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Battle Of Okinawa: Summary, Fact, Pictures and Casualties

Originally published by World War II magazine. Published Online: June 12, 2006 
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Summary: The battle of Okinawa, also known as Operation Iceberg, took place in April-June 1945. It was the largest amphibious landing in the Pacific theater of World War II. It also resulted in the largest casualties with over 100,000 Japanese casualties and 50,000 casualties for the Allies. This article gives an account of the 80 day plus battle for the Island of Okinawa which some have described as the "typhoon of steel".

***

When two United States Marine and two Army divisions landed abreast on Okinawa on Easter Sunday, April 1, 1945, they faced an estimated 155,000 Japanese ground, air and naval troops holding an immense island on which an estimated 500,000 civilians lived in cities, towns and villages. Operation Iceberg was to be, in every way, vast when compared to any other operation undertaken by Allied forces in the Pacific War under U.S. Navy command. Indeed, using mainly divisions that had already undertaken island-hopping operations in the South and Central Pacific since mid-1942, the U.S. Pacific Fleet stood up the Tenth U.S. Army under Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., consisting of III Amphibious Corps and XXIV Army Corps — the largest land command ever assembled under the Navy's direct control.

To those Japanese who thought the war was winnable, Okinawa was the last chance. The island lay within 350 miles — easy flight distance — from the Japanese homeland and was, by American design, to be the base from which the southernmost Home Island, Kyushu, would be pummeled to dust ahead of the expected follow-on invasion. Anything short of complete victory over Allied air, naval and ground forces spelled doom for Japan — and no such victory was remotely in the cards. Thus, from the Japanese view Okinawa was and could be no more than a delaying battle of attrition on a grand scale. The few Japanese who knew that their country's war effort was in extremis were content to fight on Okinawa simply for reasons of honor, for all military logic pointed to the same dismal conclusion: Japan was vanquished in all but name as soon as the first Boeing B-29s left the ground in the Marianas, as soon as American carrier aircraft hit targets in Japan at will, as soon as even twin-engine bombers could strike Japanese ports from Iwo Jima, as soon as Japan dared not move a warship or cargo vessel from a port in any part of the shrinking empire for fear it would be sunk by an Allied submarine. By April 1, 1945, all those events were taking place routinely.

Although the Japanese commanders counted 155,000 defenders, of whom 100,000 were soldiers of Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima's Thirty-second Army, the rest were of widely mixed abilities, and there were not nearly enough troops to cover the ground the way 23,000 troops had covered Iwo Jima. Therefore the forces on Okinawa were concentrated in a number of sectors that offered the best prospects for a robust, attritional defense. The northern half of the island was virtually conceded, and the south was turned into four extremely tough hedgehog defense sectors. The proportion of artillery and mortars to infantry was the highest encountered in the Pacific War.

Coming to put their defense arrangement to the test was the Tenth Army. The new 6th Marine Division (1st Provisional Marine Brigade plus the 29th Marines and attachments) would land over the northernmost beaches on the western side of Okinawa a little south of the island's midpoint. It was to strike across the island, then turn north to pacify a little more than half of Okinawa on its own. To the right, the 1st Marine Division was also to strike across the island, then become part of the Tenth Army reserve. The Army's 7th and 96th Infantry divisions were to land side by side in the southern half of the Tenth Army beachhead and pivot south to cover the width of the island. Also on April 1, the III Amphibious Corps' (IIIAC) reserve, the 2nd Marine Division, made a feint toward a set of beaches in southeastern Okinawa. This feint was in line with where the Japanese predicted the main landing would take place, so for once a feint actually held large numbers of defenders in place looking the wrong way. Other units, including the Fleet Marine Force's Pacific Reconnaissance Battalion, were assigned objectives elsewhere in the Ryukyu Islands, most of which were taken or at least assaulted before what was dubbed L-day on Okinawa.

http://www.historynet.com/wwii/okinawa-5.jpg
U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. commanders observe their troops' movements. Standing from left are Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., commander of the Tenth Army; Maj. Gen. Lemuel Shepherd, commander of the 6th Marine Division; and his assistant commander, Brig. Gen. William T. Clement. Buckner was killed by a Japanese shell on June 18, 1945.

Immediate objectives were Yontan and Kadena airfields, in the IIIAC and XXIV Corps zones, respectively. As soon as these airfields could be brought to operational status, combat-support aircraft would operate from them. Also, many aircraft carriers would remain on station off Okinawa for as long as their air groups were needed. The land-based component was a Marine command named the Tactical Air Force and consisting of several Marine air groups of fighters and light bombers. Marine fighter squadrons based aboard fleet carriers and several new Marine carrier air groups (fighters and torpedo bombers) based aboard escort carriers would be available throughout the land operation.

The landings were made against zero opposition and with almost no casualties. Far from going into a state of optimism, however, the many veterans in the assault force realized that a very hard road lay before them, that the Japanese had chosen to dig deep and fight on their own terms.

Yontan Airfield fell by midmorning, after Marines overcame very light opposition along the juncture of the 1st and 6th Marine divisions. Reinforcements moved to fill gaps that developed due to rapid advances by the 4th, 7th and 22nd Marines. Marines of the 1st Division captured an intact bridge across a stream at the IIIAC-XXIV Corps boundary and overcame hastily built field fortifications all across the division front. Divisional and IIIAC artillery battalions landed routinely, and many batteries were providing fire by 1530 hours. The IIIAC advance halted between 1600 and 1700 to avoid more gaps and to help the Marines on the far right maintain contact with the 7th Infantry Division, whose left flank outpaced the 1st Marine Division right-flank unit by several hundred yards. The halt also gave artillery units outpaced by the rapid advance time to move forward and register night defensive fires.

Basically, all of L-day's headaches arose from the light-to-nonexistent defensive effort, and not the usual spate of battle problems. Both airfields, Kadena and Yontan, were firmly in American hands by nightfall, and engineers were already at work to get them operational in the shortest possible time.

http://www.historynet.com/wwii/okinawa-2.jpg
U.S. Marine Corps
A Marine Vought F4U-1D Corsair launches its wing-mounted rockets against Japanese targets on Okinawa. The Americans were using Okinawa's airfields within days of their capture to support operations on the island.

While by no means a romp, the days that followed on L-day were nearly bloodless. Enemy troops were encountered here and there as the two Marine divisions swallowed up miles of territory against, at most, desultory opposition. Captives proved to be second- and third-rate troops, mostly technicians and other noncombatants drafted into ad hoc defensive units, lightly armed and miserably trained. Also, many thousands of civilians turned themselves in to Marines, to be passed along to temporary stockades in the rear. The most hard-pressed Marine units were engineers, then supply troops. Roads were barely discernible paths, so they had to be engineered for modern traffic, and many bridges had to be built over gullies and other breaks in the terrain. Even with roads in place, it was difficult to push supplies forward to the rapidly advancing ground units; they moved ahead thousands of yards a day and were constantly on the brink of outrunning their supply dumps. It was difficult, also, for artillery units to keep pace with the advance, and the infantry had a difficult time maintaining contact with flank units, because the advance tended to broaden an already broad front. By April 3, the Marine divisions were on ground slated to fall on L-plus-15.

As the advance continued with surprising ease, a picture slowly emerged from prisoner interrogations. The main Japanese effort had gone into deeply fortifying the southern portion of the island. The XXIV Corps ran into the outlying positions on April 4, on the phase line established for L-plus-10. But the Marines were oriented east and north, and swallowing miles of lightly defended ground each day. Before the two Marine divisions could join the fight in the south, they had to secure the rest of the island.

By April 4, the 1st Marine Division had completed its cross-island advance and had thus run out of objectives. It turned to scouring land already in its hands and building up its logistical base. By then, Japanese troops cut off in the IIIAC zone had begun to coalesce into what the Marines eventually characterized as guerrilla forces that lived off the land in wild areas and exploited opportunities to attack patrols and rear-area facilities. Such forces also appeared in the rear of the 6th Division. These so-called guerrillas had to be painstakingly tracked by Marine units far more suited for intense modern conflict. Fortunately for the Americans, although the Japanese guerrillas were well motivated, they were not trained for such operations and were easily hunted down if they showed themselves. To help quell civilian complicity in the guerrilla operation, several thousand Okinawan males were interned in camps beginning on April 11. The Tenth Army eventually clamped down on all civilians and filled eight internment camps in the IIIAC zone with Okinawans of all ages and both sexes. This seemed to end the problem of civilian aid to guerrilla operations, but those small groups of isolated Japanese soldiers continued to operate in diminished circumstances throughout most of the campaign.

The 6th Marine Division continued to drive north — literally driven on tanks and other vehicles. One reconnaissance force advanced 14 miles unopposed, then turned back to the main body. The 6th Engineer Battalion had a tough time widening and improving roads and replacing or bracing bridges at such a pace. On April 9, supplies began to come ashore on beaches much closer to the 6th Division front, and the 1st Armored Amtrac Battalion was committed to provide artillery support because the 15th Marines artillery battalions had such a difficult time keeping up with the rapidly moving infantry.

On April 7, Marine Air Group (MAG) 31 began to handle flight operations for its newly arrived squadrons at Yontan Airfield, and MAG-33 arrived on April 9. This relieved some of the ground-support burden on carrier air units, which were increasingly drawn into a battle of attrition with kamikaze units located in Japan and intermediate bases. Indeed, Marine air became almost wholly committed to XXIV Corps as it hit increasingly stiffer resistance in the south.

It took the 6th Marine Division until April 13 to locate a well-led, competent and powerful Japanese force — on Mount Yae Take, in extreme northern Okinawa. A four-day battle involving Marine air and artillery and naval gunfire support reduced the enemy force of 1,500 and opened the door for the final northern push, which was completed on April 20. The 6th Marine Division's drive had cost 207 killed, 757 wounded and six missing by April 20, and the Marines had killed an estimated 2,000 Japanese troops.

