneuver against Union Major General Joseph Hooker at Chancellorsville, he was mistakenly shot …
Confederate Floating Battery Revival – July ’96 America’s Civil War FeaturePopular during the Crimean War, the floating batterywas revived by hard-pressed Confederates. By Robert Collins Suhr During the Civil War, the South used an 18th-century concept called the floating battery–naval guns mounted on some sort of craft that had to be towed into position. Unable to maneuver to avoid gunfire, batteries usually were covered with …
Stonewall’s 11th-Hour Rally: Jan ’96: America’s Civil War FeatureWith a rusted sword in one hand and a Confederate battle flag in the other,a grim-faced Stonewall Jackson desperately rallied his faltering troops. What Rebelworthy of the name could abandon ‘Old Jack’ in his hour of need?By Robert C. Cheeks It was devilishly hot in the summer of 1862, an oppressive, debilitating heat that ravaged …
A Town Embattled- February ’96 Civil War Times FeatureWinchester, Virginia, saw more of the war than any other place North or Southa town EMBATTLEDCHRIS FORDNEY Ten thousand Confederate troops filled the small town of Winchester, Virginia, early in the summer of 1861. Soldiers were quartered in almost every building. Then, in mid-July, a call came to stop a Federal advance on Manassas, and …
Hancock’s ‘Well-Conducted Fizzle’ – Jan. ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureHancock's 'Well-Conducted Fizzle' With Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia stubbornly clinging to Petersburg,Ulysses S. Grant decided to cut its vital rail lines. To perform the surgery, he selected one of the North’s proven heroes– ‘Hancock the Superb.’ By Bruce A. Trinque General UIysses S. Grant had hammered and probed the defenses of Petersburg, …
Decks Covered With Blood – May ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureDecks Covered With Blood Union Admiral David Farragut, preparing to brave the frowning bluffs of Port Hudson, kept his young son by his side. They would “trust in Providence,” he decreed. So would their shipmates. By John F. Wukovits The chief justice of the United States, Edward White, walked toward Admiral George Dewey, recently returned …
Union General George Stannard at Gettysburg – July ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureThe first Vermonter to enlist in the war, Union General George Stannard helped turn the tide at Gettysburg.By Anthony Buono The third day of the Battle of Gettysburg was hot and humid. The battlefield, littered with thousands of dead and dying, bore grim testimony to the fierce fighting of the previous two days. The smell …
‘Home, Sweet Home’, Soldier’s Favorite Song – May ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureORDNANCE John Howard Payne’s haunting ‘Home, Sweet Home’was the Civil War soldier’s favorite song. By Ernest L. Abel A few weeks after the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862), about 100,000 Federal soldiers and 70,000 Confederates were camped on opposite sides of the Rap-pahannock River in Virginia. The battle had been one of the bloodiest …
All-Girl Rhea County Spartans – July ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureBegun as a lark, the all-girl Rhea County Spartans soon attracted the attention of unamused Union officers. By Charles Rice “I must tell you about a candy stew that they had at Uncle Frank’s last night,” young Mary Paine of Rhea County, Tennessee, wrote to her Confederate-soldier brother in January 1863. “Miss Jennie and Manurva …
Valley of the Shadow – Sept. ’90 America’s Civil War FeatureVALLEY OFTHE SHADOW Overconfident and overextended, the Union Army of the Cumberland advanced into the deep woods of northwest Georgia. Waiting Confederates did notintend for them to leave. At Chickamauga Creek, the two sides collided. By Mike Haskew In the dimly lit log cabin of the Widow Glenn, the military map wasspread. Worried Union officers …
Drones in the Great Hive – December ’95 Civil War Times FeatureDRONES IN THE GREAT HIVEBy Christian A. Fleetwood An African-American Medal of Honor-winner writes bitterly of the way the Union army treats its black soldiers. Christian A. Fleetwood was one of 13 African-American soldiers who won theMedal of Honor at the Battle of Chaffin’s Farm, Virginia, on September 29and 30, 1864. At one time he …
Horsepower Moves the Guns – March ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureWorking side by side with soldiers, horses labored to pull artillery pieces into battle.Without them, field artillery could not have been used to such deadly effect.By James R. Cotner The field artillery of the Civil War was designed to be mobile. When Union or Confederate troops marched across country, the guns moved with them. During …
