Paid Advertisement
Historynet/feed historynet feedback facebook link Weider History Group RSS feed Weider Subscriptions Historynet Home page

Confederate Army

Facts, information and articles about Confederate Army during The Civil War

Confederate Army Flag (1865)
Confederate Army Flag (1865)

Confederate Army summary: The Confederate Army was the army of the Confederate States of America during The Civil War. In 1860, shortly after the election of Abraham Lincoln, southern states began seceding from the union. On February 8, 1861, delegates from Southern states adopted the Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States of America, and soon after established a volunteer army. After the attack on Fort Sumter began the civil war, confederate President Jefferson Davis took charge of the army. After four years fighting, it was defeated by the Union Army, ending the Civil War. Though estimates vary, it is said that between 750,000 to 1 million soldiers fought at some time in the confederate army, about half the size of the Union Army.

Confederate Army History

The confederacy was created at the start of the American Civil War. In 1860, when Abraham Lincoln won the election, the southern states began seceding from the Union. They decided to create a confederacy and thus having an organization by which to make decisions. The strength of the Confederate Army was half of the Union Army. There were only so many soldiers who were against the Federal Forces and the Central government.

There were not only Army men of the Union in the Confederate Army, but also the prisoners who were captured in the war from different skirmishes. They also included the Native Americans. There were around 28,693 Native Americans who served both in the Union and Confederate Army. The Confederate Army had African Americans and Chinese. The incomplete and destroyed records give an inaccurate number of the numbers that served in Confederate Army, but as far as best estimates 1.5 million soldiers participated in civil war against Union Army.

Leading The Confederate Army

The Confederate Army didn’t have a general-in-chief until late in the war. The President Jefferson Davis himself served as commander-in-chief and provided war strategies to land and Naval forces. After four years of Civil war, the Union Army defeated the Confederate Army. As is the case with many wars, there was a large advancement in technology and weaponry. 

Confederate Army Casualties

The number of casualties of the Confederate Army is not exactly known because they destroyed the records. Estimates of confederate battle deaths are approximately 95,000, with another 200,000 dying from disease and in prison camps.


 

Articles Featuring Confederate Army From History Net Magazines

The South’s Last Great Victory

By David J. Eicher

For the first year and a half of the Civil War, Southern spirits rode high. But by the fall of 1863, the Confederacy found itself against the ropes.

First came the loss of Kentucky in late 1862. Then the stunning Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in July 1863, and by September Confederate morale was at its lowest ebb since the beginning of the war. With the Confederacy sliced in two by the loss of the Mississippi River, and the repulse of Robert E. Lee’s vaunted Army of Northern Virginia in the East, Southerners everywhere were wondering whether independence was still realistic. It was obvious a clear-cut, major military victory was desperately needed.

The slipping of Southern hopes possessed Confederates young and old with a sense of the unreal. They had believed Confederate victory and independence were foreordained. The 1864 Johnson’s Elementary Arithmetic had asked Southern schoolchildren, “If one Confed-erate soldier can whip seven Yankees, how many soldiers can whip 49 Yankees?” Patriotism had been furious in most of the South. Although a crisis in confidence had accompanied the disaster in Kentucky, morale rose again and was solid until July 1863.

“All of us are…ripe and ready for the fight,” wrote one soldier from Albemarle County, Va. “I shall be shoulder to shoulder with you when ever the fight comes off. I go for wipeing [sic] them out.”

But gloom spread over the armies and the home front following Vicksburg and Gettys­burg. “I see no prospect now of the South ever sustaining itself,” a paroled Southern private wrote his wife from Vicksburg. “We have lost the Mississippi and our nation is Divided and they is not a nuf left to fight for. I don’t look for eny thing Else but total anahighlation…of the South if She continue to carry on the war for we have a Powerfull nation fighting against us. They have Every thing…while we are half fed.”

The despondency spread far and wide. A movement in North Carolina, for example, began courting a return to the Union. “The men are low spirited and have been ever since they heard of the fall of Vicksburg,” wrote a Louisiana private near Jackson, Miss. “I never saw such a depression.”

A broadside titled “COMMON SENSE,” posted in Dallas County, Texas, claimed that Southern civilians had been deluded by their leaders, and called for a peace convention. It was signed, “One who was at VICKSBURG.”

