Facts, biographical information and articles about Stonewall Jackson, a confederate Civil War General during the American Civil War Stonewall Jackson Facts Born Around midnight January 20–21, 1824 Died May 10, 1863 Read more about Stonewall Jackson’s death Beginning Rank Colonel, Virginia Volunteers Highest Rank Achieved Lieutenant general, CSA Stonewall Jackson Pictures Stonewall Jackson pictures, images, and photographs » See our Stonewall Jackson Pictures. Stonewall Jackson Quotes Stonewall Jackson Quotes Stonewall Jackson Articles Explore articles from the History Net archives about Stonewall Jackson » See all Stonewall Jackson Articles Stonewall Jackson summary: Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson was a Confederate lieutenant general in the Civil War. He won his nickname at the Battle of First Bull Run (First Manassas), but it was his actions at Harpers Ferry in 1861, his 1862 Shenandoah Valley Campaign, and the flanking maneuver at the Battle of Chancellorsville that made him a military legend. Only General Robert E. Lee occupies a higher place in the Confederate pantheon, and prior to the Seven Days Battles, Jackson was a greater hero to the South than Lee was. A devout Christian who believed in predestination, he saw himself as an instrument of God’s will, an Old Testament–style commander of armies in the service of his Lord. He was mortally wounded by his own men during the Battle of Chancellorsville, and many people have speculated that if he had been alive to participate in Lee’s Pennsylvania Campaign the Battle of Gettysburg would have resulted in Confederate victory. Stonewall Jackson’s Life He was born around midnight of January 20–21, 1824, in a small house in the heart of Clarksburg, Virginia (now West Virginia). His attorney father always struggled financially. Dying of typhoid when Thomas was two, he left his family impoverished. When his widow, Julia Neale Jackson, remarried four years later, her new husband either could not support or did not wish to raise her older children, who were farmed out to relatives. Thomas was sent to live with his uncle Cummings Jackson, who operated a gristmill and sawmill near the town of Weston some 25 miles from Thomas’ birthplace. (The gristmill still stands, on the grounds of the West Virginia State 4-H Camp at Jackson’s Mill.) Thomas found a home with Cummings but little of familial love. The circumstances of his early life may have contributed to his taciturn nature and self-reliance. In 1842, at the age of 18, he became constable of Lewis County briefly but was also one of four local residents to test for an appointment to the West Point Military Academy. The appointment went to Gibson Butcher, but Butcher quickly withdrew from the academy and Jackson, hoping to obtain an education he otherwise could not afford, went to see Congressman Samuel Hays about becoming Butcher’s replacement. He got the appointment. Lieutenant Jackson At West Point And The Mexican War At West Point, he struggled with his classes and studied well into the night, taking no part in social activities. By the time of his graduation in 1846, he had risen from near the bottom to rank 17th in his class. He was sent to the Mexican War as a second lieutenant in the 3rd Artillery Regiment and was twice breveted for his actions in the war. After Mexico, Jackson served at Fort Hamilton, New York, and in December 1850 was transferred with his artillery company to Fort Meade, Florida. He and his superior, Major William H. French, engaged in bitter disagreements and each filed accusations of misconduct against the other. Before matters escalated further, Jackson resigned to accept a position as an instructor at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington. He memorized his lectures and, if interrupted, would begin again, speaking in a monotone with his high-pitched voice. Thomas "Tom Fool Jackson" These and other unusual personality traits—holding one arm aloft to increase circulation and sucking on lemons to name two—earned him such nicknames as "Tom Fool Jackson" among his students. His reputation as a strict disciplinarian didn’t help, but over the course of time they came to respect his conscientiousness and honesty. Thomas Jackson The Calvinist Jackson had developed a deep interest in the Christian religion earlier, beginning in Mexico. His views were Calvinistic, including a belief that everything is predetermined by God and that man is utterly depraved, i.e., all human actions, whether "good" or "bad" can never gain God’s favor because the relationship between humanity and God was severed by original sin. Calvinism’s principle of unconditional election teaches that some are chosen by God to be delivered of a knowledge of Himself, and these are selected solely based on His own will and not due to any exceptional behavior or merit of those chosen. Jackson may have believed he was one of those chosen; elements of Calvinistic beliefs evidenced themselves in his Civil War career. He said it mattered not if he were exposing himself to danger in battle or cowering in bed, when God’s chosen time came for him to die, he would die and not until then. He attributed all victories to God and regarded setbacks as requisite chastisement. After the First Battle of Bull Run he wrote to his wife, "Whilst great credit is due to other parts of our gallant army, God made my brigade more instrumental than any other in repulsing the main attack." The belief in predetermination led Jackson to believe the United States was created by God’s will and plan, but that the Confederacy also was created through that same holy will. Jackson’s View On Slavery Like many Southerners, Jackson struggled with his feelings about the institution of slavery, but it obviously was God’s will that it exist—a belief widely held in the South. In 1855, he began teaching Sunday school classes to slaves in Lexington, a violation of Virginia’s segregation laws. Slaves came to know him through these classes and sometimes begged him to buy them so they wouldn’t be sold into the Deep South where they might be worked literally to death. In 1906, long after Jackson’s death, Reverend L. L. Downing, whose parents had been among the slaves in Jackson’s Sunday school, raised money to have a memorial window dedicated to him in the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church of Roanoke, Virginia—likely making "Stonewall" the only Confederate general to have a memorial in an African American church. Virginia Secedes And The Start Of The Civil War When Virginia was preparing to secede from the Union in the spring of 1861, Jackson’s neighbor in Lexington, Virginia’s governor John Letcher, appointed him a colonel of Virginia militia and sent him to secure Harpers Ferry at the mouth of the Shenandoah River. The town was home to a U.S. arsenal and was the entry point of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad into Virginia. Colonel Jackson took charge of the ill-trained militia who had seized the town, deposed their commanders, and ordered their whiskey poured into the streets. He instituted seven hours of drill daily and brought in VMI cadets to assist with training. While at Harpers Ferry he had the equipment of the arsenal shipped to Richmond and captured a large number of locomotives and cars of the B&O. Four suitable locomotives he had dragged by horses down the Valley Turnpike to Strasburg, where they could travel on to Richmond by rail. His energetic leadership went too far for the Richmond government , however, when he ordered cannon emplaced atop Maryland Heights, a tall hill that dominates Harpers Ferry. The heights were in Maryland, which the Confederacy was courting, and his actions aggrieved some of its citizens. He was replaced at Harpers Ferry by Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston, who thought the town could not be defended and withdrew. General Jackson’s First Battle Jackson’s first Civil War battle occurred July 2, 1861. Now a brigadier general commanding a brigade commander in the Shenandoah Valley, he stretched his orders so he could intercept a Union probe toward Martinsburg led by Brig. Gen. George Cadwallader. The two small forces met at Falling Waters. Jackson was nearly outflanked by three regiments under Col. George H. Thomas—the future "Rock of Chickamauga"—but timely reinforcements arrived and Cadwallader withdrew. This small affair is most notable because it pitted the future "Rock" against the future "Stonewall." General Jackson’s Earns The Nickname "Stonewall" Jackson acquired his nickname two weeks later, July 21, on Henry Hill outside Manassas, in the Battle of First Bull Run (First Battle of Manassas). Infantry under South Carolinian brigadier general Bernard Bee had been engaged for some time and were falling back; Jackson’s brigade was in reserve. Bee told his men, "There stands Jackson like a stone wall," but whether he meant it as a compliment or an insult has been long debated. Bee was killed later in the battle. When Jackson threw his troops into the battle, they captured Union artillery atop the hill and fought the Federals until Confederate reinforcements caused a Union rout. Promoted To Major General In November he was promoted to major general and placed in charge of the Shenandoah Valley district. In a small house that he used as his headquarters in Winchester, he planned his next moves. The first one, a westward movement to capture Romney, was successful but led to one of many squabbles with subordinates. Brigadier General W. W. Loring, left in command at Romney when Jackson returned to Winchester, complained to Richmond about the hardships and hazards of his position, and Jackson was ordered to have him withdraw. Jackson complied but submitted his resignation. In the end, Loring was transferred and would find himself in conflict with another commander the