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Civil War Battles

Major battles from the American Civil War

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Eastern Theater
Western Theater
Gulf Coast
Sioux Uprising

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Civil War Battles summary: The Civil War consisted of nearly 10,500 battles, engagements, and other military actions including nearly 50 major battles and about 100 others that had major significance. The remainder were skirmishes, reconnaissances, naval engagements, sieges, bombardments, etc. The engagements were fought in 23 different states and resulted in a total of over 650,000 casualties.

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The battles are divided amongst designated theaters including the Eastern Theater, Western Theater, Trans-Mississippi Theater, Gulf Coast and Sioux (Dakota) Uprising.

Below is a chronological list of the more famous and important Civil War battles.

Civil War Battles: 1861

Eastern Theater
April 12

Battle of Fort Sumter

Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.

The bombardment/siege and ultimate surrender of Fort Sumter by Brig. General P.G.T. Beauregard was the official start of the Civil War.
June 3

Battle of Philippi

(West) Virginia

A skirmish involving over 3,000 soldiers, Philippi was the first battle of the American Civil War.
June 10

Big Bethel


The skirmish of Big Bethel was the first land battle of the civil war and was a portent of the carnage that was to come.
July 11

Rich Mountain (West) Virginia


July 21

First Battle of Bull Run

Manassas, Virginia

Also known as First Manassas, the first major engagement of the American Civil War was a shocking rout of Union soldiers by confederates at Manassas Junction, VA.
August 28–29

Hatteras Inlet North Carolina

September 10

Carnifax Ferry, (West) Virginia

September 12–15

Cheat Mountain, (West) Virginia

October 3

Greenbrier River (West) Virginia

October 21

Ball’s Bluff, Virginia

October 9

Battle of Santa Rosa Island

Santa Rosa Island (Florida)

The Battle of Santa Rosa Island was a failed attempt by Confederate forces to take the Union-held Fort Pickens.
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November 7–8

Battle of Port Royal Sound

Port Royal Sound, South Carolina

The battle of Port Royal was one of the earliest amphibious operations of the American Civil War.
December 13

Camp Alleghany, (West) Virginia

December 20

Dranesville, Virginia

Western Theater
September 19

Barbourville, Kentucky

October 21

Wildcat Mountain (Wildcat Camp), Kentucky

December 17

Rowlett’s Station, Kentucky

June 17

Booneville, Missouri

August 10

Battle of Wilson’s Creek

Wilson’s Creek/Oak Hills, Missouri

The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, aka Battle of Oak Hills, was the first major battle of the Western Theater and is often called the “Bull Run of the West.”
September 13–20

Siege of Lexington, Missouri

October 25

Springfield, Missouri

November 7

Battle of Belmont

Belmont, Missouri

General Ulysses S. Grant took command and began his Civil War career.
November 19

Round Mountain, Indian Territory

December 9

Chusto–Talasah, Indian Territory

December 26

Chustenahlah, Indian Territory

December 28

Mount Zion Church, Missouri

Civil War Battles: 1862

Eastern Theater
February 8

Roanoke Island, North Carolina

March 8–9
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Battle Of Hampton Roads

Hampton Roads, Virginia

First battle between the ironclad warships; often called the battle between the Monitor & the Merrimack, the Merrimack had already been renamed Virginia when it was converted to an ironclad by the Confederacy.
March 14

New Berne, North Carolina

March 23

Kernstown, Virginia

March 23–April 26

Siege of Fort Macon, North Carolina

April 5–May 4

Siege of Yorktown, Virginia

April 10–11

Fort Pulaski, Georgia

May 5

Williamsburg, Virginia

May 7

Eltham’s Landing, Virginia

May 8

McDowell, Virginia

May 23

Front Royal, Virginia

May 25

Battle Of Winchester

Winchester, Virginia

The town of Winchester, Virginia’s strategic location makes it the site of numerous Civil War engagements.
May 27

Hanover Courthouse, Virginia

May 31–June 1
June 5

Tranter’s Creek, North Carolina

June 8

Cross Keys, Virginia

June 9

Port Republic, Virginia

June 16

Secessionville, South Carolina

June 21

Simmon’s Bluff, South Carolina

June 25

Oak Grove, Virginia

June 26

Beaver Dam Creek, Virginia*

June 27–28

Garnett’s Farm and Golding’s Farm, Virginia*

June 29

Savage Station and Allen’s Farm, Virginia*

June 30

White Oak Swamp, Virginia*

June 30

Glendale, Virginia*

June 25-July 1

*The Seven Days Battle

(Collectively known as) Henrico County, Virginia

The Seven Days Battle was a series of battles in the Peninsula Campaign consisting of a Confederate counter-offensive which drove the Union Army away from the Confederate capitol of Richmond down the Virginia Peninsula. The list of individual battles appears above, beginning with Beaver Dam Creek and ending with Malvern Hill.
August 9

Cedar Mountain, Virginia

August 22–25

Rappahannock Station, Virginia

August 25–27

Manassas, Virginia (Prelude to Second Bull Run/Manassas)

August 28

Thoroughfare Gap, Virginia

August 28–30

Second Battle of Bull Run

Manassas, Virginia

The Second Battle of Bull Run, also called Second Manassas, resulted in a second defeat for Union troops in the area of First Bull Run (First Manassas), though it was not a complete rout like the first battle was. The Confederate victory set the stage for Robert E. Lee‘s first invasion of the North, which would result in the Battle of Antietam.
September 1

Battle of Ox Hill

Chantilly, Virginia

The Battle of Ox Hill, aka Battle of Chantilly, was the final battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign Learn more about the Battle of Ox Hill
September 12–15
September 14

Battle of South Mountain

Frederick County and Washington County, Maryland

The Battle of South Mountain, aka the Battle of Boonsborough Gap, was part of the Maryland Campaign and found Robert E. Lee delaying George Mcclellan‘s Army of Northern Virginia through three mountain passes.
September 17
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Battle of Antietam

Sharpsburg, Maryland

The bloodiest single day in American history, the Battle of Antietam turned back Robert E. Lee‘s first Northern invasion. Though tactically a draw, it was enough of a win to permit President Abraham Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation in its wake. When Lee’s adversary, Major General George B. McClellan failed to pursue following the battle, Lincoln removed him from command.
September 19-20

Battle of Shepherdstown

Shepherdstown, (West) Virginia

The Battle of Shepherdstown, aka Battle of Boteler’s Ford, was the final battle of the Maryland Campaign.
December 11–15

Battle of Fredericksburg

Fredericksburg, Virginia

More troops were present at the Battle of Fredericksburg than at any other battle of the American Civil War, including Gettysburg. Poor coordination of attacks by Union commanders, combined with strong Confederate defensive positions, resulted in a lopsided slaughter of Federal troops.
December 14

Kinston, North Carolina

December 16

White Hall, North Carolina

December 17

Goldsborough Bridge, North Carolina

Western Theater
January 19

Mill Springs, Kentucky

February 6

Battle of Fort Henry

Fort Henry, Tennessee

The Battle of Fort Henry was the first major victory for the Union in the Western Theater, led by Brig. General Ulysses S. Grant.
February 11–16, Siege of

Battle of Fort Donelson

Fort Donelson, Tennessee

The Battle of Fort Donelson saw Union General Ulysses S. Grant capture the fort, gaining him recognition as well as the nickname “Undonditional Surrender.”
March 3–April 8

Siege of New Madrid and Island No. 10, Missouri (Mississippi River)

April 6–7

Battle of Shiloh

Shiloh, Tennessee

The casualty totals of the Battle of Shiloh shocked Americans both North and South, with the two-day total exceeding that of all previous American wars combined. The battle turned back a Confederate attempt to re-capture Middle Tennessee and contributed to Union Major General Ulysses S. Grant‘s reputation as a leader who would keep fighting even in adverse circumstances.
May 25–30

Siege of Corinth

Corinth, Mississippi

Henry Halleck took Corinth after a month-long siege.
June 28

Battle of Vicksburg

Vicksburg, Mississippi

“The Confederate Gibraltar,” Vicksburg, Mississippi, had to be captured before Union ships could safely traverse the entire length of the Mississippi. The Vicksburg Campaign lasted many months, leading to the Battle of Vicksburg in May 1863. After Federal assaults repulsed on May 19 and 22, the Union commander, Ulysses S. Grant, settled into siege warfare.
August 29

Battle of Richmond

Richmond, Kentucky

The Battle of Richmond was the first major battle of the Kentucky Campaign and a stunning victory for Confederate forces.
September 14–17

Siege of Munfordville, Kentucky

September 19

Iuka, Mississippi

October 3–4

Battle of Corinth

Corinth, Mississippi

Two months after the Siege of Corinth, Maj. General William S. Rosecrans defeated the Confederate Army.
October 5

Hatchie’s Bridge, Tennessee

October 8

Battle of Perryville

Perryville, Kentucky.

Account of the 21st Wisconsin Infantry Regiment’s harrowing fight.
December 19

Jackson, Tennessee

December 26–29

Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi

December 31

Parker’s Crossroads, Tennessee

December 31–January 2

Battle of Stones River

Murfreesboro, Tennessee

The culmination of the Stones River Campaign, the battle of Stones River resulted in a 29% casualty rate, the same percentage as Chickamauga and behind only Gettysburg‘s 31%.
February 20–21

Valverde, New Mexico

March 8

Battle of Pea Ridge

Pea Ridge, Arkansas

The Battle of Pea Ridge, also called the Battle of Elkhorn Tavern, in Arkansas, marked a failed attempt by Confederate major general Earl Van Dorn to destroy the Union Army of the Southwest under Brigadier General Samuel Curtis. The victory solidified Union control over the state of Missouri for the next two years.
March 26–28

Glorietta Pass, New Mexico

June 17

Saint Charles, Arkansas

July 7

Hill’s Plantation, Arkansas

August 6–9

Kirksville, Missouri

August 11

Independence, Missouri

August 15–16

Lone Jack, Missouri

September 24–25
September 30

Newtonia, Missouri

October 4

Galveston, Texas

October 22

Old Fort Wayne, Indian Territory

November 7

Clark’s Mill, Missouri

November 28

Cane Hill, Arkansas

December 7

Prairie Grove, Arkansas

Gulf Coast
April 16–28

Forts Jackson and Saint Phillip, Louisiana

August 9

Donaldsonville, Louisiana

August 5

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

October 1–3

St. Johns Bluff, Florida

October 27

Georgia Landing, Louisiana

November 28

Kock’s Plantation, Louisiana

Sioux Uprising
August 20–22

Fort Ridgely, Minnesota

September 23

Wood Lake, Minnesota

Civil War Battles: 1863

Eastern Theater
March 3

Fort McAllister, Georgia

March 13–15

Fort Anderson, North Carolina

March 17

Kelly’s Ford, Virginia

March 30–15

Siege of Washington, North Carolina

April 13–15

Suffolk, Virginia

April 30–May 6

Battle of Chancellorsville

Chancellorsville, Virginia

The Battle of Chancellorsville is widely regarded as General Robert E. Lee‘s greatest victory. It turned back the Union Army of the Potomac under Joseph “Fighting Joe” Hooker, but it was a costly victory. Lee’s brilliant and aggressive corps commander Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was mortally wounded by his own men, who mistook him and his staff for Union cavalry.
May 3