All this doom and gloom called for swift action and a decisive victory to turn the war’s momentum around. Confederate President Jefferson Davis realized his back was against the wall.

The North, naturally, hoped to continue pressing the advantage, to bring an end to the war as soon as possible. Gettysburg had been the climax of a vast, evolving campaign in the East; Vicksburg had been the result of a months-long series of operations in the West.

And in the center of the divided nation, events in the late summer and early fall were building toward another major military clash.

The principal forces in southern Tennessee at that point were the Union Army of the Cumberland, under Maj. Gen. William Starke Rosecrans, and the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by General Braxton Bragg. Both commanders were interesting characters whose backgrounds and military training would play into the campaign to come. Rosecrans, a 43-year-old Ohioan who graduated fifth in the West Point Class of 1842, had served as an engineer before leaving the Army in 1854 to work in the coal and petroleum industries. He did not serve in the Mexican War.

“Old Rosy,” as he was known, was a well-tempered, jovial man who became quite popular with his men. Somewhat heavy, with soulful eyes, a neatly cropped beard and shaggy hair over his ears, Rosecrans reportedly earned his nickname not because of his name but because of his prominent Roman nose. Rosecrans looked every bit the part of a competent commander.

Early in the war, Rosecrans served as an aide to Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan and participated in the fighting in western Virginia before heading west to join Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck’s Federal army in Mississippi in May 1862. Rosecrans commanded Halleck’s right wing as the army plodded toward Corinth, Miss., and fought at both Iuka and Corinth before transferring to Kentucky to relieve Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell as commander of the former Army of the Ohio.

In December, Rosecrans fought Bragg to a tactical draw at the Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro), but the Federals claimed victory when Bragg withdrew across the Duck River to Tullahoma, Tenn., on January 3, 1863.

For Rosecrans’ army, the rest of the first six months of the year would be marked by relative inaction and a series of mostly inconsequential cavalry raids before the general began engineering a plan to overrun Rebel positions in southeastern Tennessee.

His adversary again would be Bragg, the 46-year-old general from North Carolina. Bragg, one of Jefferson Davis’ close friends, was otherwise almost universally disliked. He had an intense stare, bushy eyebrows, a thick beard and graying hair trimmed short over his ears. That made him appear severe, and the argumentative, aggressive and sometimes downright mean disposition he displayed—along with frequent liberal bouts of profanity—endeared him to few.

Bragg graduated fifth in the West Point Class of 1837 and had fought against the Seminoles in Florida before compiling a distinguished Mexican War record. He was brevetted for deeds at Buena Vista in February 1847.

But even as a young officer, Bragg was disliked. Twice—in August and September 1847—his troops allegedly tried to kill him. The first time, a shell was placed two feet from his bed. When it exploded, it sent fragments above and below his bed. He was not injured on either occasion, however.

Bragg resigned from the Army in 1856 and became a sugar planter in Louisiana. When war erupted in 1861, he was appointed an aide to Louisiana Governor Thomas Moore, commanding forces in New Orleans, and then was commissioned a brigadier general. Jefferson Davis soon gave him a command of the region on the Gulf of Mexico coastline, from Pensacola, Fla., to Mobile, Ala.

In the fall of 1861, Bragg took command of a corps in General Albert Sidney Johnston’s Army of the Mississippi. Bragg led the Second Corps during the Confederate defeat at Shiloh in early April 1862. After the battle, in which Johnston was killed, Bragg was commissioned a full general, and by the summer he had been named to succeed Johnston’s replacement—P.G.T. Beauregard—as the head of the Army of the Mississippi.

In August, Bragg began his invasion of Kentucky, hoping to bring the purportedly “neutral” border state under Confederate control. The effort ended with the tactical Rebel victory at the Battle of Perryville in October. But the Confederates never followed through on the success at Perryville, and following his clash with Rosecrans at Stones River in December, Bragg left Kentucky altogether.

Bragg’s newly named Army of Tennessee in the late summer of 1863, comprised a right wing commanded by Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk, which included a division under Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Cheatham, a corps under Maj. Gen. Daniel Harvey Hill and the Reserve Corps of Maj. Gen. William H.T. Walker. The army’s left wing was commanded by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, who had been detached from the Army of Northern Virginia on September 9. That wing contained Maj. Gen. Thomas C. Hindman’s division, Maj. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner’s Corps and Longstreet’s Corps, now commanded by Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood. A cavalry corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, and a corps under Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest rounded out the Confederate forces in the vicinity.

