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Officers of the 703rd Bomb Squadron, including Jimmy Stewart (highlighted in back row), stand before a Consolidated B-24 Liberator.

Mr. Stewart Goes to War

By Richard L. Hayes
6/20/2017 • Mag: Aviation History Personalities

Jimmy Stewart looked back on his service as a WWII bomber pilot as one of the greatest experiences of his life.

His paternal grandfather had fought against the South, and his father against Spain and Germany, so it was reasonable to assume James Mai­tland Stewart would serve in his turn. By the late 1930s, his career was just taking off with such hits as You Can’t Take It With You, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington and Destry Rides Again. But with war looking inevitable, Stewart set his sights on a new role, this time in the U.S. Army Air Corps. He even bought his own plane, a Stinson 105, eventually gradu­ating to multi-engine aircraft and earning a commercial pilot’s license, all on his own.

Stewart’s draft number was 310, but though he was 6-foot-3, he weighed only 138 pounds. When the Army turned him down as too skinny, he started eating spaghetti twice a day, supplemented with steaks and milkshakes. At a second physical in March 1941, he still hadn’t gained quite enough weight to be eligible, but he talked the Army doctors into adding an ounce or two so he could qualify, then ran outside shouting to fellow actor Burgess Meredith: “I’m in! I’m in!”

The night before he left for training, MGM threw a farewell party for its departing star. Most of the actresses present that evening kissed him goodbye, and Rosalind Russell wiped off the lipstick with her handkerchief and wrote each girl’s name on it. Stewart kept the hanky for good luck.

On March 22, 1941, Stewart was inducted into the Army as a private, serial number 0433210. He was sent to Fort MacArthur, Calif., where cameramen hounded him, following him even when he was issued his underwear. Witnessing all that unwanted attention, one old soldier remarked sympathetically, “You poor bastard.” Stewart’s salary dropped from $12,000 per week to $21 per month, but he dutifully sent a 10 percent cut ($2.10) to his agent each month.

Stewart underwent basic training at Moffett Field, Calif., where a crowd of girls waited just outside the gates, eager to get a glimpse of their idol. It got so bad that his commanding officer put up a sign requesting civilians to leave Stewart alone until after he finished his training. He was commissioned on January 18, 1942. Appearing in uniform at the Academy Awards the following month, he presented the Best Actor Oscar to Gary Cooper for Sergeant York (Stewart had won the previous year for The Philadelphia Story).

Corporal James M. Stewart was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant at Moffett Field, Calif., on January 19, 1942. (National Archives)
Corporal James M. Stewart was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant at Moffett Field, Calif., on January 19, 1942. (National Archives)

Though Stewart subsequently narrated two training films, Fellow Americans and Winning Your Wings, and lent his star power to a few radio shows and war bond tours, in general he resisted efforts to capitalize on his career. Instead he requested more flying time—and he soon got his wish. First he became a flight instructor in Curtiss AT-9s at Mather Field, Calif. From there he went to Kirkland Field, N.M., for six months of bombardier school. In December 1942, he requested transfer to the four-engine school at Hobbs, N.M. Finally, he reported to the headquarters of the Second Air Force in Salt Lake City.

Still looking for more than desk duty, Stewart was sent to Gowen Field in Boise, Idaho, and the 29th Bombardment Group, where he became a flight instructor on B-17 Flying Fortresses. During that time, his roommate was killed in an accident, and three of his trainees were lost in another mishap. One student remembered, “Stewart was known for being one of the few officers who never left the airfield tower until every single plane had returned.”

On one night flight with a student pilot, Stewart left the copilot’s seat to check on equipment in the nose and let a new navigator sit in the right-hand seat. Suddenly the no. 1 engine exploded, sending pieces of shrap­nel into the cockpit and knocking the pilot senseless. With the engine on fire and wind tearing through the windows, the navigator froze at the controls. Stewart had to pull him out of the seat so he could take over, hit the fire extinguishers and land on three engines.