Marine air, amply assisted by a sophisticated array of modern tools such as search, control and weather radars; landing force air-support control units equipped with advanced radio equipment; and frontline air control teams played a key role in supporting ground operations and forestalling kamikaze and conventional air attacks on the huge fleet that seemed to be a permanent fixture off Okinawa. Indeed, beginning on April 7, MAG-31 and MAG-33 fighter pilots scored hundreds of aerial victories off Okinawa, particularly in the north nearer to Japan. These included nocturnal kills by Marine squadrons equipped with F6F-5N Hellcat night fighters based ashore. Also, six Marine F4U Corsair squadrons were based aboard three fleet carriers, and they provided ground support and fleet cover. Indeed, Marine Corsairs took part in attacks on Kyushu airfields on March 18 and 19 that nearly swept kamikaze and conventional air units from the skies for several days. In return, Japanese aircraft damaged several American carriers, including USS Franklin, embarking two Marine F4U squadrons that saw a total of one day of offensive operations. By April 1945, Marine air was at the leading edge of technique and technology in support of modern combat operations across all three battle dimensions — land, sea and air.

The XXIV Corps met its first really stiff opposition on the southern front on April 6. Thereafter, resistance became more violent and better organized. The defenses extended across the entire width of the island and to an undetermined depth. In fact, it was a concentric defense, complete and pervasive, centered on the town of Shuri. Not apparent at the outset, but increasingly obvious with each passing day, the hard defenses could not and would not be carried by merely two Army divisions supported by organic and corps artillery, even after the artillery was bolstered on April 7 by IIIAC's three 155mm gun battalions and three 155mm howitzer battalions — not to mention Marine air based at Yontan and whatever carrier air the fleet had on hand for ground support. Next, beginning on April 9, all four artillery battalions of the 11th Marines and two-thirds of the Army's 27th Infantry Division were sent into the southern line, albeit with little effect.

By April 14, XXIV Corps had killed nearly 7,000 Japanese, but it had barely made a dent in the defenses north of Shuri. A corps attack on April 19 supported by 27 artillery battalions and 375 aircraft made negligible progress, then halted as the unperturbed Japanese troops moved back to their positions from underground shelters. The Army divisions advanced only after the Japanese withdrew from the advance defensive line on the night of April 23-24 to a more integrated line to the rear. On April 24, IIIAC was ordered to place one of its divisions in the Tenth Army reserve, and the 1st Marine Division was thus ordered to prepare to return to battle. (IIIAC's third division, the 2nd, had been returned to Saipan to prepare for an amphibious assault near Okinawa that never took place.) On April 30, the 1st Marine Division advanced to replace the 27th Division in the XXIV Corps zone, and that Army division was ordered north to replace the 6th Marine Division so it could enter the southern battle.

The infantry units that the 1st Marine Division replaced had been ground down to regiments little larger than battalions, and battalions little larger than companies. Dead ahead was the bulk of a Japanese infantry division holding a defensive sector the island command had just reorganized to higher levels of lethality. On the division's first full day on the line, the weather turned cool and rainy, a state that would prevail into July.

http://www.historynet.com/wwii/okinawa-6.jpg
U.S. Marine Corps
Lieutenant General Isamu Cho was Ushijima's chief of staff and committed suicide with his commander. Below: Marines use an Okinawan burial crypt for shelter during the fighting. Similar family burial places were located throughout the island, and many were put to use by the Marines.

The division went into the offensive on May 2, the westernmost of three divisions in the attack. The 5th Marines was stymied at the outset, but the adjacent 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines (3/1), fell into a gap. The 1st Marines attempted to change direction to exploit the gap, and 3/1 advanced even farther in the rain before nightfall. On the other hand, 1/1, on the division's right, faced fierce opposition, and portions of the battalion that were cut off had to withdraw, after which 1/1 changed direction and won some new ground.

This baptismal day on the southern front was emblematic of the fighting that ensued. The Japanese made excellent use of broken ground and other natural cover, and the Marines were either stymied or fell into dead ground from which they could either advance or from which they had to withdraw to maintain a cohesive line against the uncanny knack the defenders showed for mounting enfilade movements. On May 3, the 5th Marines advanced more than 500 yards in its zone, but the 1st Marines was pinned down with heavy casualties, so the 5th had to pull back several hundred yards in places. There simply was no point at which the Marines could gain adequate leverage — the same scenario the replaced Army divisions had faced in their battle.

http://www.historynet.com/wwii/okinawa-7.jpg
U.S. Marine Corps
Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima commanded Japanese forces on Okinawa. Well aware that he would be unable to drive off the Americans, Ushijima instead devoted his energies to inflicting the highest casualties possible on the invading forces. He succeeded. The general committed suicide at 3 a.m. on the morning of June 22.

General Ushijima still held many thousands of first-line troops in reserve. These men had been tied down defending beaches in southeastern Okinawa for landings that never took place. As the Japanese gained a finer sense of American tactics, it was put to Ushijima that an offensive using these fresh, well-trained and well-equipped troops might chasten the Americans and buy a great deal of time and flexibility. Some of the fresh troops were fed into the defensive sectors to make good the losses of weeks of bitter attritional warfare, but the bulk were held back to cover the suspect beaches or to serve as a mobile reserve. By April 22, most of the fresh force was fed into the Shuri sector to stiffen its defenses. Ultimately, however, a number of Ushijima's senior officers won an argument to launch a major tank-supported counteroffensive, including counterlandings behind American lines, that was to blunt the American offensive and perhaps throw it back.

Preceded by mass kamikaze attacks on rear areas on the island and logistical shipping offshore, the counteroffensive, including counterlandings on both coasts, began after dark on May 3. Artillery fire matched artillery fire at the front, while in the rear Marines opened fire on Japanese troops coming ashore on the beach on which Company B, 1/1, anchored the entire XXIV Corps line. This was not where the Japanese intended to land, and quick reaction by the defenders and confusion among the attackers created conditions for a Marine victory. Many more Marines were fed into the fire-lit battle, LVT(A)s (landing vehicles, tracked, assault) sealed the battlefield, and fresh troops hunted down infiltrators. Forewarned by this landing attempt, Marines quelled other attempts farther up the coast. Army troops also defended successfully on the eastern coast.

At dawn, behind an artillery curtain that never abated during the night and a rolling smoke barrage, the bulk of the Japanese Imperial Army's battle-hardened 24th Infantry Division crashed into a curtain of fire erected in front of the 7th and 77th Infantry divisions by 12 155mm and 8-inch gun and howitzer battalions and tag-team air attacks that would mount up to 134 sorties by the day's end. On May 4, the 1st Marine Division actually attacked in its zone in spite of Japanese efforts to win through to the east, but the division was stalled several hundred yards short of its objective line.

Far from delaying an American victory, the ill-advised Japanese counteroffensive used up the largest pool of seasoned fighters on the island, of which nearly 7,000 were killed. But other good fighters had remained in their excellent defensive sectors, and they showed no sign of cracking appreciably in the face of inexorable pressure across the entire corps front. In less than a week on the Shuri front, 649 Marines became casualties.

http://www.historynet.com/wwii/okinawa-1.jpg
U.S. Marine Corps
Lieutenant Colonel R.P. Ross Jr. plants the Stars and Stripes atop Shuri Castle. The flag is the same one that the hard-fighting 1st Marine Division had raised at Cape Gloucester and Peleliu earlier in the war.

The 6th Marine Division began going into the southern line on May 7, squeezing in along the coast to the right of the 1st Marine Division, and IIIAC resumed control of both Marine divisions. From that point, despite interesting tactical embellishments, the battle to win Okinawa settled down to become a test of attritional theories, one based on attack and the other based on defense. The Japanese had the troops they had, and relatively few were trained infantry. The Americans had a larger pool of trained infantry, including ample replacements who, in the case of IIIAC, were used as logistical fillers until they were needed in the infantry battalions. Even then, attrition was high among all the American divisions — 11,147 replacements were fed into Marine infantry units on Okinawa — but when a Japanese veteran was killed, he could not be replaced.

Deadly combinations of spirited infantry assaults, overwhelming artillery and naval gunfire support, and ample air support were played like a piano to advance American units through the rest of May and most of June. The concentric lines of defense built and held by the Japanese never got easier to reduce, but inexorably the quality of the troops holding them shifted downward, and they fell, one after the other.

The 2nd Marine Division's 8th Marine Regiment took part in several landings on islands elsewhere in the Ryukyus in late May, then went ashore on Okinawa to fill out the 1st Marine Division for the final assaults of the campaign. An interesting footnote to Marine Corps history came about on June 18 when the Tenth Army commander, General Buckner, was killed by a Japanese artillery shell in the 8th Marines line while reconnoitering the front. The next senior general officer on the scene was Marine Maj. Gen. Roy Geiger, the IIIAC commanding general. Geiger, an aviator who had commanded the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing at Guadalcanal, I Marine Amphibious Corps at Bougainville and IIIAC at Guam and Okinawa, was spot-promoted to lieutenant general to become the first and only Marine and the first and only naval aviator — perhaps the first and only aviator — ever to command an American army in the field.

http://www.historynet.com/wwii/okinawa-4.jpg
U.S. Marine Corps
Marines visit their fallen buddies at the 6th Marine Division cemetery following the fighting on Okinawa. The battle was the bloodiest in the Pacific War and had a profound influence on President Harry S. Truman as he pondered the first use of atomic weapons.

The Japanese defenses were all but overwhelmed by June 16, and Ushijima realized that the end was near. On June 19, he dissolved his staff and ordered all available troops to go over to guerrilla operations. On June 21, organized resistance came to an end in the 6th Marine Division zone, which encompassed the southern shore of the island. By then, Japanese troops were surrendering by the hundreds. The 1st Marine Division mounted its final attacks of the campaign, also on June 21, and reported by nightfall that all its objectives had been secured. The XXIV Corps made similar announcements. It thus fell to General Geiger to declare Okinawa secure following a bloody 82-day battle. The final official flag-raising ceremony on a Pacific War battlefield took place at the Tenth Army headquarters at 1000 hours, June 22, 1945. Earlier that morning, Ushijima and his chief of staff, Lt. Gen. Isamu Cho, committed ritual suicide.