Second Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia

May 3–4

Salem Church, Virginia

June 9

Brandy Station, Virginia

June 13-15

Second Battle Of Winchester

Winchester, Virginia

The town of Winchester, Virginia, is the site of another battle.
June 30

Battle of Hanover

Hanover, Pennsylvania

The Battle of Hanover was part of Robert E. Lee‘s Gettysburg Campaign.
July 1–3

Battle of Gettysburg

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

The largest battle ever fought on the North American continent, Gettysburg marked the end of Robert E. Lee‘s second invasion of the North and was a turning point in the Civil War.
July 8

Boonsborough, Maryland

July 16

Grimball’s Landing, South Carolina

July 18–Sept 7

Siege of Fort Wagner, South Carolina

July 19

Buffington Island, Ohio River (Ohio and West Virginia)

July 23

Manassas Gap, Virginia

October 14

Bristoe Station, Virginia

November 6

Droop Mountain, West Virginia

November 7

Rappahanock Station

Nov 27–Dec 2

Mine Run, Virginia

Western Theater
February 3

Dover, Tennessee

March 5

Thompson’s Station, Tennessee

March 25

Brentwood, Tennessee

April 29–May 1

Snyder’s Bluff, Mississippi

April 30

Day’s Gap, Alabama

May 1

Port Gibson, Mississippi

May 12

Battle Of Raymond

Raymond, Mississippi

The Battle Of Raymond was a key victory for Grant as part of his Vicksburg Campaign.
May 17

Big Black River Bridge, Mississippi

May 18–July 4

Siege of Vicksburg

Vicksburg, Mississippi

The Siege of Vicksburg represented the last phase of the Vicksburg Campaign where General Grant surrounded the city of Vicksburg, which finally surrendered on July 4.
June 24–26

Hoover’s Gap, Tennessee

July 9

Corydon, Indiana

August 17–23

Bombardment of Fort Sumter, South Carolina

September 7–8

Charleston Harbor, South Carolina

September 10

Davis Crossroads, Georgia

September 18

Battle Of Chickamauga

Chickamauga, Georgia

The largest battle fought in the Western Theater of the Civil War, Chickamauga was one of the few Confederate victories in that theater. Braxton Bragg‘s Confederate Army of Tennessee, reinforced by a corps from the Army of Northern Virginia, routed the forces of Major General William S. Rosecrans. Bragg’s failure to follow up aggressively reduced an overwhelming Confederate victory to merely a tactical one.
Sept 23–Oct 30

Siege of Chattanooga, Tennessee

October 28–29

Wauhatchie, Tennessee

November 3

Collierville, Tennessee

November 16

Campbell’s Station, Tennessee

November 23-25

Battle Of Chattanooga

Chattanooga, Tennessee

The Union victory at Chattanooga in November 1863 opened the road to Atlanta for Federal armies. Following the Battle of Chickamauga in September, Confederate troops besieged those of the Union in Chattanooga. After Ulysses S. Grant took command, the siege was broken, and the thinly stretched Confederates were driven from the ridges above the town by an impromptu charge by the Army of the Cumberland.
November 24

Lookout Mountain (Chattanooga), Tennessee

November 25

Missionary Ridge (Chattanooga), Tennessee

December 29

Mossy Creek, Tennessee

January 1

Galveston, Texas

January 8

Springfield, Missouri

January 9

Hartsville, Missouri

January 9–11

Arkansas Post, Arkansas

April 26

Cape Girardeau, Missouri

May 1–2

Chalk Bluff, Arkansas

July 1–2

Cabin Creek, Indian Territory

July 4

Helena, Arkansas

July 17

Honey Springs, Indian Territory

September 8

Sabine Pass, Texas

September 10

Bayou Forche, Arkansas

October 6

Baxter Springs, Kansas

October 25

Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Gulf Coast
April 12–13

Fort Bisland, Louisiana

April 14

Irish Bend, Louisiana

April 17

Vermillion Bayou Louisiana

May 21

Plains Store, Louisiana

June 20–21

La Fourche Crossing, Louisiana

June 28

Donaldsonville, Louisiana

June 29–30

Goodrich Landing, Louisiana

September 29

Sterling’s Plantation, Louisiana

October 16–18

Fort Brooke, Florida

Civil War Battles: 1864

Eastern Theater
Feburary 6–7

Morton’s Ford, Virginia

March 22

Walkerton, Virginia

April 17–20

Plymouth, North Carolina

May 5–7

Battle Of The Wilderness

Spotsylvania County, Virginia

The Battle of the Wilderness was the first clash between Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant. Three days of close-quarters fighting in woods and tangled underbrush resulted in nearly 20,000 total casualties. Although the Confederates could claim a tactical victory, the battle showed that the North’s largest army would no longer retreat after a reverse, and Lee’s army was slowly pushed back to trenches around Richmond and Petersburg.
May 6–7

Port Walthall Junction, Virginia

May 8–21

Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse

Spotsylvania County, Virginia

Part of Ulysses S. Grant‘s Overland Campaign in Virginia in the summer of 1864, the Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse was a costly tactical victory for Robert E. Lee‘s Army of Northern Virginia, which could not hope to win a war of attrition.
May 9

Swift Creek, Virginia

May 9

Cloyd’s Mountain, Virginia

May 10

Chester Station, Virginia

May 10

Cove Mountain, Virginia

May 11

Battle of Yellow Tavern

Henrico County, Virginia

The Battle of Yellow Tavern was a cavalry battle which was part of the Overland Campaign which saw J.E.B. Stuart mortally wounded.
May 12–16

Proctor’s Creek, Virginia

May 15

Battle of New Market

Shenandoah County, Virginia

The Confederates, along with cadets from VMI, drove Union General Franz Sigel out of the Shenandoah Valley.
May 20

Ware Bottom Church, Virginia

May 23–26

North Anna, Virginia

May 24

Wilson’s Wharf, Virginia

May 31-June 12

Battle of Cold Harbor

Cold Harbor, Virginia

The Battle of Cold Harbor marked the end of Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant’s Overland Campaign known for the 7,000 Union Casualties suffered in under an hour in a frontal assault on Confederate lines.
June 15–18

Battle of Petersburg

Petersburg, Virginia

The Battle of Petersburg, Virginia (siege of Petersburg), June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, marked a change in tactics in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. Instead of the campaigns of maneuver that had characterized the war up to that point, Union and Confederate armies fought a series of trench-warfare battles more like those of World War I than of the Civil War.
June 17–18

Leesburg, Virginia

June 21–24

Jerusalem Plank Road, Virginia

June 24

Saint Mary’s Church, Virginia

June 25

Stanton River Bridge, Virginia

June 28

Sappony Church, Virginia

June 29

Ream’s Station, Virginia

July 9

Monocacy, Maryland

July 11–12

Fort Stevens, Washington, DC

July 17–18

Cool Spring, Virginia

July 20

Rutherford Farm, Virginia

July 27–29

Deep Bottom, Virginia

July 30

Battle of the Crater, Siege of Petersburg, Virginia

August 1

Folcks Mill, Maryland

August 7

Moorefield, West Virginia

August 13–20

Deep Bottom, Virginia

August 16

Guard Hill, Virginia

August 18–21

Globe Tavern, Virginia

August 25

Ream’s Station, Virginia

August 25–29

Smithfield Crossing, Virginia

September 3–4

Berryville, Virginia

September 19

Opequon, Virginia

September 21–24

Battle of Fisher’s Hill

Fisher’s Hill, Virginia

Union Major General Philip H. Sheridan attacked the seemingly impregnable heights of Fisher’s Hill, grandly known as the ‘Gibraltar of the Shenandoah Valley.’
September 29–30

Chaffin’s Farm, Virginia

Sept 30–Oct 2

Peeble’s Farm, Virginia

October 2

Saltville, Virginia

October 7

Darbytown & New Market roads, Virginia

October 9

Tom’s Brook, Virginia

October 13

Darbytown Road, Virginia

October 19

Cedar Creek, Virginia

October 27–28

Boydton Plank Road, Virginia

October 27–28

Fair Oaks & Darbytown Road

December 17–18

Marion, Virginia

December 20–21

Saltville, Virginia

Western Theater
January 17

Dandridge, Tennessee

January 26

Athens, Alabama

January 27

Fair Garden, Tennessee

February 22

Okalona, Mississippi

February 22–27

Dalton, Georgia

March 25

Paducah, Kentucky

April 12

Battle of Fort Pillow

Fort Pillow, Tennessee

Nathan Bedford Forrest‘s command captures a Mississippi River fort in Tennessee, leading to a massacre of many of the United States Colored Troops defending the fort.
May 7–13

Rocky Face, Georgia

May 13–15

Battle of Resaca

Resaca, Georgia

Major General William T. Sherman took on Joseph E. Johnston during the Atlanta campaign.
May 17

Adairsville, Georgia

May 25–26

New Hope Church, Georgia

June 22

Kolb’s Farm, Georgia

July 14–15

Tupelo, Mississippi

July 20

Battle Of Peachtree Creek

Peach Tree Creek, Georgia

The Battle of Peachtree Creek was part of the Atlanta Campaign and was the first major attack by Lt. General John B.Hood.
July 22

Battle of Atlanta

Atlanta, Georgia

Union victory in the Battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864, is often credited as the turning point that allowed Abraham Lincoln to be re-elected president instead of his opponent, George B. McClellan, who would have sought peace terms with the Confederacy. After the battle, Confederate troops set fire to the city before evacuating, to deny its resources to William T. Sherman‘s Federal troops.
July 28

Ezra Church, Georgia

August 5–7

Utoy Creek, Georgia

August 15–15

Dalton, Georgia

August 20

Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia

August 31–Sep 1

Jonesborough, Georgia

October 5

Allatoona, Georgia

October 26–29

Decatur, Alabama

November 4–5

Johnsonville, Tennessee

November 11–13

Bull’s Gap, Tennessee

November 22

Griswoldville, Georgia

November 28

Buck Head, Georgia

November 29

Spring Hill, Tennessee

November 30

Battle of Franklin

Franklin, Tennessee

Account of the bloody confederate slaughter in Franklin, Tennessee.
November 30

Honey Hill, South Carolina

December 4

Battle of Waynesborough

Waynesborough, Georgia

The Battle of Waynesborough was one of the later battles of Sherman’s March to the Sea and opened the route to Savannah.
December 13

Fort McAllister, Georgia

December 15–16

Battle of Nashville

Atlanta, Georgia

The battle of Nashville was the last major battle in the Western Theater and a major victory for the Union.
December 24–27

Fort Fisher, North Carolina

February 13

Middle Boggy Depot, Indian Territory

April 3–4

Elkin’s Ferry, Arkansas

April 8

Mansfield, Louisiana

April 9

Pleasant Hill, Louisiana

April 9

Prairie D’Ane, Arkansas

April 12–13

Blairs Landing, Louisiana

April 23

Monetts Ferry, Louisiana

April 30

Jenkins Ferry, Arkansas

September 27

Fort Davidson, Missouri

October 15

Glasgow, Missouri

September 19

Lexington, Missouri

October 21

Little Blue River, Missouri

October 22

Independence, Missouri

October 22

Byrams Ford, Missouri

October 23

Westport, Missouri

October 25

Mine Creek, Kansas

Gulf Coast
February 20

Olustee, Florida

March 14

Fort De Russy, Louisiana

August 5

Battle of Mobile Bay

Mobile Bay, Alabama

In the Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama, August 5, 1864, a Union fleet under Rear Admiral David G. Farragut, attacked and defeated a smaller, less well-equipped Confederate naval force. The battle is most often remembered for a line Farragut may or may not have actually spoken: Warned there were torpedoes (mines) floating in the harbor, he reportedly said, “Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!”
Off Cherbourg, France

June 25, USS Kearsarge fights CSS Alabama

Civil War Battles: 1865

Eastern Theater
February 5–7

Hatcher’s Run, Virginia

March 2

Waynesborough, Virginia

March 25

Fort Stedman, Virginia

March 29

Lewis’s Farm, Virginia

March 31

White Oak Road, Virginia

March 31

Dinwiddie Courthouse, Virginia

April 2

Sutherland’s Station, Virginia

April 3

Namozine Church, Virginia

April 5

Amelia Springs, Virginia*

April 6

Rice’s Station, Virginia*

April 6

Battle of Sailor’s Creek

Amelia County, Virginia

The Battle of Sailor’s Creek was part of the Appomattox Campaign during the final days of the civil war and was Robert E. Lee‘s last battle before surrendering at Appomattox Court House.