following year in Mississippi, in the campaign leading up to the Battle of Vicksburg. The War Department did not interfere with Jackson’s decisions again. On March 11, Jackson withdrew from Winchester in the face of a large Union force. It was the beginning of what would become known as the Shenandoah Valley Campaign. In that campaign—part of larger Confederate plan to prevent a Federal advance down the valley and to prevent additional Union troops from being sent to reinforce George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac that was threatening Richmond from the east—Jackson used the mountains to conceal his forces in order to mislead, confuse and mystify his opponents,. Jackson struck at Kernstown March 23. He was defeated by a larger than expected Union force, but the battle kept the U.S. War Department from pulling troops from the Shenandoah to reinforce McClellan. The battle was fought on a Sunday, and Jackson’s wife questioned whether it was right to on the Lord’s Day; he felt some compunction over it himself but told her that military necessity sometimes required it. Three Federal armies totaling 64,000 men were sent to deal with him, approaching from north, east and west. Jackson controlled the macadamized Valley Turnpike and used it to move his 17,000-man force more rapidly than his opponents, and defeat each enemy separately. His rapid movements earned his men the name "Jackson’s foot cavalry." Between May 8 and June 9, he won victories at McDowell, Front Royal, Winchester (First Battle of Winchester), Cross Keys and Fort Republic, ending the threat to the valley. His actions also led the Lincoln Administration to rescind orders for a 40,000-man army to march on Richmond from the north and link up with McClellan. General Stonewall Jackson Defends Richmond Summoned to aid in the defense of Richmond, Jackson and his Army of the Valley joined Confederate forces east of the city that were under a new commander, Gen. Robert E. Lee. Jackson was ordered to strike a Federal detachment at Beaver Dam Creek (Mechanicsville) on June 26 in order to draw more Yankee soldiers to the north side of the Chickahominy River while Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill attacked on the south side. The energetic Jackson and his foot cavalry failed to carry out their part of the plan. Exhausted from weeks of marching and fighting, they did not move with alacrity and Hill was beaten back because his opponent’s forces had not been weakened to reinforce Beaver Dam Creek. At Gaines Mill the next day, Jackson was again late in arriving. On the 30th, Jackson’s attacks at White Oak Swamp failed to produce a victory, but Lee’s goal of driving McClellan’s army back from Richmond had been achieved in a campaign known as the Seven Days Battles. If the Shenandoah Valley Campaign was the height of Jackson’s Civil War career, the Seven Days were the low point. A less-respected commander might have been reprimanded, perhaps moved to another theater, after such lackluster performance. Instead, Lee sent him north to outflank the Federal Army of Virginia under Maj. Gen. John Pope. At Cedar Mountain, Jackson was nearly beaten by the hapless Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks, but the timely arrival of A. P. Hill’s Light Division saved the day. Jackson, however, filed court-martial charges against Hill for disobeying orders. That wasn’t unusual; Jackson expected complete, blind obedience to his orders—although he kept his plans to himself, so that his subordinates didn’t know what his overall objectives were—and at one time had nearly every one of his brigade commanders under arrest. Even his brother-in-law Richard Garnett fell victim after Kernstown. Hill’s court-martial never occurred. From August 28 to August 30, Jackson’s men held off uncoordinated Federal attacks near the old Bull Run battlefield in the Second Battle of Bull Run until Lt. Gen. James Longstreet could arrive with the rest of Lee’s army, resulting in another Confederate victory. Lee then carried the war onto Northern soil by crossing the Potomac into Maryland—which had not joined the Confederacy. To protect his left flank, he sent Jackson back to familiar territory, to capture Harpers Ferry. Knowing well the defensive disadvantages of that place, Jackson captured the entire Union garrison before moving to rejoin Lee behind Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg. There, on September 21, the Battle of Antietam (Battle of Sharpsburg) resulted in the bloodiest single day in all of American history. Jackson’s men successfully held the northern (left) flank of the Confederate position in the fighting in Miller’s Cornfield, the East Woods and the West Woods. The battle was a tactical draw, but Lee withdrew his battered army back into Virginia. Jackson Promoted To Lieutenant General In November, Jackson—now a lieutenant general—was elated by personal news: his wife, the former Anna Morrison, had given birth to a daughter. He had lost his first wife, Elinor Junkin, during childbirth just 14 months into their marriage. The first child of his marriage to Anna had died shortly after birth. This time, his wife and daughter would long outlive him. Battle Of Fredericksburg In December, defending the right flank of Lee’s army during the Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, Jackson left a small gap in his line that briefly allowed a Union breakthrough but, unreinforced, the Federals withdrew and Jackson filled the gap. Once more, Stonewall had held firm. In April, Anna brought their five-month-old daughter to visit. For a few days, Jackson experienced one of the happiest times of his life, but then word arrived that the Union’s Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. Joe Hooker was on the move and attempting to outflank the Fredericksburg position. Confederate cavalry had skirmished with Union troops near a crossroads where a brick home called Chancellorsville stood. Lee sent Jackson with most of Second Corps to blunt the advance. Chancellorsville: Stonewall Jackson’s Last Battle Jackson, riding his favorite horse, Little Sorrel, arrived around 8 a.m., his corps strung out along the road behind him. He observed the defensive positions prepared by the infantry and cavalry and made a fateful decision: instead of waiting on the defensive for all of his troops to arrive, he would go on the attack. At midmorning, he sent two columns, about 6,000 men total, advancing down the Orange Turnpike and Orange Plank Road. The thoroughfares were separated by up to a mile of thick woods and undergrowth in an area known as The Wilderness. In the tangle of brush, Hooker’s men were uncertain how many Confederates were facing them, and Hooker ordered a withdrawal, approximately to where his men had camped the night before. Jackson’s bold move had cost Hooker his nerve. Fighting continued through the day, and that evening Jackson rode along his front with his staff, making a personal reconnaissance, as he was always inclined to do. That night, Lee rode to join him and the two discussed the strong Federal positions to their front, which were being strengthened hourly with felled trees and earthworks. Word arrived from a cavalry reconnaissance that the right flank of Hooker’s army was "in the air," not anchored to any defensible terrain feature. Lee ordered Jackson to march around that flank and attack it. (Some writers credit Jackson with this plan, but the most reliable evidence indicates it was Lee’s.) When Lee asked how many men Jackson would use for the maneuver, he surprised his commander by responding, "My whole corps." The next morning, operating on about two hours sleep, Jackson set out on what many regard as his greatest tactical maneuver. His column was spotted on the march and its rearguard attacked, but he continued on. The flank he was going to attack was that of the XI Corps, under the command of Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, who had lost an arm at the Battle of Seven Pines (Battle of Fair Oaks). Howard and several of his subordinates ignored warnings that a large Rebel force was on his flanks. Between 5 and 5:30 that evening, Jackson’s men advanced in three lines, each about one and a half miles long and separated from each other by a few hundred yards. He’d ordered no drums, no bugles, no yells as they advanced. The first warning Federals cooking supper had of the storm that was about to strike them came when deer and rabbits, flushed from cover by the Confederate advance, began running into the camps. Regiments and batteries were quickly overrun as the XI Corps tumbled back in disarray. Around 7:15, the first two Confederate lines had intermingled and become confused. They paused to sort themselves out while A. P. Hill’s fresh division came forward to fight. The pause bought time for Union commanders to form a defensive position near Hazel Grove. General Jackson Shot By Friendly Fire About 8:30, Jackson ordered Hill to, "Press them, cut them off from the United States Ford (over the Rappahannock), Hill; press them." Jackson then rode off with his staff to reconnoiter the situation. Sometime after 9:00 they rode up behind the skirmishers of the 33rd North Carolina Regiment and turned back. Aware Federal cavalry was in the area, the North Carolinians mistook the riders for enemy horsemen and opened fire. From somewhere, probably the men of the 18th North Carolina, came another volley. Jackson was hit in his right hand and left wrist. A third ball broke his upper left arm. Taken to a field hospital, his arm was amputated sometime after midnight. Lee, hearing the news, remarked, "Jackson has lost his left arm; I have lost my right." On the afternoon of May 3, the wounded general was moved to a home at Guinea Station. At first, he seemed to be healing but by the time Anna arrived with their daughter on the 7th, pneumonia