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St. Botolph's and a Tale of Two Bostons

Originally published by British Heritage magazine. Published Online: March 18, 2008 
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The lantern of St. Botolph's Church, Boston, has been shining miles across the fens of southern Lincolnshire for a long time. When work began on the church in 1309, the southern Lincolnshire port town on the Wash was among the busiest and wealthiest commercial towns in England. Every year, the finest wool in Europe from the backs of 3 million sheep passed through the port to the Continent. The town's burghers and guilds were determined to design a church fitting their provincial importance.

The result is the largest building in England that always has been a parish church. By the time the church was largely complete in 1390, however, Boston's fortunes had changed. Larger ships and ports and a silting river were unhappily rendering the proud town a backwater. Nonetheless, Boston would have its statement to the world. In 1425 work began on the church tower that would take another 90 years to complete. The highest tower of any parish church in England at 272 feet, the squat appearance of its 15th-century perpendicular architecture is the likely source of the building's nickname, The Stump.

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Though the church itself is getting ready to celebrate its 700th anniversary in 2009, it was back in the 7th century that St. Bo­tolph brought the gospel to these parts. The town, as well as the church, takes its name from the Saxon missionary monk who built a monastery nearby. The place that was first called Botolph's Stone became shortened over the centuries to Boston. Today, Boston is a bustling market town of 36,000. Though there is still some exporting industry in town, it serves primarily as a commercial hub for miles of market gardens spreading across the rich, alluvial soil of the fens in all directions.

From the middle of the 16th century, when Henry VIII first began the process that became the English Reformation, Boston gradually became a Puritan town. Protestants exiled to the Continent under the reign of Bloody Mary Tudor returned when her sister Elizabeth became queen, intent upon "purifying" the Church of England of its papist doctrine and worship. Among these returning exiles was Boston-born John Fox, whose Book of Martyrs became the most widely read book in England after the Bible.

In 1612 the town councilors called the radical young Cambridge cleric John Cotton to be the vicar of St. Botolph's. Charismatic and knowledgeable, the Emmanual College-educated Cotton became over the next 15 years perhaps the preeminent Puritan theologian in the country. Cotton drew crowds from town and far beyond, who stood in St. Botolph's nave throughout his legendary three-hour sermons. The pulpit raised in the church for John Cotton in 1612 is still in use today. When Archbishop Laud chastised Cotton for serving the sacrament to folk standing instead of kneeling, Cotton replied there was no room for people to kneel.

Not merely did people travel many miles to hear Cotton, but a number of significant gentry families relocated to Boston specifically to be part of his congregation. Unofficial notoriety, however, brought with it official hostility in the early turbulent years of the Stuart monarchy. Church leaders with the backing of the king tried unsuccessfully to quell the dissent of Puritans and Separatists through­out the kingdom.

As the high-profile position of Boston's Puritans brought the community into some peril, its leaders took an interest in the fledgling Massachusetts Bay Company, being promoted by the family of the Earl of Lincoln. In 1629 the church became the focus of plans to settle a colony in the New World. Leading Boston laymen Thomas Dudley, Simon Bradstreet and William Coddington became active in the plans. With financial support of the Earl of Lincoln and wealthy families of St. Botolph's parish, in the spring of 1630 a flotilla of seven ships was ready to take the first wave of 1,000 emi­grants to a new colony in the new world.

Members of St. Botolph's church were prominent among those who set sail for Massachusetts Bay in April 1630, under their chosen leader John Winthrop on the Arbella, named for the daughter of Earl of Lincoln, who was aboard with her husband. Winthrop's address to the colonists on Arbella has become famous: "We shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us." Their pastor, John Cotton, preached a farewell sermon just a few days before the small convoy sailed from Yarmouth.

On September 7, 1630, the new settlement in Massachusetts was formally named Boston and designated the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Life along the Charles River in cold New England was hard. The early mortality rate was high and relationships with the indigenous Indians often treacherous. Nonetheless, in the next few years a steady stream of settlers made their way from Lincolnshire to Massachusetts.

In 1633 aboard the Griffin, John Cotton sailed to join his congregation already building the "City upon a Hill" in the new colony. Some 10 percent of Boston's people took part in the emigration to Massachusetts Bay, including Richard Bellingham, the town's MP.