April 6–7

High Bridge, Virginia*

April 7

Cumberland Church, Virginia*

April 8

Battle of Appomattox Courthouse*

Appomattox Station, Virginia*

The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse was the last battle fought by Robert E. Lee‘s Army of Northern Virginia. After his attempt to break out of a closing trap failed, Lee met with Ulysses S. Grant to surrender his army. Although the Civil War did not end with the surrender at Appomattox, the loss of the South’s largest army was the death knell of the Confederacy.

(*Collectively known as the Appomattox Campaign.)

Western Theater
January 13–15

Fort Fisher, North Carolina

February 3

Rivers Bridge, South Carolina

February 13–21

Wilmington, North Carolina

March 7–10

Wyse Fork, North Carolina

March 10

Monroe’s Crossroads, North Carolina

March 16

Averasborough, North Carolina

March 19–21

Bentonville, North Carolina

April 2

Selma, Alabama

May 12-13

Battle of Palmetto Ranch

Palmetto Ranch, Texas

The Battle of Palmetto Ranch was the final battle of the civil war.
Gulf Coast
March 6

Natural Bridge, Florida

Mar 27–April 8

Siege of Spanish Fort, Alabama

April 2–9

Siege of Fort Blakely, Alabama

 Banner image Battle of Corinth, Miss. Oct. 4th 1862, Currier & Ives, Library of Congress



Articles Featuring Civil War Battles From History Net Magazines

Articles 1

George Armstrong Custer: Between Myth and RealityReality and myth about George Custer still collide on the battlefields of Virginia and Pennsylvania.

By Jeffry D. Wert

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad: The Union’s Most Important Supply LineThe Baltimore & Ohio Railroad survived numerous hardships of the Civil War in its service to the Union.
USS Indianola: Union Ironclad in the American Civil WarThe powerful Union ironclad Indianola was jinxed from the start--poor design and bad morale made the vessel an accident waiting to happen. Near Vicksburg, she ultimately fulfilled her ill-starred destiny.
Account Of The Battle of the WildernessIn the dark, forbidding woods of Virginia's Wilderness, Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee stumbled blindly toward their first wartime encounter. Neither had a clear idea of his opponent's intentions, but each planned to do what he did best--attack.
Battle of Gaines’ Mill: U.S. Army Regulars to the RescueAs Robert E. Lee hammered Federal forces at Gaines' Mill, Brig. Gen. George Sykes proud division of Regulars held its post of honor on the Union right. The 'Old Army was showing its mettle to the new.
Siege of Port HudsonPort Hudson, like Vicksburg, was a tough nut to crack. But the Union's traditional superiority in firepower, personified by the 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery, quickly went to work on the Rebel bastion.
Account Of The Battle of ChickamaugaOverconfident and overextended, the Union Army of the Cumberland advanced into the deep woods of northwest Georgia. Waiting Confederates did not intend for them to leave. At Chickamauga Creek, the two sides collided.
The 7th U.S. Infantry Service in the American Civil WarThe 7th U.S. Infantry's most powerful foe was John Barleycorn.
Lew Wallace’s American Civil War CareerLong before he published Ben-Hur, Lew Wallace rose from a career as an obscure small-town Indiana lawyer to take a prominent role in the Civil War.
American Civil War: The 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry RegimentThe Twenty-Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment included two future presidents and an Army Commander.
America’s Civil War: Loudoun RangersThe Quaker-dominated Loudoun Rangers openly defied Virginia tradition to serve the Union.
Field Armies and Fortifications in the Civil War: The Eastern Campaigns, 1861-1864 (Book Review)Reviewed by Perry D. Jamieson, Air Force Historical Studies OfficeBy Earl J. HessUniversity of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London, 2005 Many books describe Civil War military operations in remarkable detail, but prove disappointing when it comes to the subject of field fortifications. They mention the features on the battlefield, but leave the reader …
Capturing Fort Pulaski During the American Civil WarAs a young U.S. Army lieutenant, Robert E. Lee helped to construct Fort Pulaski. As a Confederate general 30 years later, he confidently assured fort defenders it could not be breached. Union gunners were not so sure.
‘Home, Sweet Home': A Civil War Soldier’s Favorite SongJohn Howard Payne's haunting 'Home, Sweet Home' was the Civil War soldier's favorite song.
America’s Civil War: Major General John Pope’s Narrow Escape at Clark’s MountainWhile Robert E. Lee's entire army massed behind Clark's Mountain to attack the Union Army of Virginia, a daring Yankee spy swam the Rapidan River to warn Maj. Gen. John Pope of the imminent danger. It was, said one military historian, 'the timeliest single product of espionage' in the entire war.
Battle of Chickamauga: Colonel John Wilder’s Lightning Brigade Prevented Total DisasterArmed with their new, lethal seven-shot Spencer rifles, Wilder's Lightning Brigade was all that stood between the Union Army and the looming disaster at Chickamauga Creek.
Second Battle of Manassas: Union Major General John Pope Was No Match for Robert E. LeeBrash, bombastic John Pope tempted fate by returning to the old battleground at Manassas. He thought he had caught Robert E. Lee napping. He was wrong.
USS Constitution: The Legendary SurvivorOften venturing into harm's way, the USS Constitution -- America's most famous sailing ship -- twice came close to oblivion -- once at the hands of a British squadron, and once at the hands of her own navy.
Battle of Sailor’s CreekThe April 6, 1865 Battle of Sailor's Creek constituted one of the darkest days in the Army of Northern Virginia's history.
America’s Civil War: Horses and Field ArtilleryWorking side by side with soldiers, horses labored to pull artillery pieces into battle. Without them, field artillery could not have been used to such deadly effect.
Battle of Antietam: Controversial Crossing on Burnside’s BridgeShould General Ambrose Burnside have ordered his men to wade Antietam Creek? Author Marvel undertook a personal odyssey to find out.
44th Georgia Regiment Volunteers in the American Civil WarThe hard-fighting 44th Georgia suffered some of the heaviest losses of any regiment in the Civil War.
Battle of Antietam: Taking Rohrbach Bridge at Antietam CreekWhile Union commander George McClellan fumed and the Battle of Antietam hung in the balance, a handful of Rebels held off Federal troops at 'Burnside Bridge.'
Battle of Champion’s HillWith Ulysses S. Grant's army steadily menacing Vicksburg, Confederate General John Pemberton left the town's comforting defenses to seek out the enemy army. Too late, he found it, at Champion's Hill.
Frederick Stowe: In the Shadow of Uncle Tom’s CabinThe fame of novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe followed her son throughout the Civil War.
America’s Civil War: Union Soldiers Hanged in North CarolinaEight months after Major General George E. Pickett led his famous charge, he hanged Union prisoners in North Carolina.
Battle of Shiloh: The Devil’s Own DayAt a small Methodist meeting house in southwestern Tennessee, Union and Confederate armies met for a 'must-win' battle in the spring of 1862. No one, however, expected the bloodbath that ensued. It was, said General William Sherman, 'the Devil's own day.'
Brigadier General Silas Casey at the Battle of Seven PinesBrigadier General Silas Casey's rookie division bore the brunt of furious Rebel assaults at the Battle of Seven Pines.
Weaponry: The Rifle-Musket and the Minié BallThe Civil War's deadliest weapons were not rapid-fire guns or giant cannon, but the simple rifle-musket and the humble minié ball.
J.E.B. Stuart’s RevengeA stolen hat and wounded pride spurred Southern cavalryman J.E.B. Stuart into action. His vengeance would be swift, daring, and--unexpectedly--funny.
Union General Judson KilpatrickUnion General Judson Kilpatrick was flamboyant, reckless, tempestuous, and even licentious. In some respects he made other beaux sabreurs like fellow-cavalrymen George Custer and J. E. B. Stuart seem dull.
Father John B. Tabb: Aboard Confederate Blockade RunnersFather John B. Tabb, an unreconstructed Rebel to the end, had served the Confederacy aboard blockade runners.