The battle had been among the most brutal of the Pacific War. The Navy suffered its greatest casualties for a single engagement. More than 12,000 Americans were killed and a further 50,000 were wounded. More than 150,000 Japanese — many of them civilians — were killed during the battle. Despite the casualties, preparations were quickly underway for the long-anticipated invasion of Japan. All hands turned to in order to begin preparations to invade Kyushu. Already, Army Air Forces bomber groups that had been in Europe on V-E Day joined Marine Tactical Air Force units operating from Okinawa's airfields and thousands of American, British and Canadian carrier-based aircraft in the prelanding bombardment that was to lay waste to the southernmost Home Island before a contemplated October invasion was set in motion.

Who could have known on June 22, 1945, that only some six weeks separated America's Pacific warriors from the blinding flashes over Hiroshima and Nagasaki that would send the vast majority home to the peace so many of their brave comrades had died to secure.


This article was written by Eric Hammel, a noted historian of the Pacific War. This article is adapted from his forthcoming book, Pacific Warriors: The U.S. Marines in World War II, A Pictorial Tribute, published by Zenith Press. This article originally appeared in the June 2005 issue of World War II magazine. For more great articles subscribe to World War II magazine today!


147 Responses to “Battle Of Okinawa: Summary, Fact, Pictures and Casualties”


  1. 1
    Ty Dorland says:

    I have a KABAR knife an elderly family took off a dead marine while working as a Naval SeeBee on the beaches of Okinawa. It is the sharpest knife I have ever owned.

  2. 2
    CORTEZ says:

    OOH-RAH MARINE CORPS

  3. 3
    SSG> Donald Cooke says:

    My father was a corpsman on OK-he received a Bronze Star for saving 7 marines-under direct fire-I dont see the justice,,,,,

  4. 4
    Rj says:

    I was based on Okinawa January 1965 and left Aug 1967. I TDY'd to our satellite bases in Viet Nam during my stay, I was with STRATCOM, Ft Buckner. While on Okinawa, we lost approximatley 6 military personnel due to uncovered live ammunition from WWII. Most were around an air base used by the Japanese near a village named Futemna. A lot of battle history and a monument to our soldiers bravery and committment.

  5. 5
    stephen deniston says:

    God Blees all those who were involved in the battle of Okinawa. My father James Robert Deniston passed away today December 10, 2008. He served with the U.S. Marines First Division Third Armored Amphibian Battalion at Okinawa.

    Stephen Deniston

  6. 6
    Dianna Welch Knox says:

    Greetings Mr. Deniston,
    My condolences on the passing of your father. My father was a former Marine, Cpl. Edward Keith Welch. He, too, served with the 1st Marines and went ashore April 1. 1945, at Okinawa. He, obviously (!) survived and died October 15, 2007. Semper Fi!

    DiannaWelch Knox

  7. 7
    victor zigmont says:

    trying to make contact with anyone who served with my father, gm victor zigmont aka "ziggy" either in the north atantic or during the okinawa camapign,

  8. 8
    chris says:

    i bless there hearts

  9. 9
    chris says:

    i am doing a report about it

  10. 10
    Brian Murphy says:

    My father, Bob Murphy, served in A company, 1st Brigade, 1st Marines, on Okinawa. What little he told us about it was harrowing. He died on April 27, 2009. God Bless all those who fought and died during WWII, and all of those who fought and survived who, sadly, are leaving us more and more.

    • 10.1
      Cheryl Seibert says:

      Hi Brian
      I see your father served in the 1st Marines. My grandfather served and fought on Okinawa too. He was in the 1st Marines, 1st Batt, FMF Company A. He was KIA on May 3rd. I have been doing Ancestry research and meet a great man that had been with my grandfather on Okinawa. We got to know one another quite well for about 4 yrs and then he passed in Jan 2014. I miss him terribly. Would you father have served in the same unit as my grandfather? Did he tell you much about being on Okinawa? I'd love to be able to get a list of his unit and track down the veterans still living. Their stories are so interesting to me. Please reply with any knowledge you have. Thanks so much!

  11. 11
    SSG Leon Bozek (ret) says:

    My father died Nov 2005, was a field radio operator assigned to 198th FABn USArmy XXIVth Corps, 10th Army. was wounded during the Ruyku Island campaign on 5 Jul 45. Ive taken up my mothers quest to put together a complete Class A uniform and need the details as to which DUI he would have worn. He was extreemly proud of me when I enlisted in the USMC in 1973.
    He served in direct support with the Marines on Okinawa during Operation Iceburg. Dont have too many details,all he ever told me was the Jap LT that shot him was a Yale graduate and he was left at an aid ststion for three days. The bullet passed within an inch of his heart and three days latter pushed through to extend the skin in his back, thats when it was removed.

    • 11.1
      Lance Franke says:

      SSG Leon Bozek, Ret., our fathers both served in the 198th FABn on Okinawa. My dad flew an L-4 spotter plane from L-10 Day to the conclusion of the battle. He won 21 Air Medals that means that he flew 105 combat sorties.

      The 198th FABn was originally part of the Kentucky National Guard and the XXXVIII Division, if I get it right. The 198th was separated from the KNG when it was parted out due to war need.

      Sorry to learn about the passing of your late father. My dad is now 91.

  12. 12
    Patrick Knight says:

    I'm doing a report on this also.

  13. 13
    Karen O'Halloran says:

    My father, James Joseph O'Halloran was in the 96th Infantry on Okinawa. He never talked about it even when asked. He died in June 1985. I am very proud to be his daughter.

    • 13.1
      Mike Stanley says:

      My father, Leon Stanley was also with the 96th infantry on Okinawa. Heard a few stories but not alot. He still lives but suffers from alzheimer's.
      These men were of the Greatest Generation…

  14. 14
    nick tobias says:

    my granfather was a one of the engeneres that duilt the air fields there

  15. 15
    Bill Johnson says:

    My late Father, Howard Kenneth Johnson, from Spring Lake, Michigan served on PGM-17 during the battle for Okinawa. After PGM-17 was sunk, he served on tug ATR-9. I am interested in contacting anyone who served on either of these two ships. Thanks, Bill Johnson
    Email: yfreewilly@aol.com

  16. 16
    Chris Naugle says:

    My Uncles were lost in the Pacific. The first, Seaman 1st Class David Crossett, was scrambling to his duty station up in the crow's nest of the USS Utah. A Japanese fighter strafed the ship. Crossett was shot twice. He fell to the deck. As further damage was inflicted upon the Utah, his body was covered with debris. Every year, my aunt raised a flag on Dec 7th, she is gone and I have taken it up.

    But, no one in my family knows anything about Carlton Crossett, who died on Okinawa at the end of May 1945. It seems so sad that he is overshadowed and forgotten. Since I was a child I have been haunted by his crooked smile in his photos, what happened to Carlton? I can not even be sure of what branch of the military he served.

    I am a former Marine and those family members are gone, his last surviving sister, talks of him using a flamethrower on Okinawa, but her stories are romanticized, not sure what is true.

    I hope someday I can go to Okinawa and look for his name on the Memorial…. just as my aunt did at Pearl harbor

    • 16.1
      FRANK NIADER says:

      Your uncle Carleton Crossett was in the US ARMY.in the 302th Engineer Combat Batallion
      77 Inf. Div. KIA MAY 21,1945
      buried at PUNCHBOWL CEMETERY. HAWAII
      plot Q grave 333

      FRANK NIADER
      CLIFTON NJ 973 628 8913
      brother of
      Pvt. William Niader USMC
      KIA JUNE 12. 1945
      OKINAWA

      • 16.1.1
        Chris Naugle says:

        Thank you so much! Your info helped me in my research. Your brother and my uncle fought through hell, it is so sad they lost their lives at the end, so close to returning home!

      • 16.1.2
        Theresa says:

        Hi. I am looking for info on my uncle
        was In the Navy and was killed at the Battle of Okinawa. His name was Manuel F. Sylvia, Jr.

  17. 17
    Paul Wright says:

    Would like to know if any of the vets on Okinawa remembers a Cpl. William M. "Bill" Wright who fought with the 10th Army, 7th Division , 17th Infantry Regiment, HQ.Co. on Okinawa. He was an artist and did a lot of drawing while there. He saw General Stillwell
    and Buckner talking by a tent when he went to pick up company mail. When he returned with the mail , driving a jeep by the tent, he saw the generals were gone. An hour or so later he heard that Gen. Buckner had been killed by Japanese artillery.
    Would appreciate hearing from anyone who knew Bill. He passed away 2008.
    Paul Wright

    • 17.1
      James LaVerdure says:

      Hi Paul, My father, who died in 1995, was in Co B 17th Regiment 7th Division, did his training at Fort Ord, CA. fought in all of the battles, Attu, Kiska,Kwajalein,Leyte and Okinawa. I'm sure my father and Mr. Wright, walked on the same ground while on Okinawa. Was Mr. Wright, in any of the other battles? I have alot of info on the 7th Division and i would be more than happy to share what i have. During the Vietnam war, i was station on Okinawa, i was in the 7th Psyop Group, went to Vietnam a few times on TDY. I was able to visit some of the battle sites.

      If you are interesting in what info i have please get back with me josie56@sbcglobal.net

      James LaVerdure
      Michigan

  18. 18
    jolein says:

    Paul wright how can I mail you.
    You can mail me on joleinw@hotmail.com
    greetz

  19. 19
    jolein says:

    I am looking for Bill johnson who was stationed in Schoppingen germany in and about 1968. Germany
    joleinw@hotmail.com

    greetz

  20. 20
    JRC says:

    In response to "Chis Naugle", I believe my uncle, Carlton Crossett was US Army. There was once talk of a book titled "least we not forget" that talked about how Carlton died. But never saw it. I have tried to find some reference to it but can not.. jrcrossett@ieee.org

    • 20.1
      FRANK NIADER says:

      CARLTON CROSSETT US ARMY KIA MAY 21, 1945
      302 Engineer Combat Batallion
      77th INF DIV.
      Buried at the punchbowl Cemetery, Hawaii
      PLOT Q GRAVE 333

      Frank Niader
      Clifton NJ
      973-628-8913

  21. 21
    kathy higginbotham says:

    My father served in 1945 Marines 1st division/ 7th. in Okinawah 1945, was wounded and after his recovery went to North China. He never spoke about that time in his life – and passed away in Nov 09. We opened his trunk and found lots of photos and letters that he had written to his family. We are tryiing to researdh and preserve his information. We are losing our history as the WWII vets die. It is up to us to preserve it…..

