Emperor Maximilian and Vladislav of Bohemia forge an alliance between the Hapsburg and Jagiello dynasties in Vienna.
Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
Thomas Jefferson becomes the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
A British army under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French at Salamanca, Spain.
The first volume of The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, is published.
American gangster John Dillinger is shot dead by FBI officers outside a Chicago cinema.
Palermo, Sicily surrenders to General George S. Patton's Seventh Army.