Today in History: July 8

Today in History: July 8

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1099

Christian Crusaders march around Jerusalem as Muslims watch from within the city.

1608

The first French settlement at Quebec is established by Samuel de Champlain.

1663

The British crown grants Rhode Island a charter guaranteeing freedom of worship.

1686

The Austrians take Budapest from the Turks and annex Hungary.

1709

Peter the Great defeats Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine, effectively ending the Swedish empire.

1755

Britain breaks off diplomatic relations with France as their disputes in the New World intensify.

1758

The British attack on Fort Carillon at Ticonderoga, New York, is foiled by the French.

1794

French troops capture Brussels, Belgium.

1815

With Napoleon defeated, Louis XVIII returns to Paris.

1822

29-year old poet Percy Bysshe Shelley drowns while sailing in Italy.

1859

The truce at Villafranca Austria cedes Lombardy to France.

1863

Demoralized by the surrender of Vicksburg, Confederates in Port Hudson, Louisiana, surrender to Union forces.

1864

Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston retreats into Atlanta to prevent being flanked by Union General William T. Sherman.

1865

Four of the conspirators in President Abraham Lincoln's assassination are hanged in Washington, D.C.

1879

The first ship to use electric lights departs from San Francisco, California.

1905

The mutinous crew of the battleship Potemkin surrenders to Romanian authorities.

1918

Ernest Hemingway is wounded in Italy while working as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross.

1941

20 B-17s fly in their first mission with the Royal Air Force over Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

1943

American B-24 bombers strike Japanese-held Wake Island for the first time.

1960

The Soviet Union charges American pilot Francis Gary Powers with espionage.