    • 21.1
      terry bodnar says:

      My Father never spoke about the war, as so many of those brave men didn't.
      My father passed away 3 years ago, but before he died he talked to me about the war.He stated his rank serial #, division,He was a marine in !st dision 3rd 7th
      Not sure what all those Number meant just that he was in 1st division.
      My father was a cook onboard,but landed with his battelion as a radio operator.My Father's name was JOHN VALKO< FROM PHILLIPS<WI.
      if you happen to have any photos or something about my father it would be greatly appreciated.My father told me there were 13 from his troop to come back alive.His back was pitted from scrapnal.
      We all have alot to be proud of what they endured for us.

    • 21.2
      Carolyn Jeffers Hixon says:

      My father, Benjamin Thomas (Tex) Jeffers, (from Texas) also served in WWII, 1st Marine Division. He landed on the north side Okinawa on April 1, 1945 and on May 1,1945 went to the south side of the island where the troops were fighting the Japanese. On May 11,1945 he was shot in the back and the bullet went through his lung. His fellow soldiers probably thought he had died but he was sent to Bal Boa Hospital in San Diego for surgery and was discharged in Sept.1945 receiving the Purple Heart. He just turned 86 in November and is very healthy. He only started talking about the war within the last 10-15 years and he often wonders what happened to the rest of his troop. I don't have any pictures of him while he was in Okinawa (I guess they were a little busy). I am just blessed to have him here with us and so healthy.

      • 21.2.1
        James LaVerdure says:

        Hi Carolyn,

        I saw your message on History.net I found some documents on ancestry.com with your fathers name on it, they are muster rolls with names on them, it shows your father was in Co F 1st Marines. I also found some of your fathers family history, were his parents William Clyde Jeffers born 1895 married to Mattie Lynn Ayer? Does he have siblings named, Della Mae,William,Benjamin and Ella? I don't want to put anymore info on this site because i don't know how secure it is.

        I can't send any of the documents to this site so if you are interested in what info i have found i would need a email address.

        My father also fought on Okinawa, but he was in the 7th Infantry Division(Army). When the US landed on Okinawa, the 1st Marines headed north, the 7th went east and cut the island in half, then the 6th Marines,7th and 96th Division headed south, the 1st headed south later. If you type in Okinawa: The Last Battle in your search box or google you should be able to bring up the book and read it on line it's a very good read and has many photos.

        James LaVerdure

      • 21.2.2
        Carolyn Jeffers Hixon says:

        James,
        Thank you for that info. I am working on our family tree and I have some of that info and yes those are dads parents and siblings. I actually had found some of the muster rolls and showed them to dad. He knew most of the guys by knicknames and not their full names. You can certainly send me what you have. Here is my email address:
        Carolyn.Hixon@yahoo.com
        Thanks for your help.

  22. 22
    Donna Sumrell Taff says:

    Hi, I'm looking for anyone that knew my Father, His name was Melvin Clinton Sumrell. He fought in battle on Peleliu and Okinawa in WW2. I have his discharge papers and it says he paticpated in action aganist enemy at Peleliu from 15 Sept. 44 to 4 oct 44; Okinawa 1 April 45 to 2 July 45. I am looking for anything I can find out. I hope somebody out there know's anything about him and let me know. He did'nt talk about the war. Always said he had a desk job. After he died I was looking at his discharge papers and found out the little that I know. Any help will be appreciated. Thankyou, Donna Sumrell Taff.

  23. 23
    Sally Logan says:

    My father, William Logan Jr. was with the 6th Marines on Okinawa and has talked a lot about the taking of 'Sugar Loaf Hill'. The more I read, the more I understand how lucky he was to just be wounded and receive a Purple Heart. His platoon was down to 25 men, as they assisted the taking of 'Sugar Loaf', Horseshoe, and on. Our family would like to record the stories of the battles and of course the marines on Okinawa before my father passes. He is 84 and we would like to make contact with anyone who can help with information on these battles to take Sugar Loaf Hill and push back the Shuri Line.
    Thank you.

    • 23.1
      FRANK NIADER says:

      CONTACT BILL PIERCE FROM N.C, –PHONE 843-884-5785

      EMAIL–GYRENE629@AOL.COM

      SAY MY NAME

      FRANK NIADER
      CLIFTON NJ

      • 23.1.1
        Martin Beckner says:

        Good job Mr. Niader…I see that you work to assist family members of military personnel searching for information about their heros. Thank you.

    • 23.2
      David Ott says:

      My uncle was killed at sugar loaf hill,he was a bar man kia by jap grenade.May 45 my uncle would have been 84 also…dave..his name was Johnnie Ot of seminole Oklahoma..he was 19 at the time

    • 23.3
      Cynthia Lipsius says:

      My father was also in the Sixth Marine Division (3rd platoon, E company, 2nd battalion, 29th Regiment). I suspect he may have been in the same platoon as your father as my father's platoon was down to 25 men after Sugar Loaf. My father has passed on, but I have his platoon picture, a squad picture, and a letter he wrote to his mother re-capping the events on Okinawa.

    • 23.4
      John F. Sanders says:

      hi my great uncle was PFC. John F. Sanders usmc sixth marine division. He was killed may 19 1945 on Ryukyu Island his commanding officer was Alan Meissner. My uncles nickname was Jack from ny and he was only 17-18 18 when he died. Does your dad remember him

      • 23.4.1
        John F. Sanders says:

        F company i believe

      • 23.4.2
        Cynthia Lipsius says:

        Hi Mr. Sanders,
        Capt. Meissner led E Company of the 2nd Battalion, 29th Regiment, Sixth Marine Division. My father was also part of this company. I got my father's platoonpicture out (it was taken on Guadalcanal 18 Feb 1945) and checked through the names but did not see your great uncle's name listed on this picture. Either he was in a different platoon or he could have come into this platoon as a replacement, after the picture was taken. I have completed a lot of research on this, if there's anything I can assist you with you can reach me at clipsius58@yahoo.com.
        Cynthia Lipsius

    • 23.5
      James LaVerdure says:

      Sally,

      A good book to read about the battle for Okinawa is. "Okinawa:The Last Battle" if you type in the title to the book in your search box or try google, you should be able to read the book on line, and if you want to purchase the book try ebay or get it on line.

      James

    • 23.6
      Stephanie Hagee says:

      I am in search of a William Logan who was at Guadalcanal. His former neighbor, Bain Williams, was his neighbor growing up in Houston, Texas. Is this William Logan your father?
      Thanks!!

  24. 24
    Sally Logan says:

    Realized that I did not publish my email; SallyLogan@verizon.net for information on the takiing of 'Sugar Loaf Hill' on Okinawa with the 6th Marines. Father is 84 and we are trying to write down his stories before he is gone. Please contact, if you have information. Thank you!

  25. 25

    [...] Battle of Okinawa: Operation Iceberg When two United States Marine and two Army divisions landed abreast on Okinawa on Easter Sunday, April 1, 1945, they faced an estimated 155,000 Japanese ground, air and naval troops holding an immense island on which an estimated 500,000 civilians lived in cities, towns and villages. Operation Iceberg was to be, in every way, vast when compared to any other operation undertaken by Allied forces in the Pacific War under U.S. Navy command. Indeed, using mainly divisions that had already undertaken island-hopping operations in the South and Central Pacific since mid-1942, the U.S. Pacific Fleet stood up the Tenth U.S. Army under Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., consisting of III Amphibious Corps and XXIV Army Corps — the largest land command ever assembled under the Navy's direct control. [...]

  26. 26
    vvbbb says:

    This battle started during the end of the Pacific War and took place around Okinawa Island, and it's known as the last battle between the U.S. and Japan.

    After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor (1941), the U.S. entered World War 2. Okinawa's geographic location was an ideal position for strategic warfare in the Pacific – it was located between Kyushu and Formosa (Taiwan). Japan was an incredible force during World War 2 and the Allied forces wanted to attack Japan and stop Japan's aggressions. The Allied forces (including U.S.) viewed Okinawa as a perfect point from which they could invade/strike Japan. The invasion was code named "Operation Iceberg." This was the reason why this battle occurred.

    The number of people who died in the Battle of Okinawa

    American Soldiers – almost 12,520 people
    Soldiers from Mainland – almost 65,908 people
    Soldiers from Okinawa – almost 28, 228 people
    General Inhabitant – almost 94,000 people

    Total

    200,656 people

    From this, we could say that this battle is different from other battles in which did not involve general inhabitants

    Now, we want to show you part of the E-mail letter we got from Bob Doktor about his experiences in the Battle of Okinawa.

    Since you know that I was in the Battle for Okinawa you can realize that I may be older than some of your Grandparents. However I try to keep my mind abreast of things that are happening for example computers and Internet.

    I will try to tell you as much as I can remember of the Battle of Okinawa. We arrived almost a week before the landing and were sheltered by some islands off the coast of Okinawa until April 1, 1945. During this period the large naval vessels such as the Battleship Missouri shelled Okinawa to prepare for the landing. Although we were sheltered off shore the ship had to move about as there were Japanese midget submarines stalking us part of the time and then we had the Kamikaze aircraft coming in.

