Scottish patriot William Wallace is hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec on his third voyage to North America.
King George III of England refuses the American colonies' offer of peace and declares them in open rebellion.
After 11 years of war, Spain grants Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy.
Union batteries cease their first bombardment of Fort Sumter, leaving it a mass of rubble but still unconquered by the Northern besiegers.
Booker T. Washington forms the National Negro Business League in Boston, Massachusetts.
Fanny Farmer, among the first to emphasize the relationship of diet to health, opens her School of Cookery in Boston.
The Emperor of Japan declares war on Germany.
American film star Rudolph Valentino dies, causing world-wide hysteria and a number of suicides.
Immigrant laborers Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are executed for a robbery they did not commit. Fifty years later, in 1977, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis establishes a memorial in the victims' honor.
German forces begin an assault on the major Soviet industrial city of Stalingrad.
Up to 77,000 members of the U.S. Army Organized Reserve Corps are called involuntarily to active duty to fight the Korean War.
Arab League security pact linking seven Arab States in a military, political and economic alliance goes into effect.
The Second Taiwan Strait crisis begins: People's Liberation Army bombards island of Quemoy during Chinese Civil War.
Bryan Allen, piloting the Gossamer Condor, wins the Kremer prize for the first human-powered aircraft to fly a one-mile, figure-eight course.
Osama bin Laden issues message entitled "A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places."
Natascha Kampusch, abducted at the age of 10 in Austria, escapes from her captor, Wolfgang Priklopil, after 8 years of captivity.
A 5.8 earthquake centered at Mineral, Virginia, damages the Washington Monument, forcing the landmark to close for repairs.