Pope Julius II excommunicates the Italian state of Venice.
The first Spanish settlement in Philippines is established in Cebu City.
King George II wins the Battle of Culloden.
British Parliament passes the Tea Act.
American forces capture York (present-day Toronto), the seat of government in Ontario.
The Sultan of Turkey, Abdul Hamid II, is overthrown.
German bombers of the Condor Legion devastate Guernica, Spain.
The Greek army capitulates to the invading Germans.
South Africa passes the Group Areas Act, formally segregating races.
The United Kingdom grants Sierra Leone independence.
Saigon is encircled by North Vietnamese troops.
The Afghanistan revolution begins.
Protesting students take over Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China.