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Confederate General Samuel GarlandWhen Samuel Garland fell at South Mountain, the Confederacy lost a promising general and a proven leader.
Battle of Ball’s BluffConfederate soldiers drove inexperienced Union troops acting on faulty intelligence into the Potomac River like lemmings.
Brigadier General John Gibbon’s Brief Breach During the Battle of FredericksburgAlthough overshadowed by the doomed Federal attack on the Confederate center, General John Gibbon's 2nd Division managed -- however briefly -- to make a breakthrough on the Union left.
Brigadier General Thomas F. MeagherBrigadier General Thomas F. Meagher, the colorful leader of the Irish Brigade, fought many battles--not all of them with the enemy.
Gas Balloons: View From Above the Civil War BattlefieldLed by pioneering balloonist Thaddeus Lowe, daredevil aeronauts on both sides of the war took to the skies in flimsy balloons to eyeball their opponents' every move. Soldiers on the ground often did not take kindly to the unwanted attention.
1st Louisiana Special Battalion at the First Battle of ManassasRecruited from New Orleans' teeming waterfront by soldier of fortune Roberdeau Wheat, the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion more than lived up to its pugnacious nickname--Wheat's Tigers--at the First Battle of Manassas.
THE CLASSICS: The Iron Brigade (Book Review)Reviewed by Peter S. CarmichaelBy Alan T. Nolan Alan T. Nolan pioneered the modern regimental history with The Iron Brigade. The voices of the "Black Hat Boys," who comprised one of the fiercest combat units in the Army of the Potomac, still resound in The Iron Brigade, by Alan T. Nolan. George Pickett, although not …
Vicksburg: The Campaign That Opened the Mississippi (Book Review)Reviewed by Mike Oppenheim By Michael B. BallardUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2004 Popular writers tell us the Confederacy successfully fought off the Union until July 1863. Then came Vicksburg and Gettysburg, after which defeat became inevitable. Meant to satisfy both sides, this traditional view pays too much attention to the stalemate in the …
Vicksburg: The Campaign That Opened the Mississippi (Book Review)Reviewed by Brian J. MurphyBy Michael B. BallardUniversity of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 490 pages Michael B. Ballard’s new book on the Vicksburg campaign offers a refreshing experience. The research is exhaustive, and the writing is lively. It may not be surprising that a Mississippi historian would put a slightly Southern slant on the …
Battle of ShepherdstownThe savage little Battle of Shepherdstown made for a bloody coda to the 1862 Maryland campaign.
Ambrose Bierce’s Civil War: One Man’s Morbid VisionFor Ambrose Bierce, the enemy was not really the gray-clad host at the other end of the field, but death, and the terror of death and wounds.
USS Monitor: The Crew Took Great Pride in Serving on the Famous ShipThe crew of Swedish Inventor John Ericsson's Monitor took great pride in serving on the renowned 'cheese box on a raft.'
John Cabell Early Remembers GettysburgMajor General Jubal Early's nephew recalled the famous meeting on July 1 between his uncle and General Robert E. Lee during the 1863 invasion of Pennsylvania.
America’s Civil War Comes to West PointThough the Corps of Cadets was forced apart by political differences in 1860-61, and passions grew intense, there were more tears than hurrahs among the Northerners when their Southern friends resigned. The last institution to divide, the Academy was one of the first to reunite.
America’s Civil War: Front Royal Was the Key to the Shenandoah ValleyThe pretty little town of Front Royal, in the Shenandoah Valley, had a strategic value that belied its size. As Stonewall Jackson knew, it was the key to the valley, the state of Virginia and the war itself.
Eyewitness Account: A Tar Heel at GettysburgAfter capture, Lawrence D. Davis had to undergo being reviewed by 'big & fat' Ben Butler.
Donnybrook: The Battle of Bull Run, 1861 (Book Review)Reviewed by Dan Monroe By David Detzer Harcourt In Donnybrook: The Battle of Bull Run, 1861, retired history professor David Detzer returns to the battle that made plain the bloody intensity that was to characterize the Civil War in the Eastern theater. Caught up in a surging tide of Northern public opinion favoring aggressive action, …
THE CLASSICS: The Passing of Armies : An Account Of The Final Campaign Of The Army Of The Potomac (Book Review)Reviewed by Peter S. Carmichael By Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Fame for his actions at Little Round Top has overshadowed the rest of Joshua Chamberlain’s historical résumé. Admirers and critics alike tend to reduce his wartime contributions to a single but decisive moment on July 2, 1863. The Bowdoin College professor is partially to blame for …
Donnybrook: The Battle of Bull Run, 1861 (Book Review)Reviewed by John HennessyBy David Detzer New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2004 Whether you refer to it as Manassas or Bull Run, you’ll want this book on the war’s first major battle. The First Battle of Bull Run, or Manassas, holds an odd place in the nation’s historical mind. It grabs our attention because it was …
High-Water Mark: The 1862 Maryland Campaign in Strategic Perspective (Book Review)Reviewed Ted AlexanderBy Timothy J. Reese Baltimore, Butternut and Blue Press, 2004 By Mark Dunkelman By fall 1862, Confederate morale was the highest it had been since the start of the war and Confederate armies were on the move on a front more than 1,000 miles wide. In the Western theater, Confederate incursions into Kentucky …
America’s Civil War: Pre-dawn Assault on Fort StedmanLed by select groups of sharpshooters, the weary, muddy troops of the Army of Northern Virginia made one last desperate push to break out of Petersburg.
Second Battle of Bull Run: Destruction of the 5th New York ZouavesThe Texas Brigade tide bore down on the isolated 5th New York Zouaves at Second Bull Run. A fine regiment was about to be destroyed.
Battle of Gettysburg: Union Cavalry AttacksAfter the conclusion of Pickett's Charge, ill-advised Union cavalry attacks killed dozens of Federal horsemen and a promising brigadier general.
Major General George Stoneman Led the Last American Civil War Cavalry RaidEven as General Robert E. Lee was surrendering at Appomattox, a vengeful Union cavalry horde led by Maj. Gen. George Stoneman made Southern civilians pay dearly for the war. It was a last brutal lesson in the concept of total warfare.
Battle of Antietam: Carnage in a CornfieldMr. Miller's humble cornfield near Antietam Creek became the unlikely setting for perhaps the worst fighting of the entire Civil War.
Lieutenant Colonel Horace C. Porter: Eyewitness to the Surrender at AppomattoxLieutenant Colonel Horace C. Porter provides a firsthand account of Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House in April 1865.
America’s Civil War: Assault at PetersburgSixth Corps Yankees stumbled out of their earthworks and toward the muddy pits of the Army of Northern Virginia. It was the beginning of the end at Petersburg.
37th North Carolina Infantry Regiment in the American Civil WarThe service of the 37th North Carolina epitomized the grit and determination of Tar Heel fighters.
Battle of Gettysburg: Fighting at Little Round TopThe Battle of Gettysburg, and perhaps the fate of the Union, was decided in one hour of desperate fighting on the rocky ledges of Little Round Top.
African American Troops of Company K, 9th Cavalry Fought in the Battle of Fort LancasterCaptain William Frohock, Lieutenant Frederick Smith and the black troopers of Company K, 9th Cavalry, received an after-Christmas surprise from Kickapoo raiders in 1867.
Truth Behind U.S. Grant’s Yazoo River BenderMurky facts and contradictions confuse the story of a purported 1863 drinking spree by the general.
First Battle of Bull Run: The U.S MarinesWith hordes of eager Confederates gathering at Manassas, panicky Union commanders massed whatever forces they could in the nation's capital. Among those answering the call were the U.S. Marines. Manassas, however, would not be one of their shining moments.

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Sullivan Ballou: The Macabre Fate of a American Civil War MajorMajor Sullivan Ballou gained fame for the poignant letter he wrote to his wife before the First Battle of Bull Run. Not so well known is that after he was mortally wounded in that fight, Confederates dug up, decapitated and burned his body.
America’s Civil War: George Custer and Stephen RamseurGeorge Custer and Dodson Ramseur had a friendship that survived the Civil War -- until the Battle of Cedar Creek.
America’s Civil War: John Mosby and George Custer Clash in the Shenandoah ValleyWhen Civil War's John Singleton Mosby's Partisan Rangers clashed with George A. Custer's Union Cavalry, the niceties of war were the first casualty. Reprisal and counter reprisal became the order of the day.
Battle of Chickamauga: Union Regulars Desperate StandCivil War Brigadier General John King's disciplined brigade of Union Regulars found itself tested as never before at Chickamauga. For two bloody days, the Regulars dashed from one endangered spot to another, seeking to save their army from annihilation.
Battle of Stones River: Union General Rosecrans Versus Confederate General BraggAmerican Civil War Union General William Rosecrans bided his time, waiting to attack Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Rebel army at Murfreesboro, 30 miles south of Nashville.
John Hill Hewitt: Dixie’s Original One-Man BandJohn Hill Hewitt did it all. He played three instruments. He penned poems and essays, and staged theater productions. And he churned out one hit tune after another.
Harry Macarthy: The Bob Hope of the ConfederacyHe could make tired soldiers laugh, and his 'Bonnie Blue Flag' churned southern audiences into a frenzy. That was why Harry Macarthy was loved from one end of the confederacy to the other.
Madame Loreta Janeta Velazquez: Heroine or HoaxerMadame Loreta Janeta Velazquez wrote a controversial memoir disclosing her activities as a double agent and brave soldier during the Civil War.
Battle of Chickamauga: 21st Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry and Their Colt’s Revolving Rifles'My God, We Thought You Had a Division Here!' The 21st Ohio Infantry's unique repeating weaponry was its salvation - and nearly its undoing - at Chickamauga.
Battle of Gettysburg: Confederate General Richard Ewell’s Failure on the HeightsFor the second day in a row, Confederate General Richard Ewell inexplicably failed to take the offensive at Gettysburg. 'The fruits of victory, Robert E. Lee lamented, had not been gathered.
Did Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell Lose the Battle of GettysburgAfter disobeying Robert E. Lee's orders to avoid a general engagement at Gettysburg, Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell received an order to 'press those people.' His failure to do so created a controversy that survives to this day.
Battle of Kernstown: Stonewall Jackson’s Only DefeatA furious Stonewall Jackson watched impotently as his proud Confederates stumbled down the hillside at Kernstown, Va. 'Give them the bayonet,' Jackson implored -- but no one obeyed.
Ulysses S. Grant’s Lifelong Struggle With AlcoholThroughout his legendary military and political career, U.S. Grant battled accusations that he was overly fond of the bottle. Did his alleged excessive drinking make him an alcoholic, or for that matter, did he really drink that much more that the average man of the nineteenth century?
America’s Civil War: Savage Skirmish Near SharpsburgWith Robert E. Lee's wily Confederates waiting somewhere in the vicinity of Antietam Creek, Union General George McClellan ordered I Corps commander Joseph Hooker to advance and turn the Rebel flank. But McClellan, for once, was too quick to move, and Hooker soon found himself in an unexpectedly vicious fight.
Second Battle of Winchester: Richard Ewell Takes CommandOne month after Stonewall Jackson's death at Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee turned to Stonewall's trusted lieutenant, Richard Ewell, to cover his invasion of the North. Was 'Old Bald Head' up to the challenge?
America’s Civil War: Stonewall Jackson’s Last DaysDr. Hunter McGuire, Stonewall Jackson's 27-year-old medical director, chronicled the general's last days.
America’s Civil War: XI Corps Fight During the Chancellorsville CampaignDisliked and distrusted by their comrades in the Army of the Potomac, the men of the XI Corps would find their reputation further damaged by a twilight encounter with Stonewall Jackson's troops in the dark woods at Chancellorsville.
Joseph Scroggs: Observations From His Diary About the 1864 Petersburg CampaignExcerpts from Joseph Scroggs' diary provide his observations on the service of Negro troops under his command on the Civil War battlefields.
Battle of VicksburgUlysses S. Grant thought his formidable Army of the Tennessee could take Vicksburg from a 'beaten' foe by direct assault. He was wrong, thanks to near-impregnable fortifications, renewed Southern spirit, and surprisingly suspect Northern generalship.
America’s Civil War: Missouri and KansasFor half a decade before the Civil War, residents of the neighboring states of Missouri and Kansas waged their own civil war. It was a conflict whose scars were a long time in healing.
America’s Civil War: Battle for KentuckyIt had been almost one month since Confederate General Braxton Bragg had pulled off an organizational masterpiece--four weeks since the first troop trains had rumbled into Chattanooga, Tennessee, completing an improbable 800-mile odyssey.
America’s Civil War: Robert E. Lee and James Longstreet at Odds at GettysburgAt Gettysburg, Longstreet told Lee that a direct assault would end in disaster -- but Pickett's Charge went forward anyway.
Battle of Chickamauga: Colonel John T. Wilder and the Lightning BrigadeColonel John T. Wilder's'Lightning Brigade' did all it could to stave off Union disaster at the Battle of Chickamauga.
Death at Summit Springs: Susanna Alderdice and the CheyennesIn May 1869, Tall Bull's Cheyenne Dog Soldiers carried out a series of brutal raids in north-central Kansas, and though the white soldiers later caught up with them, vengeance could not make everything right.
Joseph WheelerFightin' Joe Wheeler lived up to his name in two wars and in two uniforms -- one gray, one blue.
The Irish Brigade Fought in America’s Civil WarTheir casualties were enormous but their courage and capacity for fun were legendary. General Lee, himself, gave highest praise to these Yankees of the Irish Brigade.
America’s Civil War: Rebel’s Stand at Drewry’s BluffWhile Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac slowly advanced on Richmond in May 1862, the Union Navy made its own play to seize the Confederate capital.
Battle of Gettysburg and American MythologyMuch of what Americans believe about Gettysburg is myth, but their flawed knowledge of the battle nevertheless serves to sanctify their national memory of the fight.
Grierson’s Raid During the Vicksburg CampaignU.S. Grant, bogged down outside Vicksburg, needed a diversion to ease his way. He got just that from a music teacher turned cavalryman--one who hated horses, at that.
Picture of the Day: November 19Gettysburg Address President Abraham Lincoln was asked to deliver a few ‘appropriate remarks’ to the crowd at the dedication of the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on November 19, 1863. Lincoln’s address was almost ignored in the wake of the lengthy oration by main speaker Edwin Everett. In fact, Lincoln’s speech was over before …
General Barlow and General Gordon Meet on Blocher’s KnollOn July 1, 1863, two generals, one badly wounded, allegedly met. The veracity of that encounter, now part of Civil War lore, has long been debated.
Drones in the Great Hive: A Letter from an African-American Civil War SoldierChristian A. Fleetwood -- an African-American Medal of Honor-winner -- writes bitterly of the way the Union army treats its black soldiers.