had set in. By the 10th, he felt the end was near and reportedly said, "My wish is fulfilled. I have always desired to die on a Sunday." By midafternoon, he spoke his last intelligible words, "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees." His body was laid in state in the Confederate capital before being buried at Lexington. The Death Of Stonewall Jackson He had been a man of many contrasts. A rigid disciplinarian with both himself and those around him, he had often clashed with subordinates. A deeply religious man, he accepted killing as a necessity of war. He accepted slavery but made an effort to educate slaves, at least in religious matters. An aggressive fighter and brilliant tactician, he sometimes overextended himself and had demonstrated mediocrity or worse during the Seven Days Campaign. At Falling Waters, Cedar Mountain and Second Bull Run his success was due in no small part to the timely arrival of reinforcements. But he remains second only to Lee in the adoration of the Southern people, in relation to the war, and is held in high regard around the world for his military maneuvers. Read more about the death of Stonewall Jackson Articles Featuring Stonewall Jackson From History Net Magazines Featured Article Stonewall Jackson’s 11th-Hour Rally STONEWALL'S 11th-Hour Rally- 3.5 K By Robert C. Cheeks "With a rusted sword in one hand and a Confederate battle flag in the other,a grim-faced Stonewall Jackson desperately rallied his faltering troops. What Rebel worthy of the name could abandon ‘Old Jack’ in his hour of need?" It was devilishly hot in the summer of 1862, an oppressive, debilitating heat that ravaged the Union marching columns and left even the strongest soldiers lying by the roadside, gasping like fish pulled out of a creek. The temperature was climbing toward 100 degrees as Major General John Pope’s newly organized Army of Virginia pushed down Culpeper Road. Major General Nathaniel Banks’ II Corps held the van of the army, kicking up a cloud of choking dust that could be seen for miles. By dawn of August 9, Pope was aware that Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson’s forces were moving on his front. The blue-clad cavalry of Brig. Gen. George Dashiell Bayard, some 1,200 effectives, covered the front of Brig. Gen. Samuel Crawford’s brigade at its advanced position near Cedar Mountain. Three miles up the road toward Culpeper the remainder of Banks’ II Corps assembled, with Brig. Gen. James Rickett’s division three miles farther back. Major General Franz Sigel’s I Corps was on its way to Culpeper, as was Brig. Gen. Rufus King’s division of Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell’s III Corps. Meanwhile, Brig. Gen. John Buford’s cavalrymen were burning horseflesh in a hasty withdrawal from Madison Court House to Sperryville. Pope ordered Banks’ corps to join their messmates, Crawford’s brigade, at Cedar Mountain, telling Banks in an order dictated by his aide: "General Banks to move to the front immediately, assume command of forces in the front, deploy his skirmishers if the enemy advances, and attack him immediately as he approaches, and be reinforced from here." Banks interpreted the order to mean that he should confront Jackson as soon as the armies made contact. That was not what Pope had in mind. Bayard’s and Buford’s cavalry had been the bane of Stonewall Jackson’s existence for the past several days. The night before, the ubiquitous Yankee horsemen had raided Jackson’s bivouacked column, setting off a firestorm of musketry at 3 o’clock in the morning. Now Jackson fretted constantly about the 1,200 wagons the army had gathered in its train. Brigadier General Jubal A. Early’s Virginia brigade held the van of Maj. Gen. Richard Ewell’s division, and although the irascible "Old Jube" needed help mounting his horse–he’d been wounded in the shoulder at Fort Magruder a few weeks earlier–he was in fine form. Because of the Federal cavalry raids, Early was ordered to picket the road, requiring the services of the 44th Virginia and six companies of the 52nd Virginia. On Culpeper Road, three-quarters of a mile south of the intersection with the Madison Court House road and just west of Slaughter’s Mountain–named after Captain Phillip Slaughter, who had served in the Revolution, and also referred to as Cedar Mountain–a gathering of Bayard’s cavalry offered battle. Early pushed out his skirmish line, accompanied by a brace of 12-pounders, and proceeded to send the outmanned horsemen flying. With his videttes posted well to the north and his divisional commander informed of the proceedings, Old Jube led the brigade toward the intersection, soon coming under artillery fire from the omnipresent Union cavalry. The Federals gave every indication of preparing for battle at this place. Jackson arrived on the scene and met with Ewell at a farmhouse just to the rear, where they quickly developed a plan of attack. Ewell was to march Brig. Gen. Isaac Trimble’s brigades and the Louisiana brigade of Brig. Gen. Harry Hays, now under the command of former New Orleans chief of police Colonel Henry Forno, over Cedar Mountain and strike the Federals on their left. Meanwhile, Early would continue to press up Culpeper Road toward the center of the Federal position. Brigadier General John Winder’s division would support Early and press the Federal right. Jackson’s marching columns, with Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill’s Light Division bringing up the rear, lay strung out over 10 miles of hot, dusty Virginia countryside. Hill’s first indication of contact occurred about six miles from Culpeper Courthouse. The divisional commander, it appears, was not aware of Jackson’s battle plan. While Early waited for Winder to bring up his division, the general led a reconnaissance. His efforts soon bore fruit, as he was able to locate an old farm lane that exited Culpeper Road and spilled out of the woods directly onto the Crittenden farm, where the Federal cavalry had formed. Early pushed, prodded, swore and cursed the brigade through the forest that shielded the movement. As Early’s men advanced through the woods, Ewell’s artillery, which had kept well closed on the infantry columns, opened up on the unseen Federals who lay beyond the rolling countryside of the farm. The Rebels managed to fire 14 rounds of spherical case shot before the Federals responded with a splendid salvo of counterbattery fire that showered the choleric Early with dirt and dust. With Colonel James A. Walker’s game 13th Virginia posted as skirmishers and the 12th Georgia of Trimble’s brigade posted on the right flank, the Confederates debouched from the woods, advanced across a farm lane and formed a battle line just north of the clapboard-sided Crittenden farmhouse. Shots were exchanged with the two recalcitrant Federal cavalry regiments, and Early advanced his 1,500-man brigade to a rise that provided a panoramic view of the battlefield. As the brigade appeared across the crest of the ridge, Federal artillerists opened at a range of 1,600 yards and forced the Confederates to withdraw to the west side of the hill. Ewell’s remaining two brigades (Trimble’s and Forno’s) exited Culpeper Road just beyond the ford and moved on Early’s right, along the north shoulder of the mountain. Well to their left and far below their present position on the mountainside, the infantry could clearly make out Early’s men. Just after 2 p.m., Winder’s division came up and began the arduous and time-consuming task of linking battle lines with Early. To the rear, along Culpeper Road, the six brigades of A.P. Hill’s enormous Light Division stretched along the dusty road for miles. Ahead, Hill’s veterans could hear the familiar report of brass 12-pounders, and realized that the battle had been joined. Early had carefully studied the landscape that lay before his command: the rolling wheat fields and immense cornfields directly on his front and right, the undulating swales and gullies that could easily hide a regiment, the north and south forks of Cedar Run and, finally, a copse of cedar trees on his immediate right front that seized his imagination as an ideal post for a well-appointed battery. A runner was sent to Ewell with the call for artillery support, but Ewell’s prescient artillery chief, A.R. Courtney, had already dispatched Captain W.D. Brown of the Chesapeake Artillery, pulling one 3-inch Whitworth rifle, and Captain W.F. Dement of the Maryland line, with two 12-pounder Napoleons. Within minutes the three Confederate pieces were lobbing spherical shells toward their Union counterparts. Winder began to move his artillery up Culpeper Road with the assistance of his chief of artillery, Major Snowden Andrews. The general wanted as many rifled pieces as they could muster, and Andrews sent Parrott rifles and Napoleons to the gate where the farm lane exited Culpeper Road. Initially, Early’s line ran all the way to Culpeper Road, but when the van of Winder’s division came up, he quickly shortened his brigade front to the south. Brigadier General W.B. Taliaferro’s amalgamated Virginia and Alabama brigade began to fill in on the left, while Colonel T.S. Garnett’s Virginia brigade, after taking a severe shelling at the gate, moved northeastward across Culpeper Road into a line of woods that fronted an open wheat field. There the brigade formed an "L" facing both south to Early’s left and northeast toward the wheat field. Far to the south, at Cedar Mountain, Ewell was determined to get Captain Joseph W. Latimer’s Virginia Battery posted on the heights. Assisted by a mixed force of cavalrymen and infantry, Latimer’s artillerists pulled the cannons up the heights and into battery, where they were joined by a section of the Bedford Artillery. They soon drew a bead on the Union batteries firing salvos from across the cornfield. The Southern cannonade was