    One evening, I believe it was the second or third a Kamikaze was able to sneak through and hit a ship next to us. There were no fatalities fortunately other than the Japanese pilot. There were a few injuries, the ship was run aground so that it would not sink. The unit that was on this LST (this is the designation of Landing Ship Tank) was in our group and we knew quite a few of the men. We did not find out until the next morning that no one was killed, but we were worried as there was such a large explosion that we had assumed there were casualties and that some had died, but as I said before luck was with them and no one was killed other than the pilot.
    When we landed we were sort of in shock since we met no resistance from the island and we had been briefed that there was a large force of Japanese soldiers there and to expect heavy gunfire with heavy resistance. Having been in battle prior to this landing, resistance is what we had expected. The only thing was Japanese aircraft was all over and they strafed the beaches and dropped a few bombs, but I think that this was so minimal and caused very few casualties. The Navy and Marines had many aircraft flying off the aircraft carriers and did give us outstanding air support. As we were on the beach and the Japanese aircraft dove at us, the American aircraft were right behind them and shot most of them down.
    I do remember one incident in particular was that as a Japanese Zero dove and flew along the beach strafing, a U.S. Navy pane which was an F6F was right behind him, the Navy plane shot him down approximately 300 yards from us. At this same time the gunfire off the ships in the firing line and the LST & iacute's was as heavy and could be. Just when the Navy plane was almost abeam of us it shook all over as if it had been hit by friendly gunfire. The plane was maybe at 25 feet altitude at that time; the pilot set the plane down on the beach. He had got into the line of fire and was shot down. When there was no more fire the pilot got out of the plane and raised is arms in anger and yelling at the American ships for shooting him down. We rushed over to him and checked to see if he was all right and then took him down to the area where the smaller landing craft were so that they could get him back out to his carrier. I felt sorry for him and at the same time it seemed a little humorous that he had waved his arms in angry in a gesture of threatening the firepower.

    We found out a little later on that a couple of other aircraft had been shot down and the pilots were lost. It turned out that in this case that the pilots were told not to go down that low with all of the firing from all of vessels. It was in the heat of battle that these orders were forgotten as the pilots were following the Japanese aircraft so intensely that they were oblivious to the outside world.
    As the fighting continued the Marines headed northerly and started to get some ground fire around Kadena and around the village of Kadena, which was destroyed and demolished.

    The as we moved to the north we met with more resistance, and ran into little pockets of Japanese soldiers who fought bravely, but either they surrendered or were killed. It seemed as if the firepower they had was limited and possibly did not have the training they should have had. We did manage to take many prisoners. Eventually we made it up to beyond Nago-Wan and we were moving rather swiftly now.

    The Army to the south was running into much more resistance and came to a standstill more or less and they removed one Army division and sent them to the north to do the mopping up and the Marines were sent to the south. The fighting was fierce and again the Japanese soldiers put up a good fight. I think that we had the spirit and a good supply of ammunition and although we suffered many casualties we just persevered and pushed on until we got to the Naha – Shuri and the fighting really got heavy. I do not know if we would have made it after this point until we brought our heavy tanks in and started to push and push and push some more. I think that this broke the spirit of some of the Japanese soldiers and they started to move to the rear more and more as each day went by. I say spirit as if you do not feel that you can do anything regardless if it is war or not, just anything on a normal day, you have lost.

    What I really felt bad about after the fighting had ceased I visited the final fighting area and saw the amount of Japanese soldiers who jumped off the cliffs and killed themselves. At the time I could not understand why these soldiers had jumped. I did have at the time respect for them in their loyalty, but did not understand it. As time went by I learned more of the Japanese people and of their culture and then realized why these honorable men had did what they had done.

    I do not know if you had spoken to anyone in Group 6, but I was a career Marine and retired after 27 years. I had been to Okinawa many times and this is where I met my wife and married her in 1967. I used to joke about it that she was probably one of the young kids that I and other men used to give them the chocolate that came in our rations.

    Sincerely,
    Bob Doktor

    In this E-mail, he told us many things about this battle. However the most interesting thing that he wrote usdescribing how he really felt bad about after the fighting had ceased. He visited the final fighting area and saw the bodies of Japanese soldiers who jumped off the cliffs and committed suicide. At the time he could not understand why these soldiers had killed themselves. As the time passed by, he learned more about the Japanese people and of their culture, and then realized why.

    Children in Okinawa

    Most of the teachers and students had to go to the army and help digging and moving earth and sand for making a new position for the army. Furthermore, some students were made to go into the army and be a soldier. They made the children take military training. Even the girls had to go to the army as a "Himeyuri" unit. This unit was to take care of the injured soldiers all day.

    How the Japanese Prisoner was treated

    U.S. Army didn't hurt the few Japanese prisoners that were taken, but they asked about Japanese army and it's conditions.
    They gave some food such as candies, chewing gums and cigarettes to Okinawans and didn't force to do something. However they won't treat Japanese army like that so Japanese soldiers hid their own recognition card and every thing that says he is soldier of Japan.

    Our teacher told us that there were cases of surrender Japanese soldiers being killed by Americans. Also, soon after the battle ended many Okinawans were put work for road repair, construction and other jobs.

  27. 27
    Sam Ellzey says:

    My dad, James D. Shofestall, served aboard the L.C.S.(L) 114 during the invasion of Okinawa. The 114 was one of the first ships in and had quite an active role in the invasion. During the first hours a destroyer took two hits from kamikaze planes and went down. My dad and the crew of the 114 are credited with pulling 119 men from the water and the 114 received a Presidential Citation for their efforts while under attack themselves. After W.W.II dad became a civilian, but only for a short time! In 1948 he became a member of the U.S.Army, just in time for Korea. While caring for his family of five he managed to find time for Viet Nam on many TDY's from Clark A.F.B. where he was stationed with S.R.U.8 while on loan to the Air ForceDad proudly served his country for 22+ years. We lost him on Feb. 7, 2008 to lung cancer. Shortly before he left us he gave me a small box. Inside was a battered old flag with 48 stars. I turns out, it is the battle flag from the 114 during the invasion of Okinawa! THANK YOU to all our Vets. Past, Present and Future

  28. 28
    Becky Meador says:

    I am looking for anyone who may have served with my father. He was TEC 5 US Army, Herbert F. Reese. He served in Okinawa (and a brief pass-through at Pearl Harbor) during WWII. You may contact me at bbmeador@cox.net.

    He never talked about the war until his mind started to go due to a brain tumor. He told of the Japanese tunneling underground and how some killed their own women and children, then committed suicide. We lost him December 5, 2004. I have some pictures and a few keepsakes, but am very interested in knowing more of what he experienced.

    Thank you Veterans! God bless you all.

  29. 29
    James Jay says:

    Looking for any information on the 1906th Engineering Aviation Bat. and in particular Company 'B'. I am trying to retrace my Dad's (TSGT Jesse H. Jay, Jr.) time with them from Dow Field in Bangor Maine 23 July '43 until he left Okinawa 20 Dec '45 and their deactivation 20 Dec '45. I have some 'B' Company newsletters, photos, etc. I will share. Contact me at jamesdjay@yahoo.com

    • 29.1
      RJ Collins says:

      James, My Dad also served in the 1906 ENGR AVN BN company B. Also was at Dow field Bangor Main. Was at New Guinea,Phillipines,Ryukus.and Layte. I would love to see any info on the 1906 Company B you or anyone else would have.

    • 29.2
      Tom G says:

      James, My dad was also in Co B, 1906th Enginering Aviation Bat. from Dow to Okinawa. He never talked much about the war but, I knew from what he did say it was a rough campaign, Although he passed away in 1982, I was able to meet some of his wartime buddies and share a beer with them at their 50th reunion at Bangor in 1993. It was a great experience putting some faces to names that I had heard. My father's buddy invited me and I was glad I went. After the war, his buddy, another NCO was the best man at dad and mom's wedding a few month's after they returned and he was also my godfather. They remained friends til the end. He has also since passed away. The men at the reunion had a real kinship. One that only could have been forged by their joint experiences as they battled together day in and day out. It was a real joy being around them. I'm also retired military so I could indentify with the band of brothers type kinship, having had similar experiences myself. We did had some photos of the men in the pacific, I rmember seeing them when i was young but unfortunately, a long time ago we had a flooded basement that destroyed them, Take care and good luck in your Quest. If I do come across anything I'll let you know.

  30. 30
    Isaac says:

    I could use more information on more research paper coul you guys help me

  31. 31
    James Stanton says:

    My great grandfather (Fred Blackman) served on okinawa and was with the 77th infantry division US Army. He died on May 10th from jumping on a grenade to save three other men in his fox hole.

    God Bless America and all those how dead for our freedom

  32. 32
    Waverley Traylor 3rd says:

    My father (Waverley Traylor Jr.) was injured on June 5th 1945 on Okinawa. He was a machine gunner and a Japanese motor landed directly in the foxhole. His buddy was killed from the explosion and I am searching for any family members of that brave marine.

    Semper Fi!

    • 32.1
      Tracie Turner says:

      My Grandfather Gene Greer was also injured on June 5th 1945 when a mortor landed in his foxhole. It blew both of his eardrums. He passed away in Dec. 2008 and rarely talked about the war. I wonder if they knew each other. Did your father talk about the war with you?

  33. 33
    John R. Dedeian says:

    My father, Charles Dedeian, passed Feb19,2011. Served in the M4 -Sherman tanks on Okinawa during WW2. Survived a Japanese land mine that destroyed his tank and killed the rest of the crew. He was blown clear of the tank, and nearly buried alive before they rushed him to a hospital. We feel honored by the knowledge that he served with so many brave men. He spoke little of his experiences, but that is to be expected of such men. They did their job and either came home …or didn't… We need these kind of people. God Bless them all.

  34. 34
    steve dedeian says:

    I, Steve Michael Dedeian, am honered to be my fathers' second son, John, being my brother, Mary, my sister , have our very lifes to thank for men of dads' caliber, and honor and thank ALL the men and women of our fine armed forces that have kept our freedom alive. Dad…a very special "hi" to you in your afterlife…and from my experience, I know you understand that statement..love ya pop "Tee Up"

  35. 35
    kevin corbett says:

    My Dad was corporal John C. Corbett eighth regimental combat team of the second marines,firt marine to reach lower end of Okinawa The Complete History of World War II by Francis Trevelyan Miller page 933 para 1. He was near site that General Buckner was killed. Any one out there that served in that unit?

  36. 36
    james butler says:

    My father James W. Butler served in the signal corp on Okinawa. He had pictures of the Japanese peace planes on Semia Island. He went to Korea with the occupational forces after the war. If any one knowes anything abpout my father I would like to contact them. dad passed in 1999.