In March 1943, Stewart briefly became the operations officer of the 703rd Squadron, 445th Bomb Group, in Sioux City, Iowa. He was named the squadron’s commander three weeks later.

On November 11, Captain Stewart led two-dozen B-24H Liberators to England by way of Florida, Brazil, Senegal and Morocco. They became part of the 2nd Air Division, Eighth Air Force, stationed at Tibenham. Within hours of their arrival, Germany’s “Lord Haw-Haw” welcomed the squadron on the radio. Following a few shakedown flights, Stewart’s first mission was to bomb the naval yards at Kiel, flying a B-24 that had been named Nine Yanks and a Jerk by a previous crew.

The actor-turned-commander was a successful, popular officer. His roommate at the time recalled: “I always got the feeling that he would never ask you to do something he wouldn’t do himself. Everything that man did seemed to go like clockwork.”

Stewart was lucky, too. During his third mission, on Christmas Eve, his group was or­dered to hit V-1 launching sites at Bonnaires, France. Coming in low at 12,000 feet, 35 B­24s plastered the target near the coast, then returned to base without even being targeted by flak or fighters. If two of the Liberators hadn’t collided on takeoff, it would have been a perfect mission.

He also took care of his men. When Stewart found out the finance officer wouldn’t have enough money for his crew for a few days, he threatened to have him transferred to the infantry unless they were paid immediately. And when one of his crews hid a keg of stolen beer in their barracks, he ambled in, threw off the covers and drew himself a glass, then announced that there was a keg of beer around there somewhere, it was a very serious matter and it should be taken care of immediately…if they ever found it. He then finished his beer and walked out.

In January 1944, Stewart was promoted to major, a promotion he had refused until, as he said, “my junior officers get promoted from lieutenants.” By that time he commanded all four squadrons of the 445th Bomb Group.

On January 7, after bombing Ludwigshafen, Stewart noticed that the lead group, the 389th, was 30 degrees off course and slowly diverging from the protective fire of the rest of the formation on the way back to base. Knowing the bombers’ new direction would take them directly over Luftwaffe airfields in northern France, he radioed the lead plane and explained they were off course. The leader replied curtly that no, they weren’t, “and stay off the radio.”

Stewart faced a difficult decision. He could stay with the rest of the formation on the correct course, or he could follow his errant lead squadron. A two-squadron formation would be much more vulnerable, but a single squadron didn’t have much of a chance at all. He chose to stay with the 389th and add the defensive power of his own guns to theirs.

Sure enough, more than 60 Luftwaffe planes swarmed up from bases below. The commander of the 389th Bomb Group paid dearly for his mistake: his plane went down in flames. Seven other 389th B-24s were also shot down, but Stewart was lucky again; all the bombers in his squadron made it home. As a fellow officer would later point out, “There were a lot of lives saved that day because he knew what he was doing and when he had to do it.”

"Nine Yanks and a Jerk's" crew chief peers through the hole left by an unexploded anti-aircraft shell that narrowly missed Stewart. (Mike Simpson/445BG.org.)
"Nine Yanks and a Jerk's" crew chief peers through the hole left by an unexploded anti-aircraft shell that narrowly missed Stewart. (Mike Simpson/445BG.org.)

Stewart experienced what was probably his closest brush with death on February 25, during a nine-hour mission to Furth, unescorted most of the way. For the first time, waist gunners in the lead planes hurled bundles of chaff overboard to try to fool the German radar-directed anti-aircraft guns. It only succeeded in attracting them. Whenever they threw a bundle out, the flak became more accurate. The Germans hit the bombers with everything they had on that mission, including anti-aircraft rockets.

The 445th hit its target, but on the way home a flak shell burst in the belly of Stewart’s Liberator, directly behind the nose wheel. Somehow the B-24 kept on flying—all the way back to base. But when the shrapnel-perforated bomber landed, its fuselage buckled. Just in front of the wing at the flight deck, the airplane cracked open like an egg. The crew climbed out, unhurt, and looked over their crippled aircraft. In his characteristically understated fashion, Stewart mused to a bystander, “Sergeant, somebody sure could get hurt in one of those damned things.”