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Billy Yank and Johnny Reb: On the Road to AtlantaBell Irvin Wiley -- the late dean of common-soldier studies -- works his storytelling magic in this 1964 profile of the extraordinary men who grappled for Georgia's key city.
America’s Civil War: Last Ditch Rebel Stand at PetersburgAfter nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed. Desperate to save his army, Robert E. Lee called on his soldiers for one last miracle.
America’s Civil War: The South’s Feuding GeneralsIt sometimes seemed that Southern generals were more interested in fighting each other than in fighting Yankees. Their inability to get along together contributed greatly to the South's demise.
An Englishman’s Journey Through the Confederacy During America’s Civil WarSuave, gentlemanly Lt. Col. Arthur Fremantle of Her Majesty's Coldstream Guards picked an unusual vacation spot: the Civil War-torn United States.
Battle of Boydton Plank Road: Major General Winfield Scott Hancock Strikes the Southside RailroadWith Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia stubbornlyclinging to Petersburg, Ulysses S. Grant decided to cut its vital rail lines. To perform the surgery, he selected one of the North's proven heroes -- Major General Winfield Scott Hancock.
War Watchers at Bull Run During America’s Civil WarA crowd of Washington politicos, socialites, and newsmen came out to watch the war's first real battle, along northern Virginia's Bull Run. For most, the view was as disappointing as the fight's outcome. But a few got to see all the action they could handle, and more.
Battle of Nashville: Enemies Front and RearUnion forces under George H. Thomas destroyed the Confederate Army of Tennessee at Nashville as Thomas endured his own battle of resolve with Ulysses S. Grant.
The Fall of VicksburgOn July 4, 1863, Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton surrendered the Confederate bastion of Vicksburg, Mississippi, to Union forces under Major General Ulysses S. Grant. The surrender brought an end to 47 days of unendurable siege, but it also brought an end to Confederate control of the Mississippi River.
All-Girl Rhea County SpartansBegun as a lark, the all-girl Rhea County Spartans soon attracted the attention of unamused Union officers.
Major General J.E.B. Stuart: Last Stand of the Last KnightMajor General J.E.B. Stuart posted his horsemen at Yellow Tavern -- between Union attackers and Richmond -- and waited for the collision. It would come with a deadliness he could never have imagined.
Battle of Brawner’s Farm: Black Hat Brigade’s Baptism of FireJohn Gibbon's mostly green Midwestern troops found themselves in quite a scrape as the sun set on August 28, 1862.
Camp William Penn: Training Ground for FreedomUnder the stern but sympathetic gaze of Lt. Col. Louis Wagner, some 11,000 African-American soldiers trained to fight for their freedom at Philadelphia's Camp William Penn. Three Medal of Honor recipients would pass through the camp's gates.
Picture of the Day: September 17On September 17, 1862, a small, stone-arch bridge that spans Antietam Creek outside Sharpsburg, Maryland, became one of the most hotly contested structures in American history. During the Battle of Antietam, an entire Union corps spent most of the bloodiest single day of the Civil War waiting to cross the creek over that bridge, opposed …
General Francis Channing BarlowGeneral Francis Channing Barlow's clean-cut, boyish appearance belied his reputation as one of the Union's hardest-fighting divisional commanders.
America’s Civil War: Philip SheridanAt an obscure railroad station in northern Mississippi, an equally obscure Union cavalry colonel faced a personal and professional moment of truth. His name was Phil Sheridan, and his coolness and dash clearly marked him for bigger things.
William Averell’s Cavalry Raid on the Virginia & Tennessee RailroadDespite many misgivings about the upcoming campaign, Union Brig. Gen. William Averell set out in December 1863 to raid the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad at Salem, Virginia. The frigid conditions would test the mettle of both cavalrymen and horses.
Siege of Petersburg: The City and Citizens Were Impacted from the StartCircled by Confederate trenches, hard pressed by Union forces, the people of Petersburg had nothing left to do but endure -- and pray for a miracle.
Northern Volunteer Nurses of America’s Civil WarA cadre of dedicated Northern women from all walks of life traveled to the charnel houses of the Civil War to care for the sick and wounded.
Winchester, Virginia: A Town Embattled During America’s Civil WarWinchester, Virginia, saw more of the war than any other place North or South.
Admiral Porter’s Ironclad Hoax During the American Civil WarAfter a botched Union naval effort on the Mississippi River, Rear Admiral David D. Porter resorted to trickery to prevent one of his captured ironclads from being used by the Confederates.
Old Dominion Brigade in America’s Civil WarThe Virginia regiments originally under the brigade command of William Mahone seemed to save their best for last. After two years of average service, they became Robert E. Lee's go-to troops in the Wilderness and at Petersburg's Crater.
Eyewitness to American Civil War: Iron Brigade Soldier’s Wartime LettersTimothy Webster survived Fredericksburg and Gettysburg with the Iron Brigade, but not Petersburg.
Battle of Port RoyalAs Union warships steamed past the Confederate defenses near Port Royal, Flag Officer Samuel Du Pont proudly noted that army officers aboard his ship looked on 'with wonder and admiration.' A revolution in naval tactics had begun.
America’s Civil War: Desperate Ironclad Assault at Trent’s ReachWith Confederate forces strangled at Petersburg, the Southern Navy prepared to assault the enemy's supply depot at City Point. But first, Rebel ships had to get past Trent's Reach.
America’s Civil War: Drummer Boy of the RappahannockWas the young lad's 'strange and romantic' tale the story of a colorful hero or a clever fake?
J.E.B. Stuart: Battle of Gettysburg ScapegoatFollowing the Confederate debacle at Gettysburg, many blamed Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart for leaving General Robert E. Lee in the dark. But was Stuart really to blame for the defeat? And if so, was he the only one at fault?
Battle of HanoverSouthern beau sabreur J.E.B. Stuart hardly expected to run head-on into enemy cavalry on his second ride around the Union Army. But a trio of 'boy generals' would soon give the famed Confederate horseman all the action he could handle.
Account Of The Battle of PhilippiAt Philippi, in western Virginia, one overly optimistic young colonel confidently awaited reinforcements as Union columns converged on his tiny force from all directions in the first full-fledged battle of the Civil War.
Battle of Yellow TavernBadly misunderstanding his opponent's intentions, Jeb Stuart played into Phil Sheridan's hands at Yellow Tavern. A swirling cavalry fight ensued.
The Truth About Civil War SurgeryUnion Colonel Thomas Reynolds lay in a hospital bed after the July 1864 Battle of Peachtree Creek, Georgia. Gathered around him, surgeons discussed the possibility of amputating his wounded leg. The Irish-born Reynolds, hoping to sway the debate toward a conservative decision, pointed out that his wasn’t any old leg, but an ‘imported leg.’ Whether …
America’s Civil War: May 2001 LettersPreservation Donation Thank you so very much, Primedia History Group, for your generous donation of $9,778 to the Central Virginia Battlefields Trust. These proceeds from your recent Chancellorsville reenactment at Ft. Pickett, Va., September 22-24 are a wonderful indication of the support and loyalty of participating reenactors. The gift will allow our organization to purchase …