    Thanks
    Jim Butler

    • 36.1
      KEVIN V. BRADY says:

      HI JIM MY DAD VINCENT A. BRADY WAS A CAPTAIN IN THE BAY OF NAHA HE WAS IN THE 101 SIGNAL BATTALION A LOT OF THE GUYS WERE FROM THE NEW YORK NATIONAL GUARD HE ONLY MENTIONED LANDING IN THE SECOND WAVE AND THE NITE AIR RAIDS DIDNT SAY TO MUCH I KNOW HE SPENT ALOT OF TIME IN HAWAII BEFORE AND THAT HE WAS IN BILOXI MISS. BEFORE THE WAR STARTED. HE GOT HOME FOUR MONTHS AFTER THE WAR ENDED. HE WAS A GREAT GUY PASSED IN 2005 AT 93 1/2

  37. 37
    Rod Anderson says:

    My uncle, Ervin E. Anderson, PFC, 77th Division, 307th infantry, Company 4 was killed on Okinawa on 17 May 1945. He was killed while participating in one of the few (US) night attacks of the war. His unit fought from behind enemy lines of nearly three days, with very heavy casualties and my uncle was one. He won the Bronze star and the Soldier's medal both for separate actions on the day he died. I am familiar with the Bronze Star but not the Soldier's Medal, which he received for action that resulted in his death. I would like very much to know if someone is familiar with my uncle's unit, and anything about the Soldier's medal. I still have my grandfather's letter to my uncle, which must have been on him when he died, because it is still covered with very red blood after all these years. Thank you for any information.

    • 37.1
      James LaVerdure says:

      Hi Rod,

      You can google the book Okinawa:The Last Battle, and read it online, it should have some info about the 77th Division. It will have many pictures in it. My father was in Co B 17th Regiment 7th Infantry Division, they landed on April Ist, walk across the island and cut it in half, then headed south with the 96th Division and the Marines.

      James

  38. 38
    Raoul White says:

    I'm very distrub to what I have read and learn. My wife is Okinawan and has told me so much since reading up on this. My father is a Africian American who was assigned to the USS James Franklin Bell (APA 16), he is 87 now and thank God he is strong and alive and I have heard the stories of the battle and the times of Africian Americans serving during the world. I'm sorry for any lost and this war was sad and didn't need to happen. I am proud I have just recently given my father his Plank Order from the Navy in his recognition during this war and medals he never knew he qualified for. I would wish I could hear more about anything in regards to Africian Americans during this era. Raoul

  39. 39
    Lester E. McFarland, jr. says:

    I am the only son of Lester McFarland who was a(blackshoe) member of the crew of the LST-844. The LST-844 was lanched Dec. 3 at Ameribrige, PA. From all i can discover the LST-844 as part of Taskforce 58 and landed 10th Marine troops on west coast of Okinawa on or about April 1945. My father had a log he keep in the back of the "motor mantaince" record book I would like share with others that may have interest this data.
    I have looking for a proper venue to publish this document. It also contains the names address and home town data of the offices and crew of the 844
    I am very interested contacting any one who had a family member on this ship or was transported into battle on this ship.

    Lester McFarland, Jr
    630 Harwood Road
    Mt. Orab, Oh 45154
    email: lester@highlandtech.biz
    Phone 513-739-3510 any time you wish to call.

    • 39.1
      PAUL NEWNAM says:

      HI! My brother Lawrence Newnam was on Okinawa during the battle. He was inducted at Camp Chafee Ark. and did his boot at Camp Hood Tx.Trained on anti/tank and artillary. Went on to Ft Ord Ca. and onto Hawaii for jungle training. On to the pacific and was attached to 10th Army,96 Div. 383Inf Div. Did anti/tank, and 105 pulled howitzers, and served as a loader in the open turret tanks, he was a 100yds from Gen Buckener when he was killed. He drove trucks and pulled the guns and hauled ammo for them. He was almost killed as they were loading his truck with 105m.m. shells when one of them exploded and blew him off the truck. My brother is 90 yrs old & still alive and has all of his faculties! He is helping me to put down his story, FINALLY!! He would like to hear from anyone else that was in his outfit. (209)537/3402

      • 39.1.1
        Becky Reese Meador says:

        Please ask your brother if he knew TEC5 Corporal Herbert F. Reese. That was my father. I do not know all the details of Daddy's service records; however, some of your post reminds me of him.

        Thanks.

      • 39.1.2
        Paul Newnam says:

        HI! Again, I am starting to receive inquires about my brother Lawrence McCoy Newnam who was in the Battle of Okinawa, See (THE PACIFIC) Documentary! I want to encourage everyone who is doing history searches on family members, to don't get discouraged!! Keep asking and searching!! You will be rewarded!! Like a lot of families during that time, We had multiple, members in the armed service. MY Father M.C. McCOY NEWNAM was in the army 1912/1919 Coast Artillery Served in Hawaii,Schoffield Barracks, Helped install Big Guns on Diamond Head. Was 2yrs at Ft Corrigador Manila, Luzon, Philippines, Crockett Gun Emplacement. Stationed in Houston Tx Remainder of WWI MY uncle Herbert Newnam Dads younger brother, Army, was wounded and died of Pneumonia in France 1917 My next to the oldest brother Harvey C. Newnam (Lil JOE) was In the 463rd Ordinance Evacuation Unit of the First Army BIG RED ONE. His unit 463 O.E.U. was awarded 5 Major Battle Unit Citations! He was in a Landing craft ( in close) on D-DAY and watched the destruction and loss of the tanks trying to go in with the first invasion troops. His unit was a support Unit for those tanks! Only two made it to shore! His unit was in support of the 101St. Airborne Div. at the end of the war! See or google ( THE TANK) See ( BAND OF BROTHERS) I was lucky to have his recordings of his story just before his passing! I did a complete story about his experiences for our family history story! My uncle Edward R. Summers was in the FIRST Marine Div. and went in on Day one on Guadalcanal as Medic first and a rifleman second. He was highly decorated and had that 1000yd stare! Hair and eyes turned white. He was my favorite uncle and never would talk about his experiences. See (THE PACIFIC) Great Documentary He heard I was doing a story and wanted to talk to me , but I didn't see him before he passed away! My father in law Robert L Dull was captured in the Battle Of The BULGE by the Germans, he was lucky and escaped from a train taking them to Germany, he finally made it back to the American lines. I missed his story! I didn't take the time to write it down! My Brother In Law Eugene B Davis Landed at Caiin France and fought until V DAY he was highly decorated Two Meritous Pins and Bronze star. I found this out for his family, after starting research on my brother Harvey! Get a note book and take notes, run searches on any Unit numbers you can find , Our WAR RECORDS DEPT. is not any help!! since most of it was destroyed by a fire!!! CAN YOU BELIEVE THAT!! I have found out more about my families Military History on the Internet than they ever had. I have sent them copy's of Discharges and service records to replace the ones that were lost . IT IS! GREAT!! (Web Sights) like this!, where you will get great information, and leads to search! My brother Lawrence!, did not know that the 96Th Div. had been awarded a Presidential Unit Citation in ( 2001) COPY'S are available through, Donald Decker, Historian 96Th Div Historian at (608) 837/7479 For what they had done on OKINAWA! Only 4 Army Div citations have been presented!
        Don`t wait! start now!! We are losing veterans everyday! Then, WHO? will tell their story's? The ones who took the time and effort to ask! and Write down the story's!! I will pass along any INFO. that I have and receive, to anyone that wants it! You can call by brother, or contact me at my web site. tuponies2000@yahoo.com

      • 39.1.3
        Mike Vestal says:

        My father-in-law was also in the 383rd / AntiTank Co on Okinawa– Samuel D. Beene. He would never discuss any aspect of the war, and unfortunately he passed in the year 2000.

  40. 40
    r amarosa says:

    I HAVE A JAPANESE RIFLE,GIVEN TO ME BY A CO-WORKER IN 1971. SCRATCHED ON YHE REAR OF THE STOCK,UNDER THE BUTPLATE—-"F.MACHMAN—-WHITE BEACH—JUNE 1945".———-I DISCOVERED THIS IN SEPT. 2011 WHEN I REMOVED THE BUTTPLATE WHILE CLEANING UP THE STOCK !!!!-?????

    • 40.1
      tim baron 908-461-3254 says:

      I am searching for any troops or sailors who were on the USS Meriwether (APA-203) before, during and after the battle of Okinawa.
      my father Joesph Baron drove a small landing craft back and fourth from the ship to shore. I am hoping to find any photos that anyone has of him in action, or during normal duties. I am also hoping to find anyone who remembers almost being hit by a Kamikaze plane that was trying to sink my fathers landing craft while he was trying to unload wounded soldiers on a floating dock. thanks, Tim Baron 908-461-3254

    • 40.2
      Cynthia Lipsius says:

      Could possibly have been from the last amphibious landing of World War II. The 4th and 29th Marines of the Sixth Marine Division made a surprise amphibious assault on the Oroku peninsula on Okinawa on June 4, 1945.

  41. 41
    Dylan Korsness says:

    was this a real life thing or just tv show

    • 41.1
      Paul Newnam says:

      Yes, IT! was a real thing that happened! Over 6000 american military were killed in this ONE battle! See the T.V. series (THE PACIFIC)

  42. 42
    Aaron Astrada says:

    Bro it was and is the real thing!!! i salute and uphold with great admoration and the deepest intestinal respect all those who gave their lives and those who are still fighting for our beautiful country.

  43. 43
    ray jundt says:

    We have received some records of my uncle, Carl Jundt, who was killed on May 6, 1945 in "the Pacific Ocean area". They really don't tell a whole lot except we have a suspicion he was killed near Okinawa since he was first interred in that area. Would be interested in hearing from anyone who can help me answer what some of the information on these records mean, such as "DOW"," Thanks.

    • 43.1
      James LaVerdure says:

      Hi Ray,

      I believe "DOW" means, died of wounds, he would of been wounded in action, he could of died that day at a aid station, the next day or weeks later on a hospital ship on its way to Hawaii or the USA.

      James

  44. 44

    [...] Battle of Okinawa (Historynet) [...]