Aside from an occasional trip to actor David Niven’s house, a meeting with a dignitary or a quick sailing expedition, Stewart concentrated on the job at hand. “I prayed I wouldn’t make a mistake,” he recalled. “When you go up you’re responsible.” Once a flight engineer went AWOL just before a mission, forcing his plane to fly without him. It didn’t return. Stewart was required to discipline the man, but he wondered, “How do you punish someone for not getting killed?”

Lt. Gen. Martial Valin, chief of staff, French air force, awards the Croix de Guerre with Palm to Colonel Stewart for exceptional services in the liberation of France. (U.S. Air Force)
Lt. Gen. Martial Valin, chief of staff, French air force, awards the Croix de Guerre with Palm to Colonel Stewart for exceptional services in the liberation of France. (U.S. Air Force)

The war eventually got to everyone, even calm, mild-mannered Jimmy Stewart. “Fear is an insidious thing,” he said. “It can warp judgment, freeze reflexes, breed mistakes. And worse, it’s contagious. I felt my own fear and knew that if it wasn’t checked, it could infect my crew members.”

In early 1945, after 20 B-24 missions, Stewart was transferred to Old Buckenham, becoming the operations officer of the 453rd Bomb Group. When he arrived in a B-24, he reportedly buzzed the tower until the controllers fled.

The 453rd’s lead Liberator, Paper Doll, had no permanently assigned copilot. That position was usually filled by one of the senior staff officers, often Stewart himself. Waist gunner Dan Brody recalled, “He exhibited himself as an excellent pilot, even under adverse conditions.”

Like the men of the 445th, his new group found Stewart unfailingly friendly. On the way back up the runway, for example, when he saw a pedestrian he’d stop his jeep and drawl, “Hey fella, lak a ride?”

The senior staff normally rotated, flying every fifth mission, but Stewart went out of his way to lead 11 more sorties. While he liked the B-17, he still had a soft spot for the Lib­erator. He later said of the B-24, “In combat, the airplane was no match for the B-17 as a formation bomb­er above 25,000 feet, but from 12,000 to 18,000 it did a fine job.”

Most of the men were amused to find they were being briefed by the famous actor. Extras often dropped in—among them radioman Walter Matthau, who thought he “was marvelous to watch.”

In April 1945 Stewart was promoted to colonel and chief of staff of the 2nd Air Division. It was during this time, while he was sweating out the return of his planes from each mission, that his hair began to turn gray.

Stewart finally returned Stateside in September 1945 aboard the liner Queen Elizabeth. Pre­dictably, he waited at the gangplank until all of his men had disembarked before coming ashore. Asked about his service in Europe, he commented, “I had some close calls—the whole war was a close call.” When he returned to Hollywood, he refused a lavish welcome home party, saying, “Thousands of men in uniform did far more meaningful things.”

A standard clause in Stewart’s contracts thereafter stipulated that no mention of his war record could be used in conjunction with any of his films. He remained in the Air Force Reserve, and in 1955, persuaded by friends, made the film Strategic Air Command. Ironically, though he had thousands of hours in the air, because of studio insurance regulations Stewart wasn’t allowed to actually fly in any of his movies.

In 1966 Stewart made one more combat flight—this time as an observer in a B-52 Stratofortress over North Vietnam. His stepson Ronald McLean was killed in Vietnam one year later.

During an interview late in life, the actor explained that World War II was “something I think about almost every day—one of the greatest experiences of my life.” Asked whether it had been greater than being in films, he said simply, “Much greater.” James Stewart—recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal with Oak Cluster, the Croix de Guerre with Palm and seven Battle Stars—died on July 2, 1997, at age 89.

Freelancer Richard Hayes writes from Chicago. For further reading, try Jimmy Stewart: Bomber Pilot, by Starr Smith.