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America’s Civil War: January 2001 LettersDam No. 5 Please note that the picture on page 54-55 of the September 2000 issue is mislabeled. The canal boat is parked in the intake lock at Dam No. 3 on the C&O Canal, a long way from Dam No. 5–in fact, more than 44 miles. The lock pictured served as both a feeder …
Book Review: Maps and Mapmakers of the Civil War (by Earl B. McElfresh): CWTMaps and Mapmakers of the Civil War, by Earl B. McElfresh, Abrams, New York, 212-206-7715, 272 pages, $55. Maps and Mapmakers of the Civil War is more than a coffee-table book of beautifully reproduced Civil War maps. Besides the striking illustrations that Stephen W. Sears calls “art” in his foreword, author Earl B. McElfresh provides …
Book Review: Deeply FlawedMajor General George E. Pickett is widely recognized because of his association with a single event.
Book Review: The Devil Knows How to Ride AND Quantrill’s War (Edward E. Leslie/Duane Schultz) : CWTTHE DEVIL’S DUEThe Devil Knows How to Ride: The True Story of William Clarke Quantrill and His Confederate Raiders, by Edward E. Leslie, Random House, $27.50. Quantrill’s War: The Life and Times of William Clarke Quantrill, 1837-1865, by Duane Schultz, St. Martin’s Press, $24.95.Anyone interested in the vicious bushwhacker-redleg war in Kansas and Missouri now …
Book Review: A Place Called Appomattox (by William Marvel): CWTA Place Called Appomattox, by William Marvel, University of North Carolina Press, 400 pages, $34.95. The history industry is replete with scholars hawking startling, or at least intriguing, reinterpretations of familiar stories. Revisionism is the engine that keeps the history presses rolling, and in past years William Marvel has made a fair dollar–and inspired a …
Book Review: Island No. 10: Struggle for the Mississippi Valley (Larry J. Daniel and Lynn N. Bock) : CWTIsland No. 10: Struggle for the Mississippi Valley,by Larry J. Daniel and Lynn N. Bock (University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 213 pages, $24.95). Island No. 10: Struggle for the Mississippi Valley is the first book ever to be devoted entirely to the siege and capture of the Confederate stronghold of Island No. 10 on the …
Book Review: Ulysses S. Grant: Soldier and President (Geoffrey Perret) : CWTUlysses S. Grant: Soldier and President, by Geoffrey Perret, Random House, New York, (800) 762-0600, 560 pages, $35. It is one of the puzzles of Civil War scholarship that Ulysses S. Grant has rarely been the subject of a full-length biography–much less one favorably disposed toward its subject. Geoffrey Perret, the author of several biographies …
Book Review: Echoes of Battle: The Struggle for Chattanooga (Richard A. Baumgartner and Larry M. Strayer) : CWTECHOES OF BATTLE: THE STRUGGLE FOR CHATTANOOGA Echoes of Battle: The Struggle for Chattanooga, by Richard A. Baumgartner and Larry M. Strayer, Blue Acorn, Huntington, West Virginia, $43.75. Accounts of 450 Union and Confederate soldiers and a collection of 465 photographs, many previously unpublished, tell the story of the Union campaigns for Chickamauga, Georgia, and …
Book Review: The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern, May 7-12, 1864 (Gordon C. Rhea) : CWTThe Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern, May 7-12, 1864, by Gordon C. Rhea, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, (504) 388-6666, 483 pages, $34.95. Gordon Rhea has reached the halfway mark in his ongoing, comprehensive account of 1864’s Overland Campaign. The first installment, The Battle of the Wilderness, May …
Book Review:Gettysburg 1863: High Tide of the Confederacy (Carl Smith): CWTGettysburg 1863: High Tide of the Confederacy, by Carl Smith, Osprey Military, London, England, (212) 685-5560, 128 pages, softcover, $16.95. Although a mountain of books have been written about the Battle of Gettysburg over the last 130 years, the logistical enormity of the campaign ensures that new publications will continue to appear. Among the latest …
Book Review: The Spotsylvania Campaign (edited by Gary W. Gallagher) : MHThe Spotsylvania Campaign, edited by Gary W. Gallagher, Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1998, $29.95. After having taken one another’s measure in the Wilderness on May 5 and 6, 1864, Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate General Robert E. Lee put their wills–and the endurance of their soldiers–to the ultimate test …
Book Review: How Robert E. Lee Lost the Civil War (Edward H. Bonekemper, III) and Robert E. Lee’s Civil War (Bevin Alexander): CWTHow Robert E. Lee Lost the Civil War, by Edward H. Bonekemper, III, Sergeant Kirkland’s Press, (540) 899-5565, 248 pages, $29.95, and Robert E. Lee’s Civil War, by Bevin Alexander, Adams Media, (800) 872-5627, 352 pages, $24.95. Robert E. Lee is widely regarded as the Civil War’s greatest soldier. Terms like “genius” and “invincible” abound …
Book Review: Chancellorsville (Stephen W. Sears) : CWTChancellorsville by Stephen W. Sears, Houghton Mifflin, New York, New York, 577 pages, $35.For the members of the Union Army of the Potomac, particularly those in the XI Corps, the close of May 2, 1863, appeared at hand. Twilight neared, suppers simmered, and men lounged. They believed that Major General Joseph Hooker, commander of the …
Book Review: Atlanta 1864: Last Chance for the Confederacy (by Richard McMurry): CWTA Bohemian Brigade: The Civil War Correspondents, by Richard M. McMurry, University of Nebraska Press, 402-472-3581, 222 pages, $32. Ever since Lee surrendered at Appomattox, Civil War historians have focused most of their attention on the campaigns and battles fought in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. This emphasis on what happened in the eastern theater has …
Book: Davis and Lee at War (Steven E. Woodworth): ACWDAVIS AND LEE AT WARThe decisive impact of politics on Civil War strategy is currently a hot topic among Civil War historians. Works analyzing thehigh commands of the Federal and Confederate armies and their complex relationships with the political hierarchy of theirrespective governments have proliferated, adding a new layer of knowledge to our understanding of …
Book Review: General George E. Pickett in Life and LegendWho was George Pickett, and how did he come to be one of the most recognizable individuals--at least by name--of the Civil War?
Book Review: THE MONITOR: THE STORY OF THE LEGENDARY CIVIL WAR IRONCLAD AND THE MAN WHOSE INVENTION CHANGED THE COURSE OF HISTORY (James Tertius deKay) : AHTHE MONITOR: THE STORY OF THE LEGENDARY CIVIL WAR IRONCLAD AND THE MAN WHOSE INVENTION CHANGED THE COURSE OF HISTORY, by James Tertius deKay, Walker and Company, 240 pages, $21. As the author points out, “Ships of war are, by their nature, expendable. They are temporary things, built to perform dangerous and very often difficult …
Book Review: Lee vs. Pickett: Two Divided By War : ACWLee vs. Pickett: Two Divided by War will stand as a groundbreaking study of a fascinating relationship.
Book Review: Blue Lightning: Wilder’s Brigade in the Battle of Chickamauga (Richard A. Baumgartner) : ACWBlue Lightning: Wilder’s Brigade in the Battle of Chickamauga, by RichardA. Baumgartner, Blue Acorn Press, Huntington, W.Va., 1997, $30. Among the many technological advances in weaponry that occured during the Civil War, one of the most noticeable and far-reaching was the Spencer repeating rifle. Called “the gun that can be loaded on Sunday and fired …
Book Review: A Place Called Appomattox (By William Marvel): ACWTwo volumes offer new interpretations and shatter some myths about the end of the Civil War. By A. Wilson Green William Marvel knows how to tell a good story. He is also a master at debunking myths and reinterpreting historical orthodoxy. Readers familiar with his monograph about the notorious Confederate prison camp at Andersonville, Georgia, …
Southern Invincibility: A History of the Confederate Heart (by Wiley Sword): ACWSouthern Invincibility: A History of the Confederate Heart, by Wiley Sword, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1999, $27.95. On the eve of the Civil War, how did Southerners perceive themselves and the cause on which they were about to embark? How did soldiers and civilians respond to the events on the battlefield? How did the …
Book Review: The Confederate War (Gary Gallagher) : ACWIn his provocative new book, The Confederate War, author Gary Gallagher revises the revisionists. By Richard F. Welch Over the past 15 years an influential school of Civil War historians–now perhaps the dominant orthodoxy–has argued that class, race and gender divisions so wracked the South that the Confederacy was foredoomed to defeat. Exponents of this …
Book Review: Through Blood and Fire: Selected Civil War Papers of Major General Joshua Chamberlain (Mark Nesbitt) : ACWThrough Blood and Fire: Selected Civil War Papers of Major General Joshua Chamberlain, by Mark Nesbitt,Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pa., 1996, $19.95. Mark Nesbitt, best known for his best-selling Ghosts of Gettysburg series, has turned his attention to Maj. Gen. JoshuaChamberlain, a subject that has taken on almost as spiritual (and popular) an aura as those …
Book Review: The Wilmington Campaign: Last Rays of Departing Hope (James R. Arnold and Roberta Wiener) : AHThe Wilmington Campaign: Last Rays of Departing Hope, by Chris E. Fonvielle, Jr., Savas Publishing, Campbell, California, (800) 848-6585, 623 pages, $32.95. While most aspects of the American Civil War have been examined in minute detail by an infinite body of historians, journalists, novelists, and writers in general, it actually is possible for a probing …
Book Review: Gettysburg’s Unknown SoldierAmos Humiston, 'Gettysburg's Unknown Soldier,' comes to life in a touching new biography.
Banners to the Breeze: The Kentucky Campaign, Corinth and Stones River (by Earl J. Hess) : ACWBanners to the Breeze: The Kentucky Campaign, Corinth and Stones River, by Earl J. Hess, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000, $32. The year 1862 proved critical for Confederate fortunes in the Western theater. It began with a series of disasters, as Union forces penetrated the Confederacy’s defensive network by capturing the river strongholds of …
Book Review: The Gettysburg Nobody Knows (edited by Gabor S. Boritt) : ACWThe Gettysburg Nobody Knows, edited by Gabor S. Boritt, Oxford University Press, New York, $27.50. No battle in American history was more pivotal than Gettysburg. It is, without a doubt, the best-known engagement of the Civil War–and probably of all American history. It is certainly the most studied battle Americans ever fought. And yet, for …
Book Review: For Home and the Southland: A History of the 48th Georgia Infantry Regiment (by John Zwemer) : ACWFor Home and the Southland: A History of the 48th Georgia Infantry Regiment, by John Zwemer, NButternut & Blue, Baltimore, Md., 1999, $24.95. th Georgia Infantry Regiment went into action during the Peninsula campaign and fought in almost every significant Civil War battle on the East Coast. Its soldiers endured the heavy fire from Federal …
Book Review: Custer: The Controversial Life of George Armstrong Custer (Jeffry D. Wert) : ACWGeorge Armstrong Custer's controversial life ended in an equally controversial death at the Little Bighorn.
Book Review: The Generals at Gettysburg: The Leaders of America’s Greatest Battle (by Larry R. Tagg) : ACWThe Generals at Gettysburg: The Leaders of America’s Greatest Battle, by Larry R. Tagg, avas Publishing Co., Mason City, Iowa, 1998, $29.95. After 136 years, the gallons of ink devoted to Gettysburg probably surpass the amount of blood spilled on those fields in July 1863. This fact alone should be enough to cause an author …
Book Review: THE BETTER ANGEL: WALT WHITMAN IN THE CIVIL WAR (by Roy Morris, Jr.) : AHITHE BETTER ANGEL: WALT WHITMAN IN THE CIVIL WAR, by Roy Morris, Jr., Oxford University Press, 270 pages, $25.00. Walt Whitman served in the Civil War not as a soldier but as an angel, according to a new biography of America’s Good Gray Poet. Morris observes that Whitman, who spent the latter half of the …
Book Review: Richard S. Ewell: A Soldier’s Life (Donald C. Pfanz) : ACW‘Old Bald Head’ Ewell was a much better general than his notoriously eccentric image sometimes suggested. By B. Keith Toney With the possible exception of World War II, the American Civil War has been written about more often than any other war. Certainly it can be argued that no army in any time period has …