Rosecrans’ army, meanwhile, consisted of the XIV Corps under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, the XX Corps commanded by Maj. Gen. Alexander M. McCook, Maj. Gen. Thomas L. Crittenden’s XXI Corps, Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger’s Reserve Corps and Brig. Gen. Robert B. Mitchell’s Cavalry Corps.

By September 1863, Rosecrans had seized the initiative, beginning a series of movements designed to flank Bragg’s army, holed up in Chattanooga. This Tennessee city a few miles from the Georgia border, with a population of 2,540, was not only an important rail center but also a natural military base ringed by mountains. It was intended to be an important launching point for a planned Federal incursion into central Georgia.

Bragg was supposed to do more than just stop Rosecrans from attacking Chattanooga; he was to destroy the Army of the Cumberland in the process. This, Davis calculated, would reignite the waning Southern morale both among troops in the field and on the home front.

Early in September, Rosecrans sent his cavalry south to strike at Bragg’s rear. When Bragg learned of this, he gathered his army and, rather than fight there, withdrew from the city and concentrated at La Fayette, Ga. On September 9, Yankee troops moved into Chattanooga and began celebrating what seemed an easy conquest, never realizing the danger they were in with Bragg’s army still close and their own lines spread over 40 miles.

Authorities in Richmond nevertheless panicked at the rapid Union progress. Davis even considered sending Robert E. Lee to Chattanooga but called off the plan, fearing Virginia’s security would be compromised. He instead chose to send Longstreet’s Corps from Lee’s army.

With the Federals strung out along a series of mountain gaps, Bragg realized he had a special opportunity to catch them off-guard. On September 10, he ordered Hill and Hindman to attack the isolated Union positions, but both generals failed. It was quickly apparent that the opportunity for surprising and routing portions of Rosecrans’ army had been squandered.

The next day, Bragg ordered another attack on Maj. Gen. James S. Negley’s isolated division. Hindman, however, chose not to follow the order, believing he needed more information before he could proceed.

On the 12th, Bragg angrily commanded Hindman again to attack Negley, but Hindman inexplicably withdrew first to the north before reversing himself and moving his men south. By this time, Negley had realized the danger and had withdrawn to the south.

Meanwhile, Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry had located the whereabouts of General Crittenden’s corps. When Forrest provided the information to Leonidas Polk, however, Polk hesitated rather than taking decisive action, wasting valuable time. That gave Crittenden time to realize the danger he was in and concentrate his forces.

Bragg finally arrived on the scene on the 13th, but when he realized none of his generals had followed through on his orders, he was livid.

 

It was now apparent to Rosecrans that Bragg was assembling his army for an attack. Bragg began concentrating his force along Chickamauga Creek, a small stream in Georgia not far from Chattanooga, named in Cherokee dialect for a smallpox outbreak that had occurred along its banks. Chickamauga translated to “river of death.”

On September 18, Bragg’s army was in position. By placing himself between the Yankees and Chattanooga, he was hoping to force Rosecrans’ hand. Rosecrans took the bait.

The Battle of Chickamauga erupted the following day at Jay’s Mill, and quickly spread south to a point near Lee and Gordon’s Mill. The fields, cabins and woods in the area witnessed repeated, rolling attacks that resulted in mostly temporary gains for both sides. Kelly Field, Brock Field, the Poe Cabin, Viniard Field, the Winfrey House and Alexander’s Bridge all gained a measure of instant fame during the day’s action.

The battle was renewed on the 20th as Bragg again stabbed toward Chattanooga, inciting engagements along a long north-south battle line. If not for a stroke of timing, the fight might have continued at its bloody yet unspectacular pace. Union Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood was ordered to move his division to support another area, creating a quarter-mile gap in the Federal line. At nearly the same moment, Longstreet sent six divisions forward, plowing through and sending the Yankees back in startled confusion in one of the most decisive frontal attacks of the war.

“Now the enemy are in plain view along the road covering our entire front,” wrote James R. Carnahan, a captain in the 86th Indiana Infantry. “You can see them, as with cap visors drawn well down over their eyes, the gun at the charge, with short, shrill shouts they come, and we see the colors of Longstreet’s corps, flushed with victory, confronting us.”