Mr. Stewart Goes to War originally appeared in the March 2011 issue of Aviation History Magazine. Subscribe today!

18 Responses to Mr. Stewart Goes to War

  1. Jim says:

    I really enjoyed this article. Growing up I watched many of his movies and still do. He is a class act and a hero in the best sense of the word-an ordinary man doing extraordinary things. I wish we had more like him today.

  2. Steve says:

    Jimmy Stewart…even though he may not have thought so was a TRUE American Hero

  3. Harry, Captain, Army Air Corp says:

    Jimmy Stewart was at Moffett field where I was the flight surgeon. Like all the other cadets, he had a physical, without his clothes on of course. While the exam area was screened off, when Jimmy came through all the secretaries peeked! I did the paper work at night with my wife, also a physician. She looked up the height-weight tables and found he was too light for his height. We called the sergeant to see what kind of a soldier he was. The answer was that he took orders, and cleaned the latrines like any other soldier and didn’t act like a celebrity. So when my wife filled out the papers she gave him an extra 15 pounds, allowing him to continue on to his career as a pilot. Otherwise he’d have been in the infantry as a private! Not really. Many other film big shots wound up making films for the government, even though they wore khaki to work and got paid just a pittance.

  4. lyndon says:

    Why did he enlist before U.S.A. entered the war?

    Write a story on all the “stars” who used 4-F to avoid military duty?

  5. david says:

    The info which you provided was really useful man.. thanks for sharing with us..
    Keep up the good work..

  6. Kenneth C Stewart says:

    In 1948 at age 12 I spent a summer on the Strickland farm about four miles outside of Indiana, PA. I was allowed to visit the town several times and saw the Stewart hardware store. Jimmy was always one of my favorite actors. My father was born in Scotland and I am proud to be a member of the Stewart clan and proud of Jimmy’s service during WW2. He was a talented and honorable man. I am sure he too was proud to be a member of the clan.

  7. Miriam Strauss says:

    My husband, Raphael (Ray) Strauss, a navigator in training at Gowan Air Force field in Boise, ID was rescued by actor Jimmy Stewart during WWII. The B17 he was in the night of the crash in the mountains near Boise. The pilot made a wrong turn in the dark, according to my husband. The pilot kicked out the plexiglass window in the cockpit, and they both bent the steel so they could jump ou before the plane burned and blew up. The jump was from 20 to 30 feet. The pilot blacked out, and Ray dragged him away from the plane. One of Ray’s arms was almost severed at the shoulder. He told me the pilot later lost that leg.

    So, with only one boot, Ray set out to find help. Found a hut that hunters probably used, but no one was in it. Kept going until dawn. Suddenly heard singing echoing through the mountains. Thought he was hallucinating. When he looked down at a flat mountain close to the ground, he saw the singers. Later learned it was Easter Sunday, and this was a yearly ceremony.

    Once it was light enough to search for survivors, the rescue squad, headed by Jimmy Stewart first came upon my husband. Mr. Stewart took off his leather jacket, put it around Ray, and said to remain there while they continued to the crash site to see if there were any more survivors. The men with stretchers found him, and took him to the closest hospital. He blacked out on the way down, and woke up two days later. They wanted to amputate his arm, but he insisted they try to save it. Which they did, but had limited use of it. Jimmy Stewart came to visit him several times in the hospital.

    Could anybody tell me what really happened when the B17 crashed? Were there other men in the back of the plane? Why were they up in the plane that Saturday night? I never was able to get the story straight from my husband. He died 9 years ago, after bouts with heat surgery, brain tumor surgery, rheumatoid arthritis, leukemia and dementia. fI am now 92, still active, conduct monthly Sing-Alongs for Skokie where I live. Been playing the piano by ear since 3 years old. The newspapers here in the suburbs and Chicago wrote a big
    article about me and my class in their November 2014 newspapers.