  45. 45
    Mark Prechtel says:

    Looking for any information about my father, Lloyd "Dutch" Prechtel. He was career Army and was at Okinawa during WWII. He passed in 1981. His records were destroyed in a fire.

    • 45.1
      James LaVerdure says:

      Hi Mark, I found this on ancestry.com More than likely he had a military buriel, the funeral home should have a copy of his discharge papers. If they don't, check the county court house where he lived when he got out of the service.

      U.S., Department of Veterans Affairs BIRLS Death File, 1850-2010
      about Lloyd Prechtel
      Name: Lloyd Prechtel
      Gender: Male
      Birth Date: 24 Oct 1925
      Death Date: 11 Jun 1981

      Branch 1: ARMY
      Enlistment Date 1: 27 Apr 1944
      Release Date 1: 14 May 1946
      Enlistment Date 2: 22 Nov 1961
      Release Date 2: 31 Mar 1965

  46. 46
    James LaVerdure says:

    If you want to read a good book about the battle for Okinawa, it's called "Okinawa:The Last Battle", it's by Appleman,Burns,Gugeler and Stevens. You should be able to google this and bring up the book and read it on line, it has alot of reading, maps and many pictures, it mentions all of the units that fought on Okinawa. It's probably the best book you will find about the battle for Okinawa.

    My father was in Co B 17th Regiment, 7th Division, they landed on Okinawa, walk across Kadena air base and to the east coast and cut the island in half, then headed south with the Marines on the left and the 96th Division on the right.

    James LaVerdure

  47. 47
    Gary Anderson says:

    My Father-in-Law, Robert J. Marshall, served aboard the USS Estes during the battles for Iwo Jima and Okinawa. We have a small pocket journal that he left leaving us a sketchy glimpse into this hero's involvement in the Pacific theater. He passed away on April 6, 2006. He never talked much about the war. Not many of these brave and valiant warriors did. I have looked on the internet and found some very valuable information on the USS Estes and what damage the kamikazes did to the Naval Fleet supporting the troops who were fighting on shore. He also served on the USS Fremont and USS Indianapolis. He was no longer on board the USS Indianapolis when they delivered the bomb and were sunk on the return trip at the end of the war.

  48. 48
    Palmer says:

    My great uncle was declared MIA in WWII , April 15, 1945; I just found out he was with the 96th Infantry and it was during the Battle of Okinawa.

    He has a memorial at the Punch Bowl Cemetary in Honolulu but I was wondering if anyone may ( I know grasping at straws) remember him? U. S. Army Private First Class William Russell Bundgard from Chicago….

    God Bless on this Memorial Day

    • 48.1
      James LaVerdure says:

      Hi Palmer, The site below is for the 96th Infantry Association, you should check it out. You can google the book, "Okinawa: The Last Battle", you should be able to read the book on line, it has many pictures in it. You probably can also purchase the book on amazon.com or ebay. My father was in the 7th Infantry Division, also fought on Leyte and Okinawa, the 96th and the 7th fought next to each other while on Leyte and Okinawa.
      James

      Welcome Deadeyes, Families, and Friends of Deadeyes
      … to preserving the rich history of the 96th Infantry Division of WWII and its current members – the "Deadeyes." The 96th Infantry Deadeye Association, as well as …
      http://www.rememberthedeadeyes.com – Cached

  49. 49
    Larry Glisson says:

    I was stationed on Okinawa between 1955 and 1957 (almost 2 and a- half years); nearly ten years after the Second World War ended in 1945. My unit was the 3rd US ASA Field Station. If any of my unit members happen to run across this note, I would appreciate it if you would give me a shout! After all, it has been 57 years since I was on "the Rock'! It has been a long time since the days of Kadena Circle and Naha.

    God Bless the men and women of WW II They knew the worse part of war. May God Bless the young people who continue to serve in all the branches of the military. I'm constantly on the watch for those to whom I can extend a hand and say "Thanks"! I hope you do the same!

    Larry Glisson

  50. 50
    Raymond Climer says:

    joined the 165th infantry 27th division in may of 1945 on okinawa. was
    18 years old. those was pretty ruff times.

    • 50.1
      Becky Reese Meador says:

      Mr. Climer, You didn't happen to know my father, Herb Reese, did you? He was a TEC 5 in the Army on Okinawa out of Fort Thomas Newport in Kentucky. I have been searching for anyone who may have known him since his death in December 2004. God bless you!

      • 50.1.1
        James LaVerdure says:

        Becky, Was your father in the 165th Infantry 27th Division? You can google the book, "Okinawa:The Last Battle" it's probably the best book about the battle for Okinawa, that i have read. If you can bring it up on the net you can read it, if not, get back with me at josie56@sbcglobal.net and i'll see if i can email it to you. My father also fought on Okinawa, but he was in the 7th Infantry Division.

        James

    • 50.2
      James LaVerdure says:

      Mr Climer, If you google "Okinawa:The Last Battle" It's a book that you can read on your computer. My father ws in the 7th Infantry Division, he landed on April 1st, the 7th walked across Kadena air base, then walked across the island, cut it in half, then started 7th headed south. If you have a hard time finding the book, get back with me at josie56@sbcglobal.net and i'll try sending it to you.

      James

    • 50.3
      James LaVerdure says:

      Mr Climer, Here is a little info about the unit you were in. After i left Vietnam, i was sent to Okinawa, i worked in building that sat on top of the Machinato air field, where the 27th fought. The air field was on top of a bluff and was probably less than a 1/2 mile from the ocean.

      James

      The regiment arrived at Espiritu Santo on September 4th 1944 to rest and refit, and departed March 25th 1945 to participate in the Okinawa campaign. The 165th landed on Okinawa on April 9th 1945. The regiment was responsible for the reduction of the area known as Item Pocket, which was a system of Japanese defenses that were constructed to prevent the capture of Okinawa’s principle airfield, at Machinato. Item Pocket was eventually overrun when the 165th captured a ridge dubbed Ryan’s Ridge, after a different officer than the one who had given leant his name to the terrain on Saipan. With the fall of this ridge, Item Pocket’s defenses were cracked open and the 165th was able to capture the Machinato airfield. The fighting had been heavy and the cost high, but the 165th was done with anything more than mop up activities following the fall of the airfield. Following its departure from Okinawa, the 165th arrived in Japan for garrison duties on September 12th 1945. It was deactivated on December 31st 1945 following its return to the states.

      For information on the present activities of the 27th Division, including reunions, contact The Orion Gallivanter, the official Newsletter of the 27th Division Association at:
      27th Division Association
      PO Box 2522
      Syracuse, NY 13220-2522

      Further Reading
      This is meant to be a comprehensive list. If, however, you know of a resource that is not listed below, please send an email to int-historians@ng.army.mil with the name of the resource and where it is located. This can include photographs, letters, articles and other non-book materials. Also, if you have any materials in your possession that you would like to donate, the museum is always looking for items specific to New York's military heritage. Thank you.

      Bierl, Russell V. "165th Infantry Regiment, 27th Division Men Reunited."

      Love, Edmund G. The 27th Infantry Division In World War II. Nashville: Battery Press, 1982.

      Stanton, Shelby L. World War II Order of Battle. New York: Galahad Books, 1991, pgs. 103-105, 216, 230.

      Back to World War Two Infantry Units

  51. 51
    shawn says:

    my grandfather (floyd staples) was in the navy 1942-1945 but no one in my family knows what unit or company he was in during ww2 , i do know he was in okinawa , i have sent out for his DD214 so i can make a shadowbox like i did for my father (vietnam vet) just dont know what form to fillout to get more info ,if anyone dose plz post on this .

    thank you for any help
    thank you vets for fighting and for those that lost there lives for your country

    • 51.1
      James LaVerdure says:

      Hi Shawn, Is this your grandfather? If so, now you have his serial number. Many records in St. Louis, were the records were kep,t were destroyed by a fire, but i'm pretty sure the Navy records are okay.

      Name: Floyd Staples
      Gender: Male
      Birth Date: 4 Feb 1920
      Death Date: 23 Aug 1972
      Branch 1: NAVY
      Enlistment Date 1: 31 Aug 1942
      Release Date 1: 28 Oct 1945

  52. 52
    Rick Krause says:

    It's great to read all of the history from this web site. My father, Seaman 1st Class Jack A. Krause was aboard the USS Kittson APA-123 during the Okinawa invasion. He as a coxwain who drove the military personnel from the ship to the beach head. I remember his story of a bomb landing between his LCM and his buddies. No one was injured or the landing craft damaged. He also told a story that he had to be pulled off of the beach because he landed up to high on another load run. If anyone has photos or had relatives serving onboard at the same time please pass on the information. He did have time to write his memoirs before he passed in November of 2001 but after reading all of this information, he left out many exciting moments. As a help, on the drop gate of his LCM the insignia was a large letter "K" inside a circle.

  53. 53
    Corey Crow says:

    I am looking for any information pertaining to my Great-Uncle for whom i carry his (middle namesake) , that died in the battle in okinawa?? He was in the United States NAVY and his name is JASPER CLINTON CALDWELL from North Texas i am curious to know what ship he served on and what battle he fought and died in during the major battle of okinawa (operation iceberg) IF ANYONE has any information PLEASE pass this along as i would be sooo grateful to learn more about him , and what his last days might have been like!! Thankyou and God Bless !!

  54. 54
    mike fresina says:

    I am looking for information about my father, Joseph (Joe) Fresina. He passed away at the age of 53 and the only thing I know about his service in WWII is from his uniform patches. His uniform bears the patch of the 10th army and I know he served in the Pacific. The research of the patch dictates that he served in the invasion of Okinawa. Any information would be greatly appreciated.

    • 54.1
      James LaVerdure says:

      Hi Mike, The 10th Army consisted of many army and marine infantry divisions, that faught on Okinawa. Do you know if your father was in the army or the marines? My father was in the 7th Infantry Division, and faught on Okinawa, and i don't remember seeing the patch for the 10th army. You can google the book, Okinawa: The Last Battle, you will be able to read the book on line, it will have many pictures and other info. I will check on some other sites to see if i can find any info on your father. If i had a birth date, it would help with the search. You can get back with me at josie56@sbcglobal.net. Do you know if he was in any other battles in the Pacific.