“The men rush over the hastily-constructed breastworks of logs and rails of the foe, with the old time familiar rebel yell, and, wheeling then to the right, the column sweeps the enemy before it, and pushes along the Chattanooga road towards Missionary Ridge in pursuit,” wrote Captain William Miller Owen, a staff officer in Confederate Brig. Gen. William Preston’s division. “It is glorious!”

Pushed to a series of hills northwest of the center of the field, the last Federal remnants held fast to a region known as Horseshoe Ridge, which included Snodgrass Hill and a little cabinlike house owned by George Washington Snodgrass. The Rebels had the Yankees on the run; only Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas and the small Federal force that remained held the ground here, earning Thomas the sobriquet “Rock of Chickamauga.”

It was a desperate day, but Thomas’ resistance prevented a rout and allowed Rosecrans and the bulk of the Union army to scurry back to Chattanooga. “The Union line held the crest. Longstreet was stayed at last,” recalled Lt. Col. Gates P. Thruston, a Federal staff officer. “Gathering new forces, he soon sent a flanking column around our right. We could not extend our line to meet this attack….For a time the fate of the Union army hung in the balance. All seemed lost, when unexpected help came from Gordon Granger and the right was saved.”

The battle was a Union disaster and a spectacular—albeit brief—Confederate return to domination.

Chickamauga caused such panic in Washington that President Abraham Lincoln initiated an enormous movement to reinforce Rosecrans’ apparently stunned and mauled army.

The new star of the Federal army, Ulysses S. Grant, would arrive to personally supervise the rebuilding of the army, now penned in at Chattanooga and depleted of food and supplies.

A week after the battle, Confederate nurse Kate Cumming recorded her impressions of the wounded who had been left behind. “As we rode out of the yard, I tried to look neither to the right nor the left, for I knew that many eyes were sadly gazing at us from their comfortless sheds and tents,” she wrote. “I could do nothing for the poor fellows, and when that is the case, I try to steel my heart against their sorrows.”

The strategic legacy of Chickamauga was huge. The Confederates had whipped the Federals and sent a flurry of renewed hope through battle lines all across the South. Comfort that the war wasn’t slipping away was restored throughout much of the Confederate home front. Rosecrans’ army had been pushed north in confusion. Perhaps the only negative aspect of the battle for the Rebels was that they had failed to pursue and crush more enemy troops, which had been a realistic possibility.

The cost was frightful: Of about 58,000 Union soldiers engaged, 1,657 were killed, 9,756 wounded and 4,757 missing. Of 66,000 Confederates engaged, there were 2,312 killed, 14,674 wounded and 1,468 missing.

The loss in north Georgia sent chills through the authorities in Washington—particularly bitter for politicians, citizens and officers alike in the wake of the stunning Union victories that summer.

Despite the victory, the gruff, argumentative and demanding Bragg found himself with few friends. Ridiculed by many subordinate commanders for not aggressively pursuing the fleeing Yankees—especially by Polk and Longstreet—Bragg found that as he moved his forces into position around Chattanooga, few soldiers or officers held any confidence in him.

Bragg blamed D.H. Hill for not following orders, and Buckner emerged as one of Longstreet’s anti-Bragg allies. This situation produced one of the most remarkable stories of conspiracy in the entire war.

On October 4, furious over what they envisioned as Bragg’s incompetence, this core of general officers launched a cabal against Bragg by planning to send a petition to President Davis for his removal as commander of the Army of Tennessee. Written by Buckner, the document was signed by 11 general officers. Major General John C. Breckinridge hated Bragg so thoroughly that he declined to sign, believing his signature might actually dampen the chances of the petition taking effect.

In the end, the signers decided not to submit the document to Davis, and it was filed away with Longstreet’s papers. Instead, Bragg held a council of war and listened as his corps commanders denounced his ability to lead the army.

Polk assumed temporary command, and Hill was singled out and removed from command. Bragg had resumed command of the army by November 7, however.

Fighting continued in the region in the immediate wake of Chickamauga. As the third autumn of the war began, the Confederates remained besieged; the tremendous tactical success of Chickamauga did not turn around the desperate Southern fortunes after all. Though exhausted, the Federals maintained their hold on Chattanooga.