dramatically increased when two sections of the Light Division’s artillery under the command of Lt. Col. Reuben Walker moved into place on the left of Early’s line. The two sections, one of which belonged to the much- esteemed Major William Pegram, came under horrific skirmish fire. Lying not 150 yards away in the tall corn, elements of the 8th and 12th U.S. Infantry battalions of Brig. Gen. Henry Prince’s brigade opened a galling and accurate rifle fire, unhorsing a number of cannoneers. Fortunately for the Confederates, Early observed the artillerists’ plight and expeditiously ordered infantry forward in close support. Winder, reduced to shirtsleeves, was running about near the area of the gate, feverishly working with his artillery. About an hour after the artillery duel had commenced, Winder was struck by a shell and suffered a "tremendous hole torn in his side." Not long after the splenetic Winder had fallen, Andrews also fell victim to Federal fire. A shell fragment tore across his stomach, nearly gutting him, as he prepared to advance his artillery. Miraculously, Andrews would survive his horrible wound. The artillery contest had opened around 4 p.m. and continued unabated for over an hour and a half. By 5:45 p.m. Banks sent his infantry toward the Confederate lines. Banks, little more than a rank amateur, failed to follow the fundamental military maxim of the day, that an attacker should possess twice the number of troops as the defender. Brigadier General Christopher C. Augur’s Union division lay opposite Early’s brigades in the tall corn 1,500 yards away. On Augur’s right was the Ohio brigade of Brig. Gen. John W. Geary. On Geary’s left, Prince’s brigade advanced on Early’s command, battle flags flying in the thick, sultry air as the punishing temperature steadily rose. The assault had just commenced when both Augur and Geary were felled by Confederate shots and forced from the field. Nevertheless, the attack continued. The Ohioans on Geary’s line advanced under a fearsome barrage of Confederate shot and ball. The 29th and 5th regiments were ordered up with the 66th and 7th, although the 29th fell behind as the result of cowardice on the part of its commanding officer. As the bluecoats cleared the cornfield some 300 yards from the Confederate line, the Rebels opened fire on the massed Yankees. Somehow, the skirmish line held against the fusillade. "Rally on the colors, boys!" the file-closers shouted, trying to force their voices above the cacophony of battle. On the Federals came, in good order, their ranks well-closed, until vicious and well-aimed fire struck them from the right flank. The 21st Virginia of Brig. Gen. Richard Garnett’s brigade had come into line unnoticed along Culpeper Road and hammered the Union assault into the ground. The rattle of musketry became continuous along the entire front, joining the roar of artillery. The Confederate guns posted at the gate had succeeded in knocking down the determined Ohioans, and Pegram’s crews had been hard at work since their arrival an hour earlier. On the Confederate right, at Cedar Mountain, 18-year-old Captain Latimer’s Parrott rifles were busy dropping shells into Geary’s and Prince’s advancing blue lines. Soon the field was bathed in blue-gray smoke. Jackson had kept close to the action himself and, in the midst of a furious barrage, penned an urgent missive to Hill calling for his hard-driving division. But Hill, or rather the van of his division, was already up. Brigadier General Edward L. Thomas’ Georgia brigade was placed to the right of Early’s line after a difficult march at the double-quick. The Union infantry continued to sweep forward against the enemy, their "huzzahs" screamed against the roar of musket and cannon fire. Prince moved the 111th Pennsylvania and 3rd Maryland through the corn toward Early, then received orders to throw his entire brigade at the Confederates en echelon. The orders, executed under extreme duress, were dispatched with a notation for the 109th Pennsylvania and 102nd New York to take care not to fire into the lead regiments. But just such a volley was fired. Troopers from the 3rd Maryland fell, shot in the back, and both the Marylanders and the Pennsylvanians broke for the rear. The 109th Pennsylvania and 102nd New York did not hesitate, but moved in good order out of the corn. The 109th volleyed into the 12th Georgia, while the 102nd wheeled right and opened on Thomas’ recently arrived brigade. The Rebels’ return fire was a nearly solid wall of lead, and Prince’s valiant troops were halted, victimized by Thomas’ oblique flanking fire. Confederate artillery fire bellowed into the faces of the oncoming infantrymen. Their spherical case ammunition had long been used up, and the gunners now were using short-fused canister, double-shotted. The effects were immediate. The Federal assault ground to a halt as the advance troops began to flounder over reddened fields thickly coated with human gore. Minutes earlier, north of Culpeper Road, Crawford had sprung something of a surprise on the poorly tended Confederate left. Three of his regiments, the 5th Connecticut, 28th New York and 45th Pennsylvania, had formed line with several companies of the 3rd Wisconsin of Brig. Gen. George Gordon’s command. The commingled brigade faced due west, looking across a recently harvested wheat field, into an undeveloped line of Confederate infantry commanded by Lt. Col. T.S. Garnett. The Federals emerged from the woods at the edge of the wheat field, dressed on their colors and burst with loud cries toward Garnett’s Rebels. On their left, across the road, Geary’s Ohioans were catching hell from Taliaferro’s Virginians and Alabamians. But the Ohioans’ bravery effectively shielded Crawford’s men from enemy flanking fire. The Federals made it to the center of the wheat field without taking any musketry at all. Then came a shrill, apocalyptic volley of musketry, so loud that for a brief moment it drowned out the artillery fire. The Federal casualty lists began to swell. Colonel Dudley Donnelly was hit, then Lt. Col. Edwin F. Brown. Eventually 17 out of 18 field officers of the 28th New York would join their commanders on the list of honor before the sun had set. Somehow, Crawford’s men kept coming. They met the enemy in close combat at the edge of the wheat field, and the Confederate line began to waver. Garnett’s left collapsed, and within minutes the entire brigade was broken as the 28th New York and 5th Connecticut left the woods and drove down on the 42nd and 48th Virginia. Hit from the front, flank and rear, the Southern troops finally were overrun. A stygian pall descended over the smoke-filled woodlands. Several Virginians who had been taken prisoner reported, following their release, that Union soldiers had mercilessly murdered a number of Rebels after they surrendered. One soldier stated that he had been bayoneted as he lay wounded and helpless. The fighting in the wheat field was not yet over. Coming close on the heels of the 5th Connecticut and 28th New York, several companies of the 3rd Wisconsin and 46th Pennsylvania were struck by flanking fire from the renowned Stonewall Brigade, which had tardily arrived on the northern edge of the field. They were too late to halt the two Union regiments now massacring their comrades in the woods, but they did punish the trailing edge of Crawford’s makeshift brigade. The Wisconsin men suffered greatly and were forced to withdraw, leaving behind their dead. The 46th Pennsylvania fought on into the woods, driving back the 10th and 27th Virginia, then turned left and brought up the rear as the 28th New York and 5th Connecticut fell on the unsuspecting Virginians who had formed line on Culpeper Road. The two Virginia regiments were completely unaware of the assault now gaining momentum on their rear–unaware, that is, until musket balls came crashing into their ranks from a distance of 30 feet. The fighting became close-in and ugly, harder even than the contest in the woods adjacent to the wheat field. The men fought with swords, clubbed muskets, knives and fists, and the swirling chaos spilled out onto Culpeper Road. The 21st Virginia was broken, but in its demise the regiment had strewn the ground with Federal dead. Survivors of the 48th Virginia streamed toward the gate and presumed safety, while other small bands of Confederates took shelter in the woods northwest of their old line. The Confederate left was now in shambles. Jackson himself came up after ordering the vulnerable artillery away from the gate and watched stoically for a minute as his men fled past him. Crawford’s troops were understandably ecstatic. They had not often seen the backs of Stonewall Jackson’s troops, and they were richly enjoying their success. They got themselves back into a makeshift line on the left flank of the 47th Alabama and volleyed point-blank into the Rebels. The Alabamians, combat novices, broke under fire and took the 48th Alabama with them. The 23rd and 37th Virginia, brigaded with the Alabamians, sustained their position better, but it was only a matter of minutes before the brigade ceased to exist as a fighting unit. With Taliaferro’s command broken and fleeing westward, Crawford’s troops fell on Early’s left flank. The brigade was without benefit of its seasoned brigadier–he had ridden to his right to help align Thomas’ brigade just before the Yankees swept across Culpeper Road. The rout of Taliaferro’s brigade placed Pegram’s guns squarely in harm’s way–not that the effervescent youth minded being placed in such a position. Guns were loaded with double-shotted rounds of canister, short-fused and discharged remorselessly. Still, Pegram’s cannoneers, fighting infantry at less than 100 yards, were taking considerable casualties. Accordingly, his commander, Lt. Col. James A. Walker, ordered him out of the melee. Crawford’s assault, beginning