Artemisia I5th century BC Queen of Halicarnassus (in modern Turkey) within the Persian Empire, Artemisia commanded five ships under Xerxes during his invasion of Greece in 480 BC. Impressed by her bravery and skill, the ruler said: "My men have turned into women, my women into men."
Trung Trac and Trung Nhi1st century AD When Chinese occupiers killed Trung Trac's husband, a petty nobleman in Vietnam, she and sister Nhi raised an army—including many women generals—and drove out the Chinese. Hundreds of years later, their story inspired the thousands of women fighters of the Vietnam War.
Zenobia3rd century She became ruler of the Roman colony of Palmyra (in present-day Syria) after the assassination of her husband, a prince and general. Rebelling against the Roman overlords, she seized Egypt and much of Asia Minor, commanding troops from horseback. Rome soon captured the renegade queen, who remained in Rome until her death.
Umm 'Umara7th century A devout Arab Muslim, she joined her husband and two sons to fight alongside Muhammad in several of the prophet's early battles in what is now Saudi Arabia. "I never looked to the right nor to the left without seeing Umm 'Umara fighting to defend me," he said after one battle.
Matilda of Canossa 1046–1115 A noble who inherited power and vast lands in northern Italy following the death of her mother and stepfather in 1076, Matilda became a staunch military ally of Pope Gregory VII and his successors in conflicts with European rulers over church appointments. In 1087, she led an army that marched on Rome to oust a rival installed as an antipope by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122–1204 Wife of French king Louis VII, Eleanor rode on the Second Crusade as the leader of the forces from her home province. Though she did not directly command forces, she participated in military councils and reportedly clashed with her husband.
Tomoe Gozen ca. 1157–1247 The 12th-century epic Tale of the Heike describes her as a samurai so skillful with "the sword and bow that she was a match for a thousand warriors."
Joan of Arc1412–1431 The famous French patriot. Claiming divine inspiration, she was only 17 when she raised and inspired an army that in 1429 relieved the city of Orléans from an English siege during the Hundred Years' War. She commanded troops for more than a year before her capture, after which she was burned at the stake.
Lakshmi Baica. 1834–1858 As the widowed ruler of the Jhansi principality in India, she assembled and led an army that fought British annexation—the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857–1858. Shot and killed, she became a symbol of independence for the country—"the best and the bravest of the rebel leaders," according to a British officer.
Deborah Samson1760–1827 Dressed as a man and calling herself Robert Shurtleff, Samson joined the American Revolutionary War army, fighting more than a year before being found out and sent to General George Washington, who may have personally discharged her. A few accounts suggest she maintained her disguise despite being wounded several times; in one, she pulls a musket ball from her thigh to avoid a doctor's treatment and potential discovery.
Nadezhda Durova1783–1866 The daughter of a Russian cavalry officer, Durova masqueraded as a man for the better part of a decade as she fought Napoleon's Grande Armée, notably at the Guttstadt-Deppen (1807). Tsar Alexander I discovered her identity but awarded her the Cross of St. George for bravery and allowed her to stay in the army, albeit still in disguise.
Annie Etheridge1844–1913 A Civil War battlefield medic, she became a Union hero after rallying retreating troops at Spotsylvania in 1864. She also served at Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Petersburg, and the Battle of the Wilderness; wrote one soldier, "When danger threatens, she never cringes."
Flora Sandes1876–1956 Though British, Sandes joined the Serbian army during World War I after serving on the front lines as a medical worker. Serbs welcomed her as a sign of Britain's support. She stayed with the Serb military after the war, rising to the rank of captain.
Maria Bochkareva1889–1920 Born into serfdom and abused by her father, she persuaded the Russian army to let her fight in World War I, where she was wounded and decorated for bravery. In mid-1917, she created a women-only "battalion of death"—shock troops to counter desertion. But the unit—a few hundred women who shaved their heads—saw little action; male deserters turned against them and killed many.
Lina Odenaca. 1911–1936
A Communist Party activist, she fought for the Republican government in the Spanish Civil War against, leading militia units and eventually dying in the field.
Marina Raskova1912–1943 Part of a three-woman air crew that broke the Russian transcontinental air record before the war, she is believed to have persuaded Stalin to create three regiments of all-female fighter pilots. Before she could fly her first mission, however, she crash-landed during a storm and died.
Mariia Vasil'ievna Oktiabrskayaca. 1902–1944 After her husband, parents, and two children were killed in 1943, she gave her savings to the military to pay for a tank she could drive. Short and in her 40s, she distinguished herself in her combat debut, in Belarus, as the first tanker to break through enemy lines. She was mortally wounded in early 1944, not long after joining her unit.
Netiva Ben-Yehuda1928–2011 At 18, Ben-Yehuda joined the Palmach, the elite fighting force of the Jewish army that fought the 1948 Israeli War for Independence. A demolitions expert, spy, and field commander, she earned the nickname "Blonde Devil" among Arabs.
Celia Sánchez1920–1980 An early backer of Fidel Castro's rebellion against Cuba's Batista regime in the 1950s, she recruited and organized peasant fighters and eventually became a rebel commander and one of Castro's most trusted deputies.
Nguyen Thi Dinh1920–1992 A Vietnamese peasant, she led rebel forces against the French in the mid-1940s and against the South Vietnamese and Americans in the 1960s. She was famed for her guerrilla tactics and her recruitment of women to what became known as the "long-haired army."
Ann E. Dunwoody1953– Recently retired after a 38-year military career, she was the first woman to command a battalion in the 82nd Airborne Division and the first female four-star general. "Today, women are in combat," she said upon her retirement. "That is just a reality."
Karakal Battalion2000– Under pressure to open up combat positions to women, the Israel Defense Forces created this mixed-gender unit, which is assigned to the border with Egypt to stop smuggling and terrorism.
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