In Present-Day Brooklyn, Echo of the Civil War – March ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureOn a leafy side street in present-day Brooklyn, a faintecho of the Civil War can still be heard.By John A. Barnes The Episcopal Church of St. John, in Brooklyn, New York, is considerably less quiet today than it must have been in the days when Captain Robert E. Lee and 1st Lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson …
Travelers to Wartime Richmond – Sept. ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureTravelers to wartime Richmond had a wide choiceof luxurious hotels, inns and taverns. By John K. Trammell The outbreak of the Civil War ushered in an era of radical change in Virginia. Starting with fanatical John Brown’s failed revolution at Harpers Ferry, and ending with a devastating defeat and painful reconstruction six years later, citizens …
The Proving Ground – April ’96 Civil War Times FeaturethePROVINGground The Mexican War gave future civil war generals their first taste of combatJOHN C. WAUGH Chatham Roberdeau Wheat would one day lead a famous Louisiana battalion called “Wheat’s Tigers” into battle for the Confederacy. He would fight and die in the Battle of Gaines’ Mill, Virginia, in 1862. But that was still some 15 …
Did ‘Baldy’ Ewell Lose Gettysburg?After disobeying Robert E. Lee's orders to avoid a general engagement at Gettysburg, Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell received an order to 'press those people.' His failure to do so created a controversy that survives to this day.
The Lightning Brigade Saves the Day – July ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureThe Lightning Brigade Saves the Day Armed with their new, lethal seven-shot Spencer rifles, Wilder’sLightning Brigade was all that stood between the Union Army and the looming disaster at Chickamauga Creek. By Hubert M. Jordan Historically, the Battle of Chickamauga is recorded as a two-day battle starting on September 19, 1863. For the men of …
Rebel Stand at Drewry’s Bluff – November ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureRebel Stand at Drewry's Bluff By Jon Guttman While Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac slowly advanced on Richmond in May 1862, the Union Navy made its own play to seize the Confederate capital. In mid-May 1862–little more than a year after South Carolina secessionists had fired the opening rounds of …
Tall Tales of the Civil War – August ’96 Civil War Times FeatureTALL TALES OF THE CIVIL WAR Being a compendium of poppycock, balderdash, and malarkey told by civil warveterans for the amusement and amazement of future generations BY: WILLIAM C. DAVIS Men are deceivers ever,” wrote William Shakespeare in Much Ado AboutNothing. Certainly much of what men and women have said about their deedsthrough the ages …
Wintry Fury Unleashed – Jan. ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureWintry Fury Unleashed Union General William Rosecrans bided his time, waiting to attack Braxton Bragg’s Rebel army at Murfreesboro, 30 miles south of Nashville. By Michael E. Haskew Steadily the rain had pelted down all day, and now as wintry winds and darkness ushered in another miserable night at the mercy of the elements, the …
Eyewitness- March ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureEyewitness to War A letter from a young Michigan cavalryman gives a vivid–if ungrammatical–account of Gettysburg and its aftermath. Submitted by Nancy Ronemus Ed. note: In order to give the full, authentic flavor of Rice’s letter, editing has been kept to a minimum. Punctuation and paragraph breaks have been added to make the letter easier …
Father John B. Tabb Aboard Confederate Blockade Runners: Jan ’96: America’s Civil War FeaturePERSONALITYFather John B. Tabb, an unreconstructed Rebel to the end, had served the Confederacy aboard blockade runners. By Charles A. Earp The Tabbs of Amelia County were one of the oldest and wealthiest families in Vir-ginia, owning vast acreage and many slaves. When the Civil War came, 16-year-old Johnny Tabb wanted to join his brothers …
Battle of Gettysburg: Union General George Stannard and the 2nd Vermont BrigadeThe first Vermonter to enlist in the war, Union General George Stannard helped turn the tide at Gettysburg.
Mexican War: The Proving Ground for Future American Civil War GeneralsFor young American army officers of the time, the Mexican War was not only the road to glory, it was the road to promotion--a proving ground for future Civil War generals.

Articles 3

Articles 4

Articles 5

Articles 6