to peter out, struck Early’s left regiment, Walker’s 13th Virginia. The sweat-covered bluecoats swept around the 13th and routed the remaining regiments, then were forced to turn and fight Walker’s troops, nearly encircling the recalcitrant Virginians. Early’s fine brigade had broken up nearly as quickly as Taliaferro’s, although Walker, who would later command the Stonewall Brigade at Gettysburg, led the 13th with élan. Unsupported, Walker ordered a breakout and managed to extricate the regiment in good order. The regiment’s efforts slowed down Crawford’s assault and helped in positioning the Federals directly on the flank of Captain William Brown’s 12th Georgia. The Georgians held a unique line along a minor rise that allowed them an easy shot at the vulnerable flanks of Crawford’s fast-advancing regiments. After firing, Brown’s troops had merely to run a few paces down the slope, reload without fear of being hit by enemy fire, and return to the line. When Early arrived on the scene, Brown shouted, "General, my ammunition is nearly out; don’t you think we had better charge them?" The 12th Georgia, acting in concert with Ewell’s blazing guns on Cedar Mountain, Brown’s and Dement’s artillery, and Thomas’ brigade, sent a chorus of lead and shot into Crawford’s unsupported brigade. The charge slowed, then ground to a halt. Jackson was standing near the gate, his life in great danger as he tried desperately to rally his shattered line, with sword and scabbard–they were rusted together–raised in one hand and a Confederate battle flag in the other. What Confederate worth the name could abandon "Old Jack" in his time of peril? The routed troops of Garnett’s, Taliaferro’s and Early’s brigades began to halt, then rally. Across the area a cheer rose up: "Jackson! Jackson!" Brigadier General Lawrence O’Bryan Branch’s North Carolina brigade had been thrown into the melee by Jackson himself, and now entered the woods northwest of the gate, plodding toward the wheat field. Portions of broken Rebel commands came scurrying through Branch’s troops, causing more confusion though not interfering with the lightly opposed advance. Brigadier General James Jay Archer followed Branch through the thick woods, then obliqued northward and came up on the North Carolinian’s left. There, off to their right front, stood the 10th Maine. The New Englanders, brigaded with Crawford’s sanguinary regiments, had missed the charge an hour earlier and had advanced into the wheat field to cover the withdrawal. The Yankees were taking murderous fire from Branch’s North Carolinians and trying desperately to return the volley. Archer’s amalgamated brigade of Tennesseans, Alabamians and Georgians gleefully added their weight of iron to the fight, and the Federals began to fall in great heaps. Mercifully, the order to withdraw was given, and the New Englanders bolted for the sanctuary of the woods east of the wheat field, near Culpeper Road. As the ranks were breaking up, another Fed- eral brigade, Brig. Gen. George Gordon’s, was making its way through the woods toward the wheat field, while a battalion of the 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry came charging down the road, streamed into the wheat field and proceeded to get itself slaughtered in as glorious and ineffectual a cavalry effort as any that occurred dur- ing the war. The galloping Pennsylvanians rode past Branch’s infantry and experienced firsthand the bitter effects of Southern marks- manship. The horsemen turned in a sweeping arc past Archer’s troops and suffered mightily at their hands, as well. In all, the 1st Cavalry lost 34 of the 164 men who had begun the charge. In the northern portion of the wheat field, the Stonewall Brigade was busy killing Crawford’s fleeing troopers and sealing the Confederate left. Most of the Union soldiers making a run for safety were either shot down or taken prisoner. The arrival of Gordon’s brigade deflected the Virginians’ attention and helped some Union soldiers escape. Ironically, some of the Northern troops who an hour earlier had participated in the murder of Confederate soldiers who had honorably surrendered, now found themselves in a killing field from which the heavy hand of judgment provided no succor. They fell in heaps. The 5th Virginia captured the battle flags of the 5th Connecticut and 28th New York, along with a number of prisoners who were, by all accounts, humanely treated. Meanwhile, Brig. Gen. Dorsey Pender’s brigade moved up on the Stonewall Brigade’s rear. Jackson’s center had been secured for more than half an hour. The efforts of the 14th Georgia of Thomas’ brigade had resulted not only in blunting Crawford’s spearhead but also in providing a rallying point, near the gate, for broken regiments. There, Lt. Col. Robert W. Folsom, commanding the 14th Georgia, had rallied nearly 800 muskets, which provided an effective resistance to the surging Federals. Walker’s 13th Virginia, which had earlier fought out of a pocket at the original brigade line, was joined by a fragment from the 31st Virginia. Together, both regiments, acting in concert with the 14th Georgia, sallied toward Culpeper Road, driving elements of Crawford’s and Geary’s Federals before them. The three regiments arrived at the road in time to volley into the charging Pennsylvania horsemen. Meanwhile, at Cedar Mountain, Forno’s and Trimble’s brigades began their sweep across the battlefield, while north of their position, in the bloody wheat field, the antagonists prepared to play out the final act in the drama. Gordon’s Federals laid their cartridge boxes beside them and awaited the Confederates. Archer’s men came forward, followed by the Stonewall Brigade and, on their left, Dorsey Pender’s seasoned fighters. The Federals volleyed, but the Rebel assault halted only momentarily. "Take aim. Fire low! Fire!" a Confederate officer screamed, and the roar of 1,100 muskets echoed across the parched field. Archer’s men came on, running hard. On Gordon’s right, Pender’s North Carolinians, eager to join the fray, volleyed into his flank. The Federals broke as Archer’s men came crashing into the fence line. Archer’s bold charge broke the last major Federal resistance on what would become known as the Cedar Mountain battlefield. Jackson had somehow snatched victory from the jaws of defeat in a battle that the brilliant, if dour, Presbyterian would always consider his greatest fight. Late the next day, a thunderstorm broke the oppressive heat and gave succor to the scores of wounded who lay about the field. The day after that, with the smell of putrefying flesh heavy in the Virginia air, Jackson ordered his command back across the Rapidan, heading for the old killing fields at Manassas, having blunted at Cedar Mountain yet another hopeful Union advance. Articles 2 How in the world did they shoot Stonewall Jackson?It’s one of the best-known stories of the Civil War: Confederate General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson is accidentally shot by his own men during the Battle of Chancellorsville and then dies a few days later. His death, perhaps, alters the course of the war itself. September – October 1862General Lee heads north, producing a bloodbath in Maryland. And Abraham Lincoln presses emancipation September 2 – In the aftermath of the Union’s second loss at Bull Run, George McClellan is restored to full command of the Army of the Potomac, incorporating Maj. Gen. John Pope’s Army of Virginia. Pope will be sent west to […] Confederate Flags in Times Square?Is it, or isn't it? That is our question! Book Reviews – July 2012The Global Lincoln by Richard Carwardine, Jay Sexton, eds. Oxford University Press 2011, $29.95 At the bicentennial of Abraham Lincoln’s birth in 2009, a new area of Lincoln studies emerged: his legacy outside the United States after the Civil War era. It will surprise many Americans that the Great Emancipator is the best-known American president […] July – August 1862Rebels go marauding, emancipation occupies Abraham Lincoln and starving Sioux get restless July 1 – Battle of Malvern Hill ends the Seven Days’ battles with a Union victory. The Revenue Act of 1862 establishes the Bureau of Internal Revenue and implements the first successful income tax. The tax would be repealed in 1872. The […] March and April, 1862Stunning events on land and sea: Naval warfare is reinvented and a placid church gets a bloodbath March March 3 – President Lincoln appoints Andrew Johnson, the only Southern U.S. senator to remain loyal after his state seceded, military governor of Tennessee March 4 – Henry Halleck orders Ulysses S. Grant to turn his forces […] Ron Maxwell Interview – ‘Gods and Generals’ Extended Director’s CutA HistoryNet exclusive interview with director Ron Maxwell about the extended director's cut of his film Gods and Generals, now available on DVD and Blu-Ray. Diaries of a Liberty Hall Volunteer return homeAn old Washington and Lee alum—with a little help from his friends—has posthumously provided his alma mater with a treasure trove of firsthand observations of the Civil War in Virginia, after some alert re-enactors and a Lexington historian spotted his six-diary set about to be sold at auction. The diaries’ author, Alexander Sterrett Paxton, was […] In Time of War – 150 years agoJanuary 1 – The Lincoln administration releases Confederate emissaries James Mason and John Slidell from Fort Warren in Boston Harbor, ending the Trent Affair. The diplomats continued their voyage to Europe, on an unsuccessful mission to win support for the Confederacy from Britain and France. – Stonewall Jackson begins the Romney Campaign near Winchester, Va. […] Churchill Imagines How the South Won the Civil WarIn Winston Churchill’s fanciful alternative history, Robert E. Lee wins at Gettysburg, and Jeb Stuart prevents World War I Union Cavalry Escapes from Besieged Harpers FerryIn