  8. Buddy1492 says:

    Thank you for this. I was trying to find out which Bomber Group my father served with, and where they were stationed. I remember him saying that it was a B-17 Group, and that Jimmy Stewart was an officer in charge. So it clearly was the 453rd in Buckinghamshire. Something like 30 years ago my parents went to a Bomber Group reunion over in England, and sure enough, Jimmy Stewart and his wife were there. I was also pleased to see the mention of Walter Matthau. He and my father went over to England on the same troop ship, and Matthau played poker all the way across the Atlantic.

    • okpkpkp says:

      For your own accuracy, I urge you to read Alpine Star’s comment above yours. Apparently, the article was incorrect and the 453rd was not in Buckinghamshire but instead was across the country in Old Buckenham, England. The article stands corrected now, so you may want to reread the whole thing. Your father was a hero, too. Best wishes, Kevin

      • Buddy1492 says:

        Thanks for pointing me to the corrections. Things are still a bit confusing, but I must have misunderstood my father because I thought there were B17s at Old Buckenham where he was stationed while Stewart was there. He was involved with making maps for the flight crews, but I’m sure he knew the planes they were dealing with.

      • Jennifer Newcomer says:

        How many months Mr. Jimmy M. Stewart served and Stayed in Vietname War?
        When Mr. Jimmy Stewart returned home in U.S.?
        Thanks.
        Jennifer

      • Guy Aceto says:

        Jennifer, you may want to take a look at another story about Jimmy Stewart’s service. http://www.historynet.com/mr-stewart-goes-to-vietnam.htm

      • Alpine Star says:

        To okpkpkp – Thanks for your referral.
        To Buddy1492 – I’ve recently helped out a pair of 50+ year old guys who were absolutely ADAMANT that their Gt.Uncle served on “Boeing B.17’s in England” = One of the guys sent me a photograph of the Gt.Uncle’s graveside & the official engraved wording, which, IF BELIEVED, puts their Gt.Uncle as having served in a B.25 Mitchell outfit in the Mediterranian Theatre of Operations (M.T.O). >> Because the ENGRAVER GOT IT WRONG, = ALL FUTURE VISITORS WILL BE MIS-LEAD !!!!!!!
        Turns out that the Gt.Uncle whom the brothers were “sure” served on B.17’s & the graveside engraver has as B.25 Mitchell crew, were ALL WRONG.
        I suggested to the Brothers (with my knowledge of the 8th AF), that the engraver has put the 466th B.Sq erronously, instead of the CORRECT appelation of the 466th Bomb Group
        (that’s more like it)
        After the brothers “dug deep” & found more material, I was proven correct…
        That their Gt.Uncle actually had served as a crew-cheif on Consolidated B.24 Liberators (as I had told & suggested to them in the very first place), with the 466th Bomb Group at Attlebridge, in Norfolk, with the 2nd-Air-Division, of the USAAF’s 8th Air-Force.

        Buddy, I’ll say it again – If you do YOUR OWN research, you’ll find out that the 453rd Bomb Group WERE based at Old Buckenham, within the 2nd-Air-Division, of the 8th Air-Force. http://www.oldbuck.com/en/museum/
        The 2nd Air-Divison flew B.24 Liberators, not B.17’s (for logistical reasons)

        However, the 1st & 3rd Air-Divisions (that’s the later 1944 Triangle & Square I.D markings, to keep it simple for you)…… did fly Boeing B.17’s.

        “If” you’ve got your facts right and he WAS with the 453rd at Old Buckenham, then he was involved in B.24 Liberators and NOT your “mythical” Boeing B.17’s., ok.