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Book Review: Medical Histories of Union Generals (Jack D. Welsh) : ACWMedical Histories of Union Generals, by Jack D. Welsh, Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio, $35. Aside from the unwieldy records gathered in The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion and a handful of classics like George Worthington Adams’ Doctors in Blue and H.H. Cunningham’s Doctors in Gray, the medical aspects …
Book Review: Stonewall Jackson: The Man, The Soldier, The Legend (James I. Robertson) : ACWA magisterial new biography of Stonewall Jackson presents all sides of a complex, often inscrutable man. By Richard F. Welch At the time of his death in May 1863, Lieutenant General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson was the best-known Civil War commander. Revered in the South and feared in the North, Jackson so personified the Confederacy’s …
Book Review: Reluctant Witnesses: Children’s Voices from the Civil War : ACWReluctant Witnesses: Children’s Voices from the Civil War, by Emmy E. Werner, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., 1998, $24 hardcover. Between 250,000 and 420,000 boy soldiers fought in the Civil War. Uncounted other children were exposed to the war’s ravages and terrors when the fighting reached their hometowns. In Atlanta, Gettysburg, Richmond, Vicksburg, Chattanooga and dozens …
Book Review: Gettysburg: A Battlefield Guide (by Mark Grimsley and Brooks D. Simpson) Chickamauga: A Battlefield Guide With a Section on Chattanooga (by Steven E. Woodworth): ACWGettysburg: A Battlefield Guide, by Mark Grimsley and Brooks D. Simpson, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1999, $17.95, paperback. Chickamauga: A Battlefield Guide With a Section on Chattanooga, by Steven E. Woodworth, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1999, $16.95, paperback. The University of Nebraska Press recently launched a new series, “This Hallowed Ground: Guides to …
Book Review: The Spotsylvania Campaign (Essays) : ACWFor sheer, unmitigated hellishness, the fighting around Spotsylvania outstripped all other Civil War battles. By Cowan Brew The two weeks of horrific fighting around the tiny crossroads hamlet of Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia, in May 1864 represented a watershed of sorts for Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant and the armies they commanded. Even for …
Book Review: The Secret War for the Union ( Edwin C. Fishel) : ACWThe Secret War for the Union, by Edwin C. Fishel, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, $35. This book provides the serious reader of Civil War history with another overlay through which to study the events of the war. In this case, the addition is the dimension of military intelligence, or lack thereof, in the battles …
Sounding the Shallows: A Confederate Companion for the Maryland Campaign of 1862 (by Joseph L. Harsh): ACWSounding the Shallows: A Confederate Companion for the Maryland Campaign of 1862, by Joseph L. Harsh, The Kent State University Press, Ohio, 2000, $18 (paper). Joseph L. Harsh, a history professor at George Mason University, recently published Taken at the Flood, a thought-provoking dissection of Confederate strategy in the 1862 Maryland campaign. As Harsh poked …
Book Review: Confederate Admiral: The Life and Wars of Franklin Buchanan (By Craig Symonds): ACWConfederate Admiral Franklin Buchanan sometimes fought his friends as fiercely as he fought his enemies. By Robert M. Browning, Jr. On April 22, 1861, Captain Franklin Buchanan, one of the most senior officers in the United States Navy, resigned his Federal commission, ending a 46-year career that saw Buchanan rise to the pinnacle of his …
Book Review: Reelecting Lincoln: The Battle for the 1864 Presidency (John C. Waugh) : ACWThe 1864 presidential election was the final crucial battle of the Civil War, and bullets, not ballots, decided the outcome. By Roy Morris, Jr. Of all the presidential elections in American history, none was more crucial than the one that took place on November 8, 1864, in the very midst of the Civil War. On …
Book Review: Chesapeake Bay in the Civil War ( Eric Mills) : ACWChesapeake Bay in the Civil War, by Eric Mills, Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, Md., $29.95. “On January 9, 1861–the same Wednesday that Mississippi quit the United States–thirty U.S. Marines came up from the Washington Navy Yard and garrisoned Fort McHenry at Baltimore, Maryland. The city sprawling below the fort’s guns was seething with Southern sentiment and …
Book Review: Touched By War: Battles Fought in the Lafourche District (By Christopher Peña) : ACWThe Civil War in southern Louisiana involved much more than merely the capture of New Orleans. By Kevin M. Hymel The Union occupation of New Orleans in April 1862, while very damaging to the Southern cause, did not bring an end to the Civil War in southern Louisiana. Instead, the conflict continued to seesaw across …
Book Review: Chancellorsville: The Battle and its Aftermath (Gary W. Gallagher) : ACWChancellorsville: The Battle and its Aftermath, edited by Gary W. Gallagher, University of North CarolinaPress, Chapel Hill, N.C., $29.95. Mention the Battle of Chancellorsville to a group of Civil War buffs and a kaleidoscopic series of images will immediately flash through their minds: Robert E. Lee’s greatest victory, the mortal wounding of Stonewall Jackson, and …
The Approaching Fury: Voices of the Storm, 1820-1861 (Stephen B. Oates) : ACWThe Approaching Fury: Voices of the Storm, 1820-1861, by Stephen B. Oates, HarperCollins, New York, 1997, $28. The vast pantheon of Civil War literature is graced with titles focusing on the underlying causes of America’s bloodiest conflict. Politics and economics, racial and social undercurrents, states’ rights and Manifest Destiny–all have received minute scrutiny. Far too …
Battle of Gettysburg: Major Eugene Blackford and the Fifth Alabama SharpshootersAs fighting swirled all around the little town of Gettysburg, Major Eugene Blackford and his sharpshooters infiltrated the usually quiet streets to snipe at Union soldiers often mere paces away. It was dangerous duty, but also a sort of reckless sport.
Civil War Times: May 2000 LettersLetters - Submit Civil War Times THE END OF THE WAR Thank you, Dr. Castel, for your article in the May issue. Although I count myself a believer in the theory that the Civil War was largely fought and won in the West, I have not until now adequately appreciated the contributions of General William …
National Battlefield Tower at GettysburgEditorial on the demise of National Battlefield Tower at Gettysburg.
Multi-Media Review: Sid Meier’s Gettysburg – CWTSid Meier’s Gettysburg! Electronic Arts, (800) 245-4525, $49.95. Imagine you’re a Confederate general. It’s July 3, 1863, and you’re in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Across the open fields before you, the Union’s seemingly impenetrable line on Cemetery Ridge glares at you menacingly. After two days of fierce fighting, you have been ordered to lead your tattered division …
MAPPING THE COLORADO – Cover Page: June 2000 American History FeatureMAPPING THE COLORADO In 1869, John Wesley Powell defied the myth of the Colorado River’s invincibility and led the first expedition to navigate through the Grand Canyon. by Carolyn J. Hursch "On my return from the first exploration of the canyons of Colorado," wrote John Wesley Powell in a memoir published in 1895, "I found …
Multi-Media Review: Battleground 5: Antietam (TalonSoft) : ACWBattleground 5: Antietam, a Windows CD-ROM by TalonSoft(800-211-6504,, $54.95. Battleground 5: Antietam, is a historical strategy game dealing with the Battle of Antietam, during which the Union forces of Major General George B. McClellan attacked Confederate forces under General Robert E. Lee. The momentous battle was fought along Antietam Creek on the rolling farmland …
Heroine or Hoaxer? – August 1999 Civil War Times FeatureHeroine or Hoaxer? Madame Loreta Janeta Velazquez wrote a controversial memoir disclosing her activities as a double agent and brave soldier during the Civil War. BY SYLVIA D. HOFFERT In 1876 the American public was introduced to an astonishing and controversial figure by the name of Madame Loreta Janeta Velazquez. Like so many others, she …
America’s Civil War: July 1999 From the EditorFrom the EditorAmerica's Civil War Like Philadelphia’s Catherine Hewitt, Mobile-born Susan Tarleton lost her fiancé-general to an enemy bullet. The Civil War made widows of thousands of young–and not so young–American women. Thousands more, like Catherine Hewitt, lost their sweethearts before they ever got a chance to marry. One of those unfortunate lovers was Susan …
MANTLED IN FIRE AND SMOKE – July ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureMANTLED IN FIRE AND SMOKE By David F. Cross The Battle of Gettysburg, and perhaps the fate of the Union, was decided in one hour of desperate fighting on the rocky ledges of Little Round Top. In June 1863, Confederate military fortunes in the East were at their zenith. The Union Army of the Potomac …
A Solider’s Legacy – August 1999 Civil War Times FeatureA Soldier’s Legacy SUBMITTED BY REX ROWLAND OF CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE   NAME Calvin Kelley DATES 1834(?) to May 22, 1864 ALLEGIANCE Confederate RANK Private UNIT 8th Arkansas Infantry, Company K SERVICE RECORD Enlisted on October 12, 1861. Wounded in the December 31, 1862-January 2, 1863, Battle of Murfreesboro. Wounded in the September 1863 Battle of …
Desperate Stand at Chickamauga – July ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureDesperate Stand at Chickamauga By James B. Ronan II Brigadier General John King’s disciplined brigade of Union Regulars found itself tested as never before at Chickamauga. For two bloody days, the Regulars dashed from one endangered spot to another, seeking to save their army from annihilation. In the cold, clear predawn of September 19, 1863, …
Mantled in Fire and Smoke – Sidebar: July ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureThe Colorful 44th New York Regiment Colonel Joshua Chamberlain’s 20th Maine may have won the most fame during the grueling fight for control of Little Round Top, but the largest regimental monument on the battlefield today commemorates a brother regiment that fought alongside the 20th Maine that desperate afternoon–the 44th New York, the “People’s Ellsworth …
Stonewall’s Only Defeat – January ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureStonewalls Only Defeat By Lee Enderlin A furious Stonewall Jackson watched impotently as his proud Confederates stumbled down the hillside at Kernstown, Va. “Give them the bayonet,” Jackson implored–but no one obeyed. The Confederate general didn’t want to fight–he wanted to pray. It was, after all, the Sabbath, and if the Good Lord found it …
South’s Feuding Generals – November ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureSouth's Feuding Generals By Richard Selcer It sometimes seemed that Southern generals were more interested in fighting each other than in fighting Yankees. Their inability to get along together contributed greatly to the South’s demise. Imagine a situation in the modern American army where officers refuse to fight under other officers, where generals openly defy …
A Tar Heel’s Tale – October 1999 Civil War Times FeatureA Tar Heel’s Tale SUBMITTED BY LONNIE R. SPEER OF SWANNANOA, NORTH CAROLINA   NAME Charles Dock Jenkins DATES May 16, 1829, to January 20, 1915 ALLEGIANCE Confederate HIGHEST RANK Sergeant UNIT 29th North Carolina Infantry, Company F SERVICE RECORD Enlisted on August 31, 1861. Participated in skirmishes throughout eastern Tennessee. Wounded in the September …
The North’s Unsung Sisters of Mercy – September ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureThe North's Unsung Sisters of Mercy By Alice P. Stein A cadre of dedicated Northern women from all walks of life traveled to the charnel houses of the Civil War to care for the sick and wounded. They came from the paneled drawing rooms of the nation’s great mansions, the log lean-tos of the far …
Camp William Penn’s Black Soldiers In Blue – November ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureCamp William Penn's Black Soldiers In Blue By Donald Scott Under the stern but sympathetic gaze of Lt. Col. Louis Wagner, some 11,000 African-American soldiers trained to fight for their freedom at Philadelphia’s Camp William Penn. Three Medal of Honor recipients would pass through the camp’s gates. Major Louis Wagner of the 88th Pennsylvania Infantry …
Bitter Bushwhackers and Jayhawkers – March ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureBitter Bushwhackers and Jayhawkers By Bo Kerrihard For half a decade before the Civil War, residents of the neighboring states of Missouri and Kansas waged their own civil war. It was a conflict whose scars were a long time in healing. The Civil War came early to Missouri and Kansas, stayed late, and was characterized …
WHEAT’S TIGERS Confederate Zouaves at First Manassas – May ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureWHEAT'S TIGERS Confederate Zouaves at First Manassas By Gary Schreckengost Recruited from New Orleans’ teeming waterfront by soldier of fortune Roberdeau Wheat, the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion more than lived up to its pugnacious nickname–Wheat’s Tigers–at the First Battle of Manassas. Of all the units that took the field at the First Battle of Manassas …