September 1862 some 1,600 Union cavalrymen seemingly trapped at Harpers Ferry carried out one of the Civil War's most successful missions of stealth and deception. Stonewall Jackson at Harpers FerryJackson, Johnston and conflicting interests The fate of strategic Harpers Ferry hung on the leadership styles of two Southern commanders Confederate Battery at Harper's Ferry. Courtesy of the Harper's Ferry National Historic Park. Ten weeks before earning the sobriquet “Stonewall” on Henry Hill at the First Battle of Manassas, Thomas Jonathan Jackson was standing like […] Building the Army of the PotomacStephen Sears writes of how the Army of the Potomac's politically appointed generals and short-term volunteer troops nearly unhinged Lincoln’s plans in 1861 to win the Civil War. Ask MHQ—North or South: Whose Was the Army of the Rebellion?Nowadays "Army of the Rebellion" is most commonly used to refer to the Confederates, but during the American Civil War the term was often applied to the Union forces as well. Two Virginias Two Civil WarsTwo Virginias, two Civil Wars? The state in the forefront of war remembrance still argues over what happened The state of Virginia has been back in the news, again at war with itself and again over issues relating to the Civil War. On the one hand, the state’s diverse Sesquicentennial Commission masterfully organized its annual […] Gen. George McClellan at Second ManassasGeneral Disobedience: ‘Little Mac’ let John Pope twist in the wind; With response from Prof. Ethan S. Rafuse Richard Ewell at GettysburgSecond-Guessing Dick Ewell: Why didn’t the Confederate general take Cemetery Hill on July 1, 1863? Lee’s Unwritten MemoirWhy didn’t Robert E. Lee write his memoirs? ‘The Roar and Rattle': McClellan’s Missed Opportunities at AntietamThe Battle of Antietam resulted in more pivotal changes, across a broader spectrum of events—military, political, diplomatic, societal—than any other battle of the war. Yet if evaluated in purely military terms, it was not decisive at all. Will Biographers Ever Get out of a Rut?Biographies of Civil War generals have appealed to generations of Americans. Famous commanders often attract readers who end up pursuing a lifelong interest in the conflict. J.E.B. Stuart played that role for me. As an 11-year-old, I was drawn to Stuart because he was a romantic and gifted cavalry officer. I began with Burke Davis’ […] Who kept U.S. Grant sober?John Rawlins used his brains and blue language to keep his boss in check. Did Robert E. Lee Doom Himself at Gettysburg?By blindly relying on poor intelligence and saying far too little to his generals, Lee may have sealed the Rebels’ fate. Union General Daniel SicklesOn two separate battlefields, Union General Daniel Sickles carelessly exposed his men -- and the entire army -- to possible defeat. Only the quick actions of other Federal officers managed to compensate for Sickles' errors and keep his mistakes from becoming disasters. It was life as usual for 'Devil Dan.' Recently Discovered Memoir about Gen. T. J. ‘Stonewall’ JacksonAn overlooked manuscript in Special Collections, University of Virginia Library, contains a memoir about Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson by a man who was with him from VMI to Manassas. ‘A Stupid Old Useless Fool’William Nelson Pendleton was far more effective behind a pulpit than he was as Robert E. Lee's chief of artillery in the Army of Northern Virginia. Death and Civil War America: Interview with Drew Gilpin FaustDrew Gilpin Faust discusses her book, "This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War," a thoughtful study of the impact of the war's massive death toll on society and government. The Day of Doom: The Battle of Gravelotte/Saint-PrivatOn a single day of the Franco-Prussian War, the armies of Helmuth von Moltke and François Achille Bazaine nearly annihilated each other in an epic slaughter at Gravelotte/Saint-Privat that would not be matched until World War I. At Washington’s Gates: Jubal Early’s Chance to Take the CapitolIn July 1864, Lt. Gen. Jubal Early led a Confederate army to the gates of Washington. What stopped him from capturing the Northern capital and its president, Abraham Lincoln? Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig: World War I’s Worst GeneralVisiting the Somme battlefield in northern France is largely a matter of going from one Commonwealth Graves Commission cemetery to another. The graveyards are everywhere, some of them very small, comprising only a handful of white Portland marble stones, many bearing the inscription, A Soldier of the Great War / Known unto God. One sees […] Visiting Stonewall Jackson’s Left Arm at ChancellorsvilleGeneral Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson's amputated arm got its own grave at Ellwood Cemetery in Orange County, Virginia. Battle of Gettysburg FinaleGrievously wounded in body and spirit, the Army of Northern Virginia limped painfully away from Gettysburg while Union commander George Gordon Meade followed slowly -- too slowly, thought Abraham Lincoln. Articles 3 Battle of Salem Church: Final Federal Assault at ChancellorsvilleWhile a dazed 'Fighting Joe' Hooker reeled from the brilliant Confederate flank attack at Chancellorsville, Union Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick fought his way past Rebel defenders to attack the enemy rear. At Salem Church, he tried to open a second front -- and possibly save the day.By George Rogan America’s Civil War: Expedition to Destroy Dismal Swamp CanalEager to improve the regiment's somewhat tarnished reputation, Colonel Rush Hawkins' 9th New York Zouaves set off through North Carolina's Dismal Swamp to attack the canal at South Mills. What followed was not exactly what Hawkins had in mind.By Joseph F. von Deck Battle of Peachtree CreekNear the sluggish creek on the outskirts of Atlanta, new Confederate commander John Bell Hood struck the first 'manly blow' for Atlanta,living up to his lifelong reputation as a fighter--but accomplishing little. It would be a bad omen for all Hood's subsequent campaigns.By Phil Noblitt Battle of Ox HillWith Union General John Pope reeling in defeat after the Battle of Second Manassas, Stonewall Jackson confidently set out to block Pope's retreat. It would be easy pickings--so Jackson thought.By Robert James Battle of Gettysburg — Day TwoIf Robert E. Lee's bold plan of attack had been followed on Day 2 at Gettysburg, there might never have been a third day of fighting. As it was, confusion and personal differences between commanders would severely affect the Confederate assault on Cemetery Ridge. Hoodwinked During America’s Civil War: Confederate Military Deception‘In the conditions of real war, the feeling of uncertainty is magnified, and this makes the opponent much more sensitive to crafty deception — so that even the most threadbare ruse has succeeded time after time.’ — Sir Basil Liddell Hart Desperate times require desperate measures, and in warfare few are more cunning — or […] James Longstreet: Robert E. Lee’s Most Valuable SoldierThe words resonate through Confederate history like an unwelcome truth. As General Robert E. Lee made preparations for an assault on the center of the Union line at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863, his senior subordinate, Lieutenant General James Longstreet, voiced objections. At one point in the discussion, Longstreet recounted his experience as a soldier […] Battle of Shiloh: Shattering MythsEvents that have been distorted or enhanced by veterans and early battlefield administrators have become part of the accepted story of the April 1862 battle -- until now. Case in point: The Sunken Road wasn't. Leonidas Polk: Southern Civil War GeneralUnion artillery brought a deadly end to the career of clergyman-turned-soldier Leonidas Polk. Battle of Harpers FerryHarpers Ferry was the scene of an important 1862 battle in Lee's Maryland campaign and a prelude to 'Bloody Antietam.' Confederacy’s Canadian Mission: Spies Across the BorderStealing secrets and causing trouble, Rebel spies in Canada waged a risky underground war across the Union's northern frontier. Battle of Gaines’ Mill: U.S. Army Regulars to the RescueAs Robert E. Lee hammered Federal forces at Gaines' Mill, Brig. Gen. George Sykes proud division of Regulars held its post of honor on the Union right. The 'Old Army was showing its mettle to the new. Union Captain Judson KilpatrickAn unknown farm boy, he attended West Point. Homely, he had an endless string of mistresses. An inept commander, he became a major general. What was Judson Kilpatrick's secret? America’s Civil War: Loudoun RangersThe Quaker-dominated Loudoun Rangers openly defied Virginia tradition to serve the Union. America’s Civil War: Images of Peace at AppomattoxEvery picture tells a different story about Lee's surrender. Battle of Antietam: Controversial Crossing on Burnside’s BridgeShould General Ambrose Burnside have ordered his men to wade Antietam Creek? Author Marvel undertook a personal odyssey to find out. 44th Georgia Regiment Volunteers in the American Civil WarThe hard-fighting 44th Georgia suffered some of the heaviest losses of any regiment in the Civil War. Union General Judson KilpatrickUnion General Judson Kilpatrick was flamboyant, reckless, tempestuous, and even licentious. In some respects he made other beaux sabreurs like fellow-cavalrymen George Custer and J. E. B. Stuart seem dull. Brigadier General John Gibbon’s Brief Breach During the Battle of FredericksburgAlthough overshadowed by the doomed Federal attack on the Confederate center, General John Gibbon's 2nd Division managed -- however briefly -- to make a breakthrough on the Union left. America’s Civil War: Fort Wagner and the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer InfantryThe doomed assault on Fort Wagner won the 54th Massachusetts a place in