In the new Boston, John Cotton was given the title "Teacher" in what is now the old First Church in Boston's Back Bay. During the remaining 19 years of his life, Cotton was the "senior statesman" of the church as it quickly spread with the Massachusetts colony along the shores of northern New England. He served as an arbiter of theologi­cal controversy and largely defined the characteristics of what became New England Congregationalism.

Other men from Boston and St. Botolph's Church went on to play leading roles in early colonial Massachusetts as well. Their names are familiar to New Englanders still, in towns, institutions and features of geography bearing their names: Thomas Leverett, Richard Bellingham, Thomas Dudley, Simon Bradstreet and others known together in the new colony as the "Boston Men." In fact, one or another of the four served as governor or deputy governor of the colony during all but four of its first 56 years. They are memorialized in a stained-glass window in St. Botolph's.

No, the new Boston wasn't the first American colony. Both Jamestown and Plymouth Bay are older by a few years. It is fair to say, however, that Boston became the center of the first truly successful community and growing English colony in the New World, and that it did so largely with political and religious leaders from Boston, Lincolnshire. In fact, like Bartholomew Gosnold, John Cotton is an under-recognized figure in history. It was he who lit the flame that motivated the colony of Massachusetts Bay and, once there, more than any other single individual defined the society that became New England.

Over the years, the old and new Bostons have kept in touch. St. Botolph's Church was restored in the mid-1800s and again between 1929-33, both times with significant help from the people of Boston, Mass. As it happens, the town offers unique hospitality for Americans as a result.

At Fydell House, a community center once the townhouse of a wealthy mercer and importer, the owner's study on the ground floor front is designated the American Room. It is a comfortably and deliberately furnished sitting room, lined with pictures of Boston's early well-known emigrants, devoted for the use of American visitors for rest, relaxation and writing letters home. In thanks for the aid the new Boston provided for the restoration of St. Botolph's, the American Room was dedicated by Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy in 1938.

I n 1999 the Partnership of the Historic Bostons was formed to reestablish the relationship between Boston, Mass., and its mother town in England, with committees on both sides of the Atlantic working to keep the connections alive. Every year in Boston, Mass., Boston Charter Day celebrates the anniversary of Boston's naming and creation as a political entity on September 7, 1630. Events are coordinated by the Partnership (www.historicbostons.com).

Among the projects literally on the drawing board, according to English Partnerships chair Judy Cammack, is "The Puritan Path," a series of memorials along the walk from the marketplace to St. Botolph's telling the story of John Cotton, the early Puritan leaders of Boston and the founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

It is amazing that such magnificent churches as the Boston Stump maintain their fabric and their purpose for 700 years. The maintenance on such edifices is constant. St. Botolph's has two full-time stonemasons on its staff. Once again, the church is being given its periodic facelift, and the parish and town have launched the Boston Stump Restoration and Development Appeal, seeking to raise ? 3 million for the conservation of the building. Once again, donors from Boston and across America will be helping to maintain this dramatic and living symbol of their heritage and English roots.

Old Boston, meanwhile, loves to welcome American visitors, whether they are from new Boston or elsewhere. The town is gearing up for a yearlong series of events celebrating St. Botolph's 700th anniversary in 2009 and will be delighted to have visitors come to Boston to join the party.


13 Responses to “St. Botolph's and a Tale of Two Bostons”


  1. 1
    Ken Garner says:

    Not mentioned about Boston Stump. It was based on the calendar. 365 steps up the tower (days of the year. 12 stained glass windows, for months of the year. 4 large main doors for the seasons and 7 columns on the chancel roof. Also the main tower leans! An apple dropped
    and many children(including me did it) fromthe top of the tower, landed four feet from the base.

  2. 2
    Paul E. Truesdell, Jr. says:

    My ancestor, Sir John Truesdale, was the first vicar of St. Botolph's and donated 5 pounds towards the tower construction.

  3. 3
    Toni Truesdale says:

    I'm researching for the John Truesdale branch of the family in the US. We're planning a family reunion this year. Love to learn more about the ancestry.

    • 3.1
      Erin Truesdale says:

      Hello everyone! I'm a descendant of Sir John Truesdale. I've been doing a lot of ancestor research lately and I'd love to connect with out ancestors. I live in Minnesota, USA. I was actually in England studying back in 2005, and at the time I thought my ancestors were from York, so I visited York. Next time I go out there going to Boston is a must, since that is where the vast majority of the Truesdale (Truesdells) hale from. Cheers, Erin

  4. 4
    Thomas James Truesdale says:

    I just started looking at our family history. From what I can find we link back to John Truesdale 1720-1791 County Down, Ireland. Is this the same John Truesdale branch of the family you come from? John had a son John 1745-1819. This second generation John moved to the US and died in Ohio.