Yankee in Gray – October 1999 Civil War Times FeatureYankee in Gray SUBMITTED BY MIKE FITZPATRICK OF ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND NAME James R. MathewsonDATES 1837 to ?ALLEGIANCE UnionRANK CaptainUNIT 7th Massachusetts Infantry, Company BSERVICE RECORD Enlisted on June 15, 1861. Fought in Peninsula Campaign and in the May 1-4, 1863, Battle of Chancellorsville. Wounded in the May 1864 Battle of the Wilderness. Mustered out on …
The Photographer of the Confederacy – May 1999 Civil War Times FeatureThe Photographer of the Confederacy BY CONLEY L. EDWARDS III In an attempt to explain why he undertook the task of battlefield photography during the Civil War, Mathew Brady said, “I felt I had to go, a spirit in my feet said go, and I went.” The modern student of the Civil War indeed owes …
From Farm to Prison – February 1999 Civil War Times FeatureFrom Farm to Prison SUBMITTED BY BENJAMIN SMITH OF PORTLAND, MAINE NAME: Llewellyn SmithDATES: 1836 to 1883ALLEGIANCE: UnionHIGHEST RANK: PrivateUNIT: 9th Maine Infantry, Company ISERVICE RECORD: Mustered into the 9th Maine Infantry on September 22, 1861. Captured at Bermuda Hundred, Virginia, on August 25, 1864. Incarcerated at Belle Isle Prison until mid-September and at Libby …
The Widow-Makers – October 1999 Civil War Times FeatureThe Widow-Makers The Civil War’s deadliest weapons were not rapid-fire guns or giant cannon, but the simple rifle-musket and the humble minié ball. BY ALLAN W. HOWEY By the time the smoke had cleared and the veterans headed back to their homes, the American Civil War had exacted a terrible human cost. In four long …
Attack Written Deep and Crimson – May ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureAttack Written Deep and Crimson By Robert Collins Suhr The strategic railroad town of Corinth was a key target for Confederate armieshoping to march north in support of General Braxton Bragg’s invasion ofKentucky. In late summer 1862, Confederate armies were on the march everywhere. The most notable advance, that of the Army of Northern Virginia, …
THE SAVIOR OF CINCINNATI – February 1999 Civil War Times FeatureTHE SAVIOR OF CINCINNATI Long before he published Ben-Hur, Lew Wallace rose from a career as an obscure small-town Indiana lawyer to take a prominent role in the Civil War. BY ROBERT E. MORSBERGER During the first months of the war, when the Union suffered almost continual setbacks, Wallace received adulatory publicity for leading his …
Why the South Lost the Civil War – Cover Page: February ’99 American History FeatureTen Civil War historians provide contrasting and controversial views on how and why the Confederate cause ultimately ended in defeat.
Nothing But Glory Gained – Account of Pickett’s Charge at GettysburgJust before 3 o’clock on the morning of July 3, 1863, Robert E. Lee rose by starlight, ate a spartan breakfast with his staff, and mounted his famous gray horse, Traveller, for the ride up Seminary Ridge at Gettysburg. He went in search of his "Old War Horse," Lieutenant General James Longstreet, commander of I …
CHRISTMAS IN THE CIVIL WAR – December 1998 Civil War Times FeatureCHRISTMAS IN THE CIVIL WAR Whether in camp, in prison, or on the homefront, Christmas came–and so did Saint Nicholas! BY KEVIN RAWLINGS Thomas Nast was in a quandary and his deadline was fast approaching. The editor of Harper’s Weekly, Fletcher Harper, wanted Nast to draw a “special Christmas picture” for the newspaper’s front page, …
Civil War Times: May 1998 LettersLetters - SubmitCivil War TimesFrom Fort To Park About 20 years ago I was beginning work on a book on the Battle of Franklin and a biography of John M. Schofield. In 1975, I spent about three days in Franklin, Tennessee, making a thorough inspection of the battlefield and the surrounding country. I knew exactly …
THE BURNING OF COLUMBIA FROM THE UNION AND CONFEDERATE PERSPECTIVES – October 1998 Civil War Times FeatureBurning Columbia An excerpt from “Sherman’s March from Savannah to Bentonville.” From Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. BY UNION MAJOR GENERAL HENRY W. SLOCUM The fall of Savannah resulted in the adoption of the plan which Sherman had contemplated. In a letter dated December 24th Sherman says: “Many and many a person in …
J.E.B. Stuart: Gettysburg Scapegoat?Following the Confederate debacle at Gettysburg, many blamed Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart for leaving General Robert E. Lee in the dark. But was Stuart really to blame for the defeat? And if so, was he the only one at fault?
BETRAYAL AT EBENEZER CREEK – October 1998 Civil War Times FeatureBETRAYAL AT EBENEZER CREEK Trapped between charging Rebels and a deadly flooded creek, thousands of fugitive slaves watched in horror as the Union army abandoned them. Then came catastrophe–and excuses. BY EDWARD M. CHURCHILL Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis had few complaints about the able-bodied black men who were supplying the muscle and sweat to …
America’s Civil War: January 1998 From the EditorWhether hidden in coffins or hollowed-out watermelons, contraband whiskey regularly found its way into camp. During the Civil War, as with all wars, excessive drinking was not limited to high-ranking officers. Humble men in the ranks also turned to alcohol to relieve the tensions and terrors of battle and the wearying tedium of camp. But …
On the Road Again – February 1998 Civil War Times FeatureOn the Road Again SUBMITTED BY CARL JAMES DECKER, DUNEDIN, FLORIDA NAME: Romanzo Mortimer Buck DATES: May 1833 to December 1902ALLEGIANCE: UnionHIGHEST RANK: Captain UNIT: 4th Michigan Cavalry, Company C SERVICE RECORD: Enlisted in the 4th Michigan Cavalry in 1862. Promoted to first sergeant the same day. Promoted to second lieutenant on December 24.Promoted to …
America’s Civil War: September 1998 From the EditorIn love, as in war, Confederate General John Bell Hood was the personification of bad luck. When Confederate General John Bell Hood rode into Atlanta in July 1864 to take charge of the embattled Army of Tennessee, he was already in the midst of another desperate campaign: a frustrating and ultimately heartbreaking love affair with …
War’s Last Cavalry Raid – May ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureWar's Last Cavalry Raid By Chris Hartley Even as General Robert E. Lee was surrendering at Appomattox, a vengeful Union cavalry horde led by Maj. Gen. George Stoneman made Southern civilians pay dearly for the war. It was a last brutal lesson in the concept of total warfare. Six-foot-four-inch Major General George Stoneman, powerfully built, …
Savage Skirmish Near Sharpsburg – September ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureSavage Skirmish Near Sharpsburg By Scott Hosier With Robert E. Lee’s wily Confederates waiting somewhere in the vicinity of Antietam Creek, Union General George McClellan ordered I Corps commander Joseph Hooker to advance and turn the Rebel flank. But McClellan, for once, was too quick to move, and Hooker soon found himself in an unexpectedly …
Rebels in Pennsylvania! – August 1998 Civil War Times FeatureRebels in Pennsylvania! The spearhead of Lee’s army was about to strike a lethal blow at the very heart of the Keystone State when the Battle of Gettysburg interrupted. BY UZAL ENT Gettysburg was a small rural town with no special significance or importance, like the thousands of other small towns that dotted the American …
Hard-Fighting John Hammond – Sidebar: January ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureHard-Fighting John Hammond Although many citizens heeded the call to defend and preserve the Union, no one in Essex County, New York, felt more strongly about serving his country than John Hammond. The son of Charles F. Hammond, a local businessman in Crown Point, New York, John was born on August 17, 1827. He attended …
Carnage in a Cornfield – September ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureCarnage in a Cornfield By Robert C. Cheeks Mr. Miller’s humble cornfield near Antietam Creek became the unlikely setting for perhaps the worst fighting of the entire Civil War. On Sunday night, September 14, 1862, Confederate General Robert E. Lee issued orders for his much scattered commands to rally at Sharpsburg, Maryland. His ambitious plans …
THE KEYSTONE OF LITTLE ROUND TOP – August 1998 Civil War Times FeatureThe Keystone of Little Round Top SUBMITTED BY TED KARLE, MENTOR, OHIO   NAME: Orpheus Saeger Woodward DATES: 1837 to June 26, 1919 ALLEGIANCE: Union HIGHEST RANK: Brevet Brigadier General UNIT: 83d Pennsylvania Infantry SERVICE RECORD: Enlisted on August 16, 1861. Elected captain in September. Promoted to colonel in 1864. Brevetted brigadier general in 1865. …
Storm Over Fort Pulaski – March ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureStorm Over Fort Pulaski By Peggy Robbins As a young U.S. Army lieutenant, Robert E. Lee helped to construct Fort Pulaski. As a Confederate general 30 years later, he confidently assured fort defenders it could not be breached. Union gunners were not so sure. In late 1860, as North and South stood face to face …
Clark’s Mountain – Sidebar: July ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureThe Perfect Cover Story Most accounts of the Second Manassas campaign rely heavily on Major General John Pope’s report from the Official Records. Many historians, in fact, have looked no further. Their trust has not been well-placed. Several clues within Pope’s version of events suggest falsehood, even without additional accounts. The key portion of Pope’s …
Battle of Gettysburg: Remembering Pickett’s ChargeFew judgments have generated as much controversy as the Confederate decision to make a last desperate attack on the center of the Union lines on the afternoon of July 3, 1863, at Gettysburg.
Out of a Frozen Hell Part 2 – May 1998 Civil War Times FeatureOut of a Frozen Hell part 2 A misplaced pocketbook jeopardizes the escape of three Rebel prisoners struggling to reach Canada. BY ROGER LONG Editor’s Note: In our last issue, we followed four Confederate officers on their daring escape from Johnson’s Island Prison, on Ohio’s Sandusky Bay. Going over the wall on New Year’s Day …
Cavalry Clash at Hanover – January ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureCavalry Clash at Hanover By Brent L. Vosburg Southern beau sabreur J.E.B. Stuart hardly expected to run head-on into enemy cavalry on his second ride around the Union Army. But a trio of ‘boy generals’ would soon give the famed Confederate horseman all the action he could handle. In mid-June 1863, General Robert E. Lee, …
“Never Were Men So Brave” – December 1998 Civil War Times FeatureNever Were Men So Brave Their casualties were enormous but their courage and capacity for fun were legendary. General Lee, himself, gave highest praise to these Yankees of the Irish Brigade. BY JOHN F. McCORMACK, JR. Out Hanover Street in Fredericksburg they marched that December morning in 1862, sprigs of green in their caps, a …
Civil War Times: March 1998 LettersLetters - SubmitCivil War TimesRewriting History I read with some misgiving your announcement “Proposed Legislation Could Clear Dr. Mudd” (“News,” December 1997). President Jimmy Carter did not issue a proclamation absolving Mudd of his conviction as a co-conspirator of John Wilkes Booth, as you state. Carter sent a letter to Dr. Richard D. Mudd, grandson …
America’s Civil War: May 1998 From the EditorOn the occasion of our 10th anniversary, we look back with pride at promises made and kept. Ten years ago this month, a sergeant in the 4th Alabama Infantry defiantly waved his new national banner from the cover of an equally new magazine–America’s Civil War. Fittingly enough, the painting on the cover, by contemporary artist …
Out of a Frozen Hell – February 1998 Civil War Times FeatureOut of a Frozen Hell The wind was howling, snow was falling sideways, and the temperature was dangerously low. What better time to escape from Johnson’s Island? BY ROGER LONG Part two of this article from Civil War Times Illustrated will appear on TheHistoryNet the week of March 30. Editor’s Note: As 1863 gave way …
Remembering Pickett’s Charge at the Battle of GettysburgConfederate Captain Joseph Graham offers a different perspective on the Battle of Gettysburg, particularly its final hours.