In Washington, alarm over the battered condition of Rosecrans’ army had led to the largest troop reinforcement in U.S. military history. Assistant Secretary of War Charles A. Dana telegraphed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton with his concerns in late September, and Stanton ordered the entire XI and XII Corps, 23,300 men, 10 batteries, and all their equipment, horses and mules to move quickly by rail to Chattanooga. The Union troops went from Virginia through Maryland to the Ohio River, through central Ohio to southern Indiana and south through Kentucky and Tennessee.

By October 2 the first Federal troops from the Army of the Potomac would arrive at Bridgeport, Ala., having traveled 1,159 miles in seven days. Longstreet, meanwhile, would move his force to eastern Tennessee to face Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, a second-rate assignment that he nevertheless found preferable to remaining with Bragg.

The key result of Chickamauga for the South was the palpable rise in Southern morale. The belief in ultimate Confederate victory had gained strength following this battle in remote northern Georgia; it would rise slightly more after the first clash with Grant in the Wilderness in the spring of 1864.

But after that, morale would again sink into despair as the final summer of the war began. The Federal breakthrough in Georgia, the fall of Atlanta, Lincoln’s re-election—those and more signaled a precipitous fall in Confederate hopes. In more ways than one, the Battle of Chickamauga, though fought by a despised commander, would be the South’s “Last Great Victory.”

David J. Eicher is editor of Astronomy magazine and is the author of several books on the Civil War. He might be the only contributor to this issue with a minor planet (3617 Eicher) named for him.

Armies of last resortFolks back home looked to the home guards for protection. Sometimes they needed protected from the home guard.
In the hot seat over GettysburgSouthern vets had long blamed James Longstreet and Jeb Stuart for their loss, but had Lee called a formal inquiry?
Battle Of South Mountain: Battlefield And BeyondJune Issue Extra: Lee’s first invasion of Union territory was turned back at the Battle of South Mountain
A vast rebel conspiracy on the Great Lakes


A speculative rendering of the Canadian merchant Georgian, by Gregory Proch

The Georgian started its life as a merchant steamer, but Confederate agents in Canada had darker plans

The quiet streets of Toronto stretched away from Dr. James Bates, disappearing …

Churchill Imagines How the South Won the Civil WarIn Winston Churchill’s fanciful alternative history, Robert E. Lee wins at Gettysburg, and Jeb Stuart prevents World War I
The Ultimate Political Action Committee

A congressional war panel proves too many cooks can poison the pot

By any standard, Ball's Bluff was a fiasco. What began as a raid in October 1861 escalated into an unintended battle for Leesburg, Va. The Yankees so badly …

Stonewall Jackson at Harpers Ferry

Jackson, Johnston and conflicting interests
The fate of strategic Harpers Ferry hung on the leadership styles of two Southern commanders


Confederate Battery at Harper's Ferry. Courtesy of the Harper's Ferry National Historic Park.

Ten weeks before earning the sobriquet "Stonewall" …

Lee to the RearA Texas private’s long-forgotten account of Robert E. Lee’s brush with death at the Battle of the Wilderness.
Bloody Field at Champion’s HillAfter three months of frustration, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in May 1863 succeeded in getting his army onto the east bank of the Mississippi River in the rear of the fortress city of Vicksburg. In a lightning campaign Grant’s army defeated Confederate detachments at Port Gibson on May 1, Raymond on May 12, and Jackson on May 14, neutralizing the Mississippi capital as a Confederate base for the relief of Vicksburg. Then he turned toward Vicksburg itself.
Richard Ewell at GettysburgSecond-Guessing Dick Ewell: Why didn’t the Confederate general take Cemetery Hill on July 1, 1863?
Lee's Unwritten MemoirWhy didn’t Robert E. Lee write his memoirs?
At Gettysburg with the Lousiana Tigers

The Louisiana Tigers in the Gettysburg Campaign, June-July, 1863
By Scott L. Mingus Sr.,
Louisiana State University Press, 2009

The legendary Louisiana Tigers, one of the more feared units in the Army of Northern Virginia, get a welcome and comprehensive …

'The Roar and Rattle': McClellan's Missed Opportunities at AntietamThe Battle of Antietam resulted in more pivotal changes, across a broader spectrum of events—military, political, diplomatic, societal—than any other battle of the war. Yet if evaluated in purely military terms, it was not decisive at all.
Murder and Mayhem Ride the Rails - Union Soldiers Rampage in Virginia