history, but did not win the battle for the North. No regiment could have carried the fort that day. America’s Civil War: Front Royal Was the Key to the Shenandoah ValleyThe pretty little town of Front Royal, in the Shenandoah Valley, had a strategic value that belied its size. As Stonewall Jackson knew, it was the key to the valley, the state of Virginia and the war itself. Battle of Antietam: Carnage in a CornfieldMr. Miller's humble cornfield near Antietam Creek became the unlikely setting for perhaps the worst fighting of the entire Civil War. 37th North Carolina Infantry Regiment in the American Civil WarThe service of the 37th North Carolina epitomized the grit and determination of Tar Heel fighters. America’s Civil War: George Custer and Stephen RamseurGeorge Custer and Dodson Ramseur had a friendship that survived the Civil War -- until the Battle of Cedar Creek. America’s Civil War: John Mosby and George Custer Clash in the Shenandoah ValleyWhen Civil War's John Singleton Mosby's Partisan Rangers clashed with George A. Custer's Union Cavalry, the niceties of war were the first casualty. Reprisal and counter reprisal became the order of the day. Madame Loreta Janeta Velazquez: Heroine or HoaxerMadame Loreta Janeta Velazquez wrote a controversial memoir disclosing her activities as a double agent and brave soldier during the Civil War. Battle of Gettysburg: Confederate General Richard Ewell’s Failure on the HeightsFor the second day in a row, Confederate General Richard Ewell inexplicably failed to take the offensive at Gettysburg. 'The fruits of victory, Robert E. Lee lamented, had not been gathered. Did Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell Lose the Battle of GettysburgAfter disobeying Robert E. Lee's orders to avoid a general engagement at Gettysburg, Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell received an order to 'press those people.' His failure to do so created a controversy that survives to this day. Battle of Kernstown: Stonewall Jackson’s Only DefeatA furious Stonewall Jackson watched impotently as his proud Confederates stumbled down the hillside at Kernstown, Va. 'Give them the bayonet,' Jackson implored -- but no one obeyed. Second Battle of Winchester: Richard Ewell Takes CommandOne month after Stonewall Jackson's death at Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee turned to Stonewall's trusted lieutenant, Richard Ewell, to cover his invasion of the North. Was 'Old Bald Head' up to the challenge? America’s Civil War: XI Corps Fight During the Chancellorsville CampaignDisliked and distrusted by their comrades in the Army of the Potomac, the men of the XI Corps would find their reputation further damaged by a twilight encounter with Stonewall Jackson's troops in the dark woods at Chancellorsville. Articles 4 Battle of Chancellorsville: Day OneNew Union commander 'Fighting Joe' Hooker planned to encircle Robert E. Lee at the Virginia crossroads hamlet of Chancellorsville. The plan seemed to be working perfectly, until.... America’s Civil War: Robert E. Lee and James Longstreet at Odds at GettysburgAt Gettysburg, Longstreet told Lee that a direct assault would end in disaster -- but Pickett's Charge went forward anyway. The Irish Brigade Fought in America’s Civil WarTheir casualties were enormous but their courage and capacity for fun were legendary. General Lee, himself, gave highest praise to these Yankees of the Irish Brigade. America’s Civil War: Last Ditch Rebel Stand at PetersburgAfter nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed. Desperate to save his army, Robert E. Lee called on his soldiers for one last miracle. America’s Civil War: The South’s Feuding GeneralsIt sometimes seemed that Southern generals were more interested in fighting each other than in fighting Yankees. Their inability to get along together contributed greatly to the South's demise. Battle of Brawner’s Farm: Black Hat Brigade’s Baptism of FireJohn Gibbon's mostly green Midwestern troops found themselves in quite a scrape as the sun set on August 28, 1862. Winchester, Virginia: A Town Embattled During America’s Civil WarWinchester, Virginia, saw more of the war than any other place North or South. America’s Civil War: May 2001 LettersPreservation Donation Thank you so very much, Primedia History Group, for your generous donation of $9,778 to the Central Virginia Battlefields Trust. These proceeds from your recent Chancellorsville reenactment at Ft. Pickett, Va., [September 22-24] are a wonderful indication of the support and loyalty of participating reenactors. The gift will allow our organization to purchase […] Book Review: Stonewall Jackson: The Man, the Soldier, the Legend (James I. Robertson) : CWTStonewall Jackson: The Man, the Soldier, the Legend,by James I Robertson, Jr. (Macmillian, New York, 950 pages, $40). Forty years have passed since the publication of the last scholarly biography on Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. That’s hard to believe, considering that millions of tons of paper and barrels of ink have been conscripted to publish […] Book Review: Conquering the Valley (Robert K. Krick) : CWTCONQUERING THE VALLEY The heart of Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s 1862 Shenandoah Valley Campaign spanned six weeks and ended near the place it had begun: Port Republic, in the shadow of the Blue Ridge Mountains. There and at Cross Keys, a village five miles northwest of Port Republic, Jackson’s army defeated two Union forces on […] Book Review: General John Pope (by Peter Cozzans): CWTGeneral John Pope: A Life for the Nation, by Peter Cozzens, University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, 474 pages, $39.95.. The bombastic Union general John Pope knew how to provoke people. The usually unflappable Robert E. Lee called Pope a “miscreant” after Pope declared a harder war on Virginia civilians during the summer of […] Book Review: Shades of Blue and Gray: An Introductory Military History of the Civil War (Herman Hattaway) : CWTShades of Blue and Gray: An Introductory Military History of the Civil War, by Herman Hattaway, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 295 pages, $29.95. No book answers a question that is not asked. Herman Hattaway obviously has benefited from his recent stint as a visiting professor at the U.S. Military Academy, where soldiers and cadets […] Book Review: Stonewall Jackson: The Man, The Soldier, The Legend (James I. Robertson) : ACWA magisterial new biography of Stonewall Jackson presents all sides of a complex, often inscrutable man. By Richard F. Welch At the time of his death in May 1863, Lieutenant General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson was the best-known Civil War commander. Revered in the South and feared in the North, Jackson so personified the Confederacy’s […] Book Review: Stonewall Jackson: A History of the Confederate Navy (Raimondo Luraghi) : ACWOutgunned and outsupplied, the fledgling Confederate Navy used technological ingenuity to level the playing field. By Kenneth P. Czech When the Civil War erupted in 1861, the Confederate states were determined to protect their seacoasts and inland waterways. However, they lacked an adequate naval force with which to do so. To compound the problem, the […] Book Review: ROBERT E. LEE’S CIVIL WAR (Bevin Alexander) : AHROBERT E. LEE’S CIVIL WAR, by Bevin Alexander, Adams Media Corporation, 338 pages, $24.95.If old soldiers never die, nor do the debates about their place in history. For generations Robert E. Lee’s reputation as a military commander remained relatively unscathed, with only occasional exceptions. Though it is not surprising that Ulysses S. Grant criticized his […] Book Review: STONEWALL JACKSON: THE MAN, THE SOLDIER, THE LEGEND (James I. Robertson, Jr.) : AHSTONEWALL JACKSON: THE MAN, THE SOLDIER, THE LEGEND, by James I. Robertson, Jr. (Macmillan Publishing, 940 pages, $40.00). “You maybe what ever you resolve to be” was one of Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall”Jackson’s favorite axioms, and in this thoroughly researched biography,Robertson, one of the country’s leading Civil War historians, examines why thisConfederate general’s unfaltering determination made […] Battle of Gettysburg: Major Eugene Blackford and the Fifth Alabama SharpshootersAs fighting swirled all around the little town of Gettysburg, Major Eugene Blackford and his sharpshooters infiltrated the usually quiet streets to snipe at Union soldiers often mere paces away. It was dangerous duty, but also a sort of reckless sport. Civil War Times: December 2000 EditorialFrom the Editor Civil War Times NATURAL CAUSES Nothing gives you an appreciation for the modern world like a good case of some formerly fatal disease. In my case, it was pneumonia–specifically, mycoplasma pneumonia, which spread all through both of my lungs, and stole the whole month of August from me. Of course, disease never […] Stonewall’s Only Defeat – Sidebar: January ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureStonewall’s Cavalry Chief In an army not lacking for larger-than-life heroes, Confederate cavalry leader Turner Ashby had already become a legend by the time of his premature death in June 1862. As Stonewall Jackson’s cavalry chief in the Shenandoah Valley, the Virginia-born Ashby naturally took on some of the glamour of the South’s most-vaunted warrior. […] Stonewall’s Only Defeat – January ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureStonewalls Only Defeat By Lee Enderlin A furious Stonewall Jackson watched impotently as his proud Confederates stumbled down the hillside at Kernstown, Va. “Give them the bayonet,” Jackson implored–but no one obeyed. The Confederate general didn’t want to fight–he wanted to pray. It was, after all, the Sabbath, and if the Good Lord found it […] South’s Feuding Generals – November ’99 America’s Civil