      • Buddy1492 says:

        Disqus emailed me a response from Alpine Star today (13Nov17). For some reason it doesn’t show up here, so I’ll cut and paste the relevant part:

        Buddy, I’ll say it again – If you do YOUR OWN research, you’ll find out that the 453rd Bomb Group WERE based at Old Buckenham, within the 2nd-Air-Division, of the 8th Air-Force. http://www.oldbuck.com/en/m
        The 2nd Air-Divison flew B.24 Liberators, not B.17’s (for logistical reasons)
        However, the 1st & 3rd Air-Divisions (that’s the later 1944 Triangle & Square I.D markings, to keep it simple for you)…… did fly Boeing B.17’s.
        “If” you’ve got your facts right and he WAS with the 453rd at Old Buckenham, then he was involved in B.24 Liberators and NOT your “mythical” Boeing B.17’s., ok.
        6:31 p.m., Monday Nov. 13 | Other comments by Alpine Star

        My reply:

        Calm down, Dude! I’m afraid you misunderstand me. I’m not claiming there were B17s at Old Buckenham. As I said, I misunderstood what my father told me. He was at Old Buck with Jimmy Stewart, but I somehow got mixed up about the planes that were there. I appreciate you sharing your knowledge, and thanks again to okpkpkp for pointing me to your informative post.

  9. Alpine Star says:

    Problem is, THIS article appears to have TWO almighty glaring errors which, if readers believe & take this as gospel, distorts history & is wrong. ~ Therefore, it makes me question “just how many other stated ‘facts’, are inaccurate within this one article ?” ~ First off, I’m assuming that Mr Richard L Hayes (who wrote this article), is an American who has either never visited England, or, has a VERY poor grasp of the geographical disposition of his own wartime 8th Air Force during the crucial 1944-1945 timeframe. ~ You’ve wrongly put “Buckinghamshire”, when you clearly mean “OLD BUCKENHAM” (http://www.oldbuck.com/en/453rd-bg/) = Please note, this (latter), is in fact a village ‘place name’ in the county of Norfolk (within East Anglia) & is both hundreds of miles away & nowhere near “Buckinghamshire” (sic), which is totally the wrong side of London when dealing with Nazi-held territory. ~ Secondly, since when ever did James Stewart, or any other 453rd Bomb Group crew-member fly in (quote) “The 453rd’s lead Fortress, Paper Doll,” ??? ~ Bit difficult, considering the 453rd Bomb Group DID NOT fly Boeing B.17’s, nor were they ever equipped with them since settling in “Buckinghamshire”, sorry, “Old Buckenham”, England. ~ If you had ANY first idea or clue about the USAAF’s ‘8th Air Force’, you would not only put their base on the correct side of the land-mass of which they were operating from (!), but you would also be aware that the 453rd B.G. (based in Norfolk), were part of the 2nd Air-Division & therefore operated Consolidated B.24 Liberators exclusively, so, how do YOU arrive at Boeing B.17’s ???? ~ Those two HUGE details merely show piss-poor journalism, or lame research, at best. ~ Perpetuating such diverse “facts” in what (initially), appeared to be an authorative & detailed account, is what throws history from “Send reinforcements, we’re going to advance” ~ to ~ “Send three & fourpence, we’re going to a dance” !!!!!!!!!! ~ Remember, these are KEY FACTS you are distorting, so how about a bit more care (& proof checking) next time around…….

    (as well as rectify the major blunders in this one !!!!!!!!)

    • Jennifer Newcomer says:

      Hi Alpine Star,
      How many months Mr. Jimmy M. Stewart served and Stayed in Vietname War?
      When Mr. Jimmy Stewart returned back home in U.S.?
      Thanks.
      Jennifer

      • Alpine Star says:

        I can tell you nothing about that, other than “unofficially”, he is reputed to’ve flown in a Boeing B.52-D variant during the Vietnam crisis/war.
        – I know he flew Boeing B.47’s with S.A.C & the previous B.36 too, but my sphere of interest is much more related to WW.II & the 8th & 9th Air-Forces.
        Sorry I cannot be of any more help….

  10. Carl von Wodtke says:

    Thank you for the corrections. We strive for accuracy, but are always mindful that our readers keep us honest. For more on the 453rd Bomb Group, see their website: http://www.453rd.com/

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