Smoke and fire filled the skies south of Petersburg in December 1864 as the Army of the Potomac's V Corps targeted the Weldon Railroad. Dur­ing a raid along this vital supply line linking southeastern Virginia with North Carolina, liquor-fueled Federals …

Six Weeks in the Saddle with Brig. Gen. John BufordUnion Brigadier General John Buford's troopers kept their carbines warm harassing Robert E. Lee's army during the 1863 Gettysburg campaign.
Robert K. Krick, Chronicler of Robert E. Lee's Army

 

Robert Krick worked for 31 years as the chief historian at Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park and is a renowned expert on the Army of Northern Virginia Interview by Kim A. O'Connell

How did a California kid get …

Believe it or not, here's something new on LeeRobert E. Lee and the Fall of the Confederacy, 1863-1865
by Ethan S. Rafuse
Rowman & Littlefield, 2008

Is it really possible there's anything new to say about Robert E. Lee, who probably has had more written about him than …

Did Robert E. Lee Doom Himself at Gettysburg?By blindly relying on poor intelligence and saying far too little to his generals, Lee may have sealed the Rebels’ fate.
Ever Heard a Real Rebel Yell?: August/September 2009

Many Union soldiers wrote about the soul-chilling yells of attacking Confederates. Thanks to the Museum of the Confederacy, you can hear the real thing on a CD featuring the authentic yell as performed by two elderly Confederate veterans. The two …

Fighting Dick and his Fighting Men

On a bleak hillside overlooking the battleground of Sailor's Creek, General Robert E. Lee watched as hundreds of his men fled through the fields and wooded ravines below. "Men without guns, many without hats," one witness recalled, "all mingled with …

Decision at The Battle of Five Forks - 1865


The headstrong Gen. Philip Sheridan (left) had little patience for the careful battle tactics of Gen. Gouverneur Warren (right) and replaced him at Five Forks. But in 1880 Sheridan would be forced to justify his actions before a court of …

Shiloh's False HeroIn exchange for waving a white flag, Benjamin Prentiss was hailed as the savior of the “Hornets’ Nest”
Diehard Rebels: Jason Phillips and Aaron Sheehan-Dean Interview

It's perfectly feasible to imagine that if the South had successfully left the Union, the West would also have split away

Did Confederate soldiers lose the will to fight as the outlook began to appear bleak for the South late …

Ask MHQ - Did Confederate Generals Consider Attacking Washington?Did Confederate generals ever consider a direct attack on Washington during the Civil War? Noted author Steven A. Sears answers that question for a Military History Quarterly reader.
The 9 Lives of General John Brown GordonIndestructible Confederate general John B. Gordon survived multiple wounds and serious illnesses during the Civil War. From First Manassas to Appomattox, he proved nothing could keep a good man down.

Worn Out, Hungry and Broke: Confederate Discontent after GettysburgThe Civil War letters of two North Carolina soldiers reveal discontent in the post-Gettysburg Army of Northern Virginia.
Reimaginining the SouthA Southerner learns the skeleton in her family closet wore a coat of Union blue.
'A Stupid Old Useless Fool'William Nelson Pendleton was far more effective behind a pulpit than he was as Robert E. Lee's chief of artillery in the Army of Northern Virginia.
Sculpting a Scapegoat: Ambrose Burnside at AntietamA fresh examination of Major General Ambrose Burnside's actions at the Battle of Antietam suggests he was made into a scapegoat for others' failings.
America's Civil War: Arming the South With Guns From the NorthConfederate battlefield victories depended in part on supplies of Northern weapons, particularly early in the war. William J. Hardee and Paul J. Semmes were sent North to procure those guns.
At Washington's Gates: Jubal Early's Chance to Take the CapitolIn July 1864, Lt. Gen. Jubal Early led a Confederate army to the gates of Washington. What stopped him from capturing the Northern capital and its president, Abraham Lincoln?
American Indian Sharpshooters at the Battle of the Crater

Lieutenant Freeman S. Bowley was fighting for his life in the man-made hellhole that was the Petersburg Crater when he noticed that the former slaves in his company of the 30th United States Colored Troops were not the only men …

Custer's Last Stand Still Stands UpThe Battle of the Little Bighorn is like a 10,000-piece jigsaw puzzle on the south-central Montana landscape - the stuff of legend and historical gamesmanship.
Burning High Bridge: The South's Last Hope

In the final week of the war in Virginia, small villages, crossroads and railroad depots previously untouched by the fighting took on enormous importance as Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant sought to bring General Robert E. Lee to bay and …

Ulysses S. Grant: The 'Unconditional Surrender Continues

For most general officers, a headline-making victory accompanied by the abject surrender of an entire enemy army, such as Ulysses "Unconditional Surrender" Grant accomplished at Fort Donelson in February 1862, would have been quite enough for one career. But Grant …

Battle of Cold Harbor: The Folly and HorrorThe blame for a broad command failure that led to 7,000 unnecessary Union casualties in a single hour applies to more than just the commander in chief.