War FeatureSouth's Feuding Generals By Richard Selcer It sometimes seemed that Southern generals were more interested in fighting each other than in fighting Yankees. Their inability to get along together contributed greatly to the South’s demise. Imagine a situation in the modern American army where officers refuse to fight under other officers, where generals openly defy […] America’s Civil War: January 1999 From the EditorConfederate General Charles Sidney Winder found himself smack in the middle of the Jackson-Garnett feud. When Major General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson abruptly removed Brigadier General Richard Garnett from command of the Stonewall Brigade on April Fool’s Day, 1862, he inadvertently made Brigadier General Charles Sidney Winder the most unpopular man in the Shenandoah Valley. The […] they paid to enter Libby Prison – February 1999 Civil War Times Featurethey paid to enter Libby Prison A drafty Richmond deathtrap for captured Yankees became a tourist trap after the war–600 miles away! BY BRUCE KLEE The Union officers who stepped into the huge brick prison’s reception room knew all too well what this chamber was. It was the proverbial lion’s mouth. Here, men were swallowed […] Heroine or Hoaxer? – August 1999 Civil War Times FeatureHeroine or Hoaxer? Madame Loreta Janeta Velazquez wrote a controversial memoir disclosing her activities as a double agent and brave soldier during the Civil War. BY SYLVIA D. HOFFERT In 1876 the American public was introduced to an astonishing and controversial figure by the name of Madame Loreta Janeta Velazquez. Like so many others, she […] Civil War Times: October 1999 EditorialFrom the EditorCivil War Times THE LAST FULL MEASURE OF AMBITION I remember standing on Seminary Ridge, looking out over that ocean of a field that stretches to Cemetery Ridge. It was a windy winter day in the late 1980s, and there was scarcely anyone else at Gettysburg National Military Park. I studied the figures […] Carnage in a Cornfield – September ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureCarnage in a Cornfield By Robert C. Cheeks Mr. Miller’s humble cornfield near Antietam Creek became the unlikely setting for perhaps the worst fighting of the entire Civil War. On Sunday night, September 14, 1862, Confederate General Robert E. Lee issued orders for his much scattered commands to rally at Sharpsburg, Maryland. His ambitious plans […] Commands: The Quaker-dominated Loudoun Rangers openly defied Virginia tradition to serve the Union. – January ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureThe Quaker-dominated Loudoun Rangers openly defied Virginia tradition to serve the Union. By Richard E. Crouch Of all the special units that were formed to combat Confederate partisan rangers in Virginia during the Civil War–the Blazer Scouts, the Jesse Scouts, Cole’s Maryland Cavalry and others–probably the most promising was the Loudoun Rangers, an independent cavalry […] Judson Kilpatrick – June 1998 Civil War Times FeatureJudson Kilpatrick BY EDWARD G. LONGACRE Union General Judson Kilpatrick was flamboyant, reckless, tempestuous, and even licentious. In some respects he made other beaux sabreurs like fellow-cavalrymen George Custer and J. E. B. Stuart seem dull. Because he was a passionate man, Kilpatrick won many admirers and made many enemies during his Civil War career–and […] “Never Were Men So Brave” – December 1998 Civil War Times FeatureNever Were Men So Brave Their casualties were enormous but their courage and capacity for fun were legendary. General Lee, himself, gave highest praise to these Yankees of the Irish Brigade. BY JOHN F. McCORMACK, JR. Out Hanover Street in Fredericksburg they marched that December morning in 1862, sprigs of green in their caps, a […] Commands: The Quaker-dominated Loudoun Rangers openly defied Virginia tradition to serve the Union. – January ’98 America’s Civil War FeatureThe Quaker-dominated Loudoun Rangers openly defied Virginia tradition to serve the Union. By Richard E. Crouch Of all the special units that were formed to combat Confederate partisan rangers in Virginia during the Civil War–the Blazer Scouts, the Jesse Scouts, Cole’s Maryland Cavalry and others–probably the most promising was the Loudoun Rangers, an independent cavalry […] Nothing But Glory Gained – Account of Pickett’s Charge at GettysburgJust before 3 o’clock on the morning of July 3, 1863, Robert E. Lee rose by starlight, ate a spartan breakfast with his staff, and mounted his famous gray horse, Traveller, for the ride up Seminary Ridge at Gettysburg. He went in search of his "Old War Horse," Lieutenant General James Longstreet, commander of I […] Articles 5 America’s Civil War: May 1997 From the EditorThe unexpected and unnecessary Loring-Jackson incident almost derailed two promising military careers. When Major General William Wing Loring led the successful Confederate defense of Yazoo Pass in March 1863 (see story, P. 46), he unwittingly earned himself a new nickname. Personally directing his men’s fire, Loring cried in the heat of battle: “Give them blizzards, […] Travelers to Wartime Richmond – Sept. ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureTravelers to wartime Richmond had a wide choiceof luxurious hotels, inns and taverns. By John K. Trammell The outbreak of the Civil War ushered in an era of radical change in Virginia. Starting with fanatical John Brown’s failed revolution at Harpers Ferry, and ending with a devastating defeat and painful reconstruction six years later, citizens […] The 44th Georgia Suffered Some of the Heaviest Losses – March ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureThe hard-fighting 44th Georgia suffered some of the heaviest losses of any regiment in the Civil War.By Gerald J. Smith On March 10, 1862, companies of Georgians from Henry, Jasper, Clarke, Spalding, Clayton, Putnam, Fayette, Pike, Morgan, Henry and Greene counties all assembled at Camp Stephens, outside Griffin. Responding to Governor Joseph Brown’s mandate to […] Stonewall’s 11th-Hour Rally: Jan ’96: America’s Civil War FeatureWith a rusted sword in one hand and a Confederate battle flag in the other,a grim-faced Stonewall Jackson desperately rallied his faltering troops. What Rebelworthy of the name could abandon ‘Old Jack’ in his hour of need?By Robert C. Cheeks It was devilishly hot in the summer of 1862, an oppressive, debilitating heat that ravaged […] Day One at Chancellorsville – March ’96 America’s Civil War FeatureNew Union commander ‘Fighting Joe’ Hooker planned to encircle Robert E. Lee at the Virginia crossroads hamlet of Chancellorsville. The plan seemed to be working perfectly, until….By Al Hemingway Early in the evening on April 29, 1863, Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart rode up to the Chancellor farmhouse, a well-known inn 11 miles west […] The Proving Ground – April ’96 Civil War Times FeaturethePROVINGground The Mexican War gave future civil war generals their first taste of combatJOHN C. WAUGH Chatham Roberdeau Wheat would one day lead a famous Louisiana battalion called “Wheat’s Tigers” into battle for the Confederacy. He would fight and die in the Battle of Gaines’ Mill, Virginia, in 1862. But that was still some 15 […] First Eyewitness to War LetterMy Dear Wife, I this morning sat myself down to write you a few lines to let you know that I am in good health. At this time hoping when these few lines come to hand they may find you and the children all well. My dear wife, I want to see you and my […] A Town Embattled- February ’96 Civil War Times FeatureWinchester, Virginia, saw more of the war than any other place North or Southa town EMBATTLEDCHRIS FORDNEY Ten thousand Confederate troops filled the small town of Winchester, Virginia, early in the summer of 1861. Soldiers were quartered in almost every building. Then, in mid-July, a call came to stop a Federal advance on Manassas, and […] Ewell Seizes the Day at Winchester – Mar. ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureEwell Seizes the Day atWINCHESTERBy Dean M. Wells One month after Stonewall Jackson’s death at Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee turned to Stonewall’s trusted lieutenant, Richard Ewell, to cover his invasion of the North. Was ‘Old Bald Head’ up to the challenge? June 14, 1863, was a hot, cloudy day in northern Virginia. A light breeze […] Last-Ditch Rebel Stand at Petersburg – Cover Page: May ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureLast-Ditch Rebel Stand at PetersburgBy Ronald E. Bullock After nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed. Desperate to save his army, Robert E. Lee called on his soldiers for one last miracle. After more than nine months of squalid trench warfare around the beleaguered Southern city of Petersburg, Virginia, […] Did ‘Baldy’ Ewell Lose Gettysburg?After disobeying Robert E. Lee's orders to avoid a general engagement at Gettysburg, Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell received an order to 'press those people.' His failure to do so created a controversy that survives to this day. Eyewitness to War: Stonewall Jackson’s Final Days – November ’97 America’s Civil War FeatureDr. Hunter McGuire, Stonewall Jackson’s 27-year-old medical director, chronicled the general’s last days. By Joe D. Haines, Jr. The circumstances surrounding the death of Lieutenant General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson are well known. Following perhaps his greatest performance, leading a brilliant flanking maneuver against Union Major General Joseph Hooker at Chancellorsville, he was mistakenly shot […] Mexican War: The Proving Ground for Future American Civil War GeneralsFor young American army officers of the time, the Mexican War was not only the road to glory, it was the road to promotion--a proving ground for future Civil War generals.