    Thomas James Truesdale

  5. 5
    val truesdell magnuson says:

    Sir John of Boston is my ancestor too. I have been to Boston England and climbed the tower steps- I also signed Princess Diana's book of remembrance there. It was on my bucket list to go to Boston, England and so glad I did!

  6. 6
    Dave Stewart says:

    HI Thomas:

    Have you heard of YDNA testing? Three Truesdale have posted their results on Ysearch. They results match closely. We are trying to determine if the various Truesdale lines in the US trace back to Sir John and so encourage any Truesdales (male line) interested in the
    geneology to participate by getting tested and posting on Ysearch.

  7. 7
    Keith Roland Dawson says:

    The bells of the Stump are known for some reason the" Brides of Enderby". this may have something to do with the poetry of Jean Inglow the Lincolnshire Poetess. I maintain that the Tea Party was an organised event by the Protestant descendants on both sides of the Atlantic, of the originators of the Massachusetts Bay Company to make America a free state and to spread the protestant word around the world. And to get British and at the time this term included American, whalers into the Indian And Pacific Oceans. Oceans which were forbidden to any British ship that was not of the Royal Navy or the East India Company; The Elizabethan charter forming this company forbade any other British shipping from going East of Cape Of Good Hope which near enough is Cape Town. The whalers led by my ancestors Samuel Enderby II & III said that the charter did not say anything about going west of Cape Horn, which of course leads to the same places as going east of Cape Town. The Charter did not forbid going West of Cape Horn, this led the British Government to give three bonuses to the first to third ships that sailed into the pacific by going west of Cape Horn and returning to London with oil. the bonuses were 800,700,&600 pounds. the first was granted to Enderby ship Emelia which rounded the Horn in 1788, Australia's Founding year. Emelia returned to England too soon, to qualify she had to await down river untill qualifying time, a speed of ship remarked on at the time. the Captain and Harpoonist were American. The Enderby ship Freindship captained by Thomas Melvill was second collecting the 600 pounds; this Melvill was captain of Brittania the first ship known to catch the first whale in Australian Waters..

    • 7.1
      A Doney says:

      I am responding to the above post by Keith Roland Dawson. I am fascinated by the information you have put up regarding the Friendship and Captain Melvill. I am in fact descended from him. Could you please let me know your source for this snippet? I am struggling to find any other reference to this prize of 600 pounds and would love to find out more.

      Thanks and regards, A Doney.

      • 7.1.1
        KEITH R. DAWSON says:

        I have been investigating the Enderby's for twenty years and my record keeping in pre computer days can be said to lack something.From memory I think it came from the tables of whalers showing their catches and value and bonuses received from the British Government, the tables supplied by the Pennsylvania or Philadelphia Historical Society's who have the best whaling information of any organisation I have come across.Also they are very obliging. when about 4 years old during WWII My grandfather Henry Enderby of Boston Lincolnshire received a large parcel which when unwrapped revealed a glass case in which was a model of a sailing ship, the Samuel Enderby, the model was made by the ship builders son during construction, the ship was a commemoration to Samuel Enderby II &III, the Grandfather and Father of the initiators the sons Charles II George II and Henry. I number the Samuels because historians get them persistently wrong due not to numbering them. Samuel I was born1640, died 1723 then came Daniel II who married a Mary Cook, [from whence came the connection to James Cook?] Samuel II lived in Fish Street when he Married in 1752, half a block away Arthur Phillip the First Governor of Australia, lived in Bread Street the same street that Salters Hall was in that received money in Sam II's Will. There is a lot more but you will have to wait until I find a Publisher for my book The Founding of Sydney. Keith R. Dawson

  8. 8
    Surazeus Simon Seamount says:

    I am descended from Anne Bradstreet, daughter of Thomas Dudley, 13 generations. I inherited her poetic talent.

  9. 9
    Cliff Truesdale says:

    I have been in the process of researching my family tree so found all this very interesting. All my ancestors came from Co.Down Ireland and i now live in the U.K. i shall have to make a visit to St Botolphs. I have many relatives with the name John Truesdale so i may try taking the YDNA test.



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