By Robert N. Thompson

Battle of Gettysburg: General George Sears Greene at Culp's HillGeneral George Sears Greene led way on Culp's Hill on the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg.
America's Civil War: Defense of Little Round TopUnion Colonel Joshua Chamberlain has long been lauded as the hero of Gettysburg's Little Round Top. But do Chamberlain and the 20th Maine deserve all the credit, or did he have some unheralded help?
Battle of Gettysburg FinaleGrievously wounded in body and spirit, the Army of Northern Virginia limped painfully away from Gettysburg while Union commander George Gordon Meade followed slowly -- too slowly, thought Abraham Lincoln.
America's Civil War: The Fall of RichmondWhile Jefferson Davis and his stunned Cabinet crowded onto a refugee-jammed train, thousands of less exalted Richmond residents wandered the fire-reddened streets of the capital.

By Ken Bivin

Battle of Antietam: Two Great American Armies Engage in CombatThe opposing armies at Antietam were two very different forces commanded by two very different men.

By Ted Alexander

Nathan Bedford ForrestOutside a Kentucky town in December 1861, a Confederate lieutenant colonel makes his debut as a red-faced, saber-swinging terror -- and battlefield genius. His name is Nathan Bedford Forrest.

By William J. Stier

Battle of Ox HillWith Union General John Pope reeling in defeat after the Battle of Second Manassas, Stonewall Jackson confidently set out to block Pope's retreat. It would be easy pickings--so Jackson thought.

By Robert James

Battle of Gettysburg: Fury at Bliss FarmBack and forth, for 24 hours, soldiers at Gettysburg contested possession of a no man's land with an incongruous name--Bliss farm.

By John M. Archer

Battle of Dinwiddie Court HouseUlysses S. Grant sent his trusted cavalry commander Phil Sheridan to flank Robert E. Lee out of Petersburg. The crossroads hamlet of Dinwiddie Court House soon became the focal point for one of the most pivotal cavalry battles of the war.

By Mark J. Crawford

17th Maine Infantry in the Battle of GettysburgThe 17th Maine helped transform a Gettysburg wheatfield into a legend.

By Jeffry D. Wert

James Longstreet: Robert E. Lee's Most Valuable Soldier

The words resonate through Confederate history like an unwelcome truth. As General Robert E. Lee made preparations for an assault on the center of the Union line at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863, his senior subordinate, Lieutenant General James Longstreet, …

George Smalley: Reporting from Battle of AntietamNew York Tribune reporter George Smalley scooped the world with his vivid account of the Battle of Antietam.
Robert E. Lee and His Horse TravellerRarely have horse and rider gone so well together as Traveller and Robert E. Lee.
Hoodwinked During America's Civl War: Union Military DeceptionHoodwinked During the Civl War: Union Military Deception

Paid Advertisement
Paid Advertisement
History Net Daily Activities
History net Spacer
History net Spacer
Historynet Spacer
HISTORYNET READERS' POLL

Which of these wars resulted in the most surprising underdog upset?

View Results | See previous polls

Loading ... Loading ...
History net Spacer
STAY CONNECTED WITH US
RSS Feed Daily Email Update
History net Spacer
Paid Advertisement History net Spacer
Paid Advertisement

Paid Advertisement
What is HistoryNet?

The HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Weider History, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines.

If you are interested in a specific history subject, try searching our archives, you are bound to find something to pique your interest.

From Our Magazines
Weider History

Weider History Network:  HistoryNet | Armchair General | Achtung Panzer! | StreamHistory.com
Today in History | Ask Mr. History | Picture of the Day | Daily History Quiz | Contact Us

Copyright © 2014 Weider History. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited.
Advertise With Us | Subscription Help | Privacy Policy