      James LaVerdure
      Mchigan

      • 54.1.1
        Martin Beckner says:

        Hello Mr. LaVerdure

        I see that you have a keen interrest in this battle and also in helping other family members of service personnel research thier own heros. Good job and thank you for doing so. I too had a father who served in the military (1937 through 1969) and fought (also wounded) on Okinawa. I have found some great film footage at a website I will share with you. It does not cost to view the different sites, you pay if you want to use them commercially or if you want them to send you a hard copy. It is actual War Department film, good luck in your research. …..CriticalPast.com: Your direct source for archival stock footage and historic photos.

        About us: CriticalPast.com was formed by a team of archival research, film, and Internet professionals, working together to create one of the largest privately held online archival footage sources in the world. The collection spans thousands of hours of video, millions of still photos, and continues to grow. It is easily searched by professionals and non-professionals alike, and placing an order for footage or photos is simple and straight-forward.

  55. 55
    James Chuckery says:

    My uncle, John Brunkala, served in the USMC, 1st Marine Division, and fought at Guadacanal and Okinawa. Are there any Marines out there who knew of, or remember my uncle?

  56. 56
    Phil Schroder says:

    My father Dwight Schroder was in operations with landing crafts during this battle. He left us 4 years ago and was proud of his service but wsould talk little about this battle. Was wondering if any-body would remember him. Operated from a ship by name of Joseph T. Dickman. Troop transport

  57. 57
    jim zarembo says:

    My father, PFC Stanley T Zarembo was a member of Company B, 48th Coastal Artillery Battalion. I am trying to find out where the 48th fought during the war.

    • 57.1
      Martin Beckner says:

      48th Field Artillery Battalion

      Constituted 1 October 1933 in the Regular Army as the 48th Field Artillery. Redesignated 13 January 1941 as the 48th Field Artillery Battalion assigned to the 7th Division (subsequently the 7th Infantry Division) and activated at Fort Ord, California, 1 June 1941. (48th Coast Artillery Battalion consolidated with the 48th Field Artillery Battalion, 28 June 1950).

      Relieved from the 7th Infantry Division and inactivated in Korea, 1 July 1957. Consolidated with the 56th Artillery, 18 September 1970.

      CAMPAIGN STREAMERS

      World War II

      Western Pacific

      Aleutian Islands (with arrowhead)

      Eastern Mandates

      Leyte

      Ryukyus (with arrowhead)

  58. 58
    Raoul White says:

    My father served as an African American in Okinawa as a Steward Mate 1st Class on the USS J Franklin Bell APA-16. I haven't seen any post in regards to any of the African American serving during this time. My father is still alive at 87 and kicking strong. I found all his paperwork to include medals he never knew he earn and also I found the ship he was assigned to and a picture of him and some of the African American he served with. I'm married to a Japanese girl and I have seen the sites in Okinawa where all this war has taken place and it is such an honor to have actually been in the same place. My skin felt strange when I had a chance to go to the actual memorial where so many Americans/Japanese people had given their lives. If anyone has more information in regards to African American serving during these times or anyone surviing, please let me know. Thanks God Bless Raoul

  59. 59
    Michael Stets says:

    My Dad was aboard the USS KITTSON ( APA 123 ) which was involved in the assault of Okinawa on 4/1/45. My dad had passed back in 1993. My father never spoke about the war to me at all. It is till now I find that my father was a part of history in which I am so proud of him !!!! I dont know if any members are left from the ship , but if so , send me an email , I would like to hear the history. My dad was in the Navy from 1942 – 1945 .

  60. 60
    Michael Stets says:

    My father name – BM2c – MICHAEL STETS – US NAVY

  61. 61
    Aurora says:

    My grandpa was in the us navy and in that battle, he was Walter Mihalik.
    I'm also doing a report on this
    If anyone knows anyone who knows him then that would be cool

  62. 62
    James LaVerdure says:

    Hi Aurora, A good book to read is Okinawa: The Last Battle, it might have some info about the Navy, the Navy played a big part in this battle. I found some documents on ancestry.com on a Walter Mihalik, serial number 7095802, and he was in the Navy. I can't send the info to this site, so if you would like to see the info please get back with me at josie56@sbcglobal.net a date of birth and where he was born and lived would help in my research on your grandfather.

    James Laverdure
    Michigan

  63. 63
    Dean Glorso says:

    Cynthia Lipsius,
    I am a Vietnam Marine Vet and am researching my friend Arthur Hipp USMC who was in E Company, 2nd Battalion, 29th Marine Regiment, 6th Marine Division. Art passed away in 2007. All I have to go on is a short bio taken by a Marine Veterans group here in Colorado. Any information you have on the outfit will be helpful. Art's unit was cut down to about half. Art may have been the company clerk and runner for E company, as it was mentioned in the bio written by another Vietnam Vet. Thank you. Dean Glorso email DFGLORSO@COMCAST.NET

  64. 64
    Dean Glorso says:

    Sally Logan,

    I am doing research on a friend named: Arthur W. Hipp. Art served in E Company, 2nd BN, 29th Marines, 6 MarDiv. I checked the photo of 3 platoon posted by Cynthia Lipsius but did not see Art's name. Any information you might have on E Company would be appreciated. Dean Glorso, (Vietnam Marine Vet 1968-1969) email dfglorso@comcast.net
    Thank you.

  65. 65
    Earl Dodge says:

    My Uncle George Joyner known as \cookie\ was kia on Okinawa on may 15th like to hear from any one that might have known him or served with him thanks

  66. 66
    marlene garmon says:

    Hi my father Leland skinner. was in ww11 he was in base camp. Camp Roberts, California.3-1943-6-1943. was in 32d infantry pfc, pickup man. was in okinawa island, ruykyu island 1942-1945. he has passed away in 1999. I have some pictures of his buddies when he was in the war. would love to get these pictures to there families if they dont have any.get a hold of me at mgarmon1@gmail.com.
    My dad told me stories when he started getting alzheimers. He said it wasnt a good.I will never forget his stories.It brings tears to my eyes when i hear of someone going to war.I have my dad army papers.

  67. 67
    marlene garmon says:

    He was in the Army.

  68. 68
    Galen Calvert says:

    Now 86 years old, I was on Okinawa just after turning 18 in April 1945.
    In action with a SeaBee Demolition Unit against organized Japanese defenders of a cave the first week of August 1945 and with souvenirs to prove it , our War Department Historians and even the Smithsonian want to leave organized action ending third week of June rather than first week in August. History records the name of the first Frenchman killed in WW1, but our Government wants General Geiger, not this unheralded SeaBee Unit ending WW2. Oh well. Galen Calvert

  69. 69
    Ray Climer says:

    Hi, was wondering if any of you old guys about my age (87) was still around that was in
    the 165th reg. or the 753rd AAA gun battalon. after things was all over in iceberg,they
    flew us to japan in C-46 afct. and transferred us to the 753rd. we did occupation for
    about a year.I got out of the service in nov. 1946. anyway would sure like to hear from
    anyone. mabe we could connect and email each other. Raymond Climer

    • 69.1
      James LaVerdure says:

      Mr. Climer, A Ed Wolak, would like for you to get in touch with him, his father was in Co 165th 27th Division. His email is ewolak@aol.com

      Thank You,
      James

  70. 70
    Helen Warpinski-McCleavy says:

    My Dad, Elmer E. Warpinski fought in the Battle of Okinawa. He was a First Class Seaman on a Aircraft Carrier. I believe He was part of Acorn 29. He told Us Kid's many stories, Came home with lots of pictures. He said the Typoons were horrible. When We dropped the Bomb, He turned to His Shipmate and said it's the end of the War!

  71. 71
    Helen Warpinski-McCleavy says:

    My Dad, Elmer E. Warpinski fought in the Battle of Okinawa. He was a First Class Seaman on an Aircraft Carrier. He came home with lots of stories and pictures! He said the Typoons were awful. When We dropped the Bomb, He turned to His Shipmate and said "It's the end of the War!" If anyone who knew My Dad would like to contact Me, Please do so. Thank You

  72. 72
    george says:

    you call this a summary?

  73. 73
    Greg Buckley says:

    Do you know what brigade he was in; 305th, 306th, or the 307th?
    My Dad was an S-3 2nd Lt. In the 2nd Battalian of the 306th and saw some very hard fighting while pushing the Japs back from the Suri Ridge.
    Try to get the WW2 Bio of the 77th, \ Ours It Hold It High \

  74. 74
    Ray Climer says:

    hello David, my name is Raymond Climer, I joined the 165th infantry 27th div.in
    may of 1945 was 18 years old. didn't know your uncle but it caught my eye
    where he was from. I was born in Seminole okla. in 1926.

  75. 75
    Kasey says:

    Some of ya'll seem to have really good information on the men serving and I am at a complete loss trying to find information for my dad about his uncle that served as a Marine during WWII. All that is really known about him is his name, Chester Arthur Hyche, died June 4,1945. We were told that he was shot several times and refused treatment since he could still fire a weapon. He was less that six months from his 21st birthday. Due to family drama, members passing and scattered memorabilia we have very little to work on and my Dad would like to get any information he can get about his uncle. Please if anyone could help in anyway it would be so greatly appreciated.

    • 75.1
      Carolyn Hixon says:

      My dad and I recently visited the VA Clinic in Austin Tx and they had an office there to help vets with paperwork. They were able to get copies of all dads records in WWII. He has enjoyed reading through the info and sharing it with all of us. Good luck.

    • 75.2
      James LaVerdure says:

      Hi Kasey,

      I found some info about Chester A. Hyche. His serial number was 975676, he was in the First Ballalion, Fourth Marines, Six Marine Division. I have some Marine rosters with his name on it but I'm unable to transfer them to this site. Also found that his parents were Ollie/Ottie and Bessie Hyche, they had at least 7 children, and in 1940 this family lived on Robinson Ferry Road, Ackers, Tuscalossa, Alabama. Please let me know one way or another if you are interested in what I have found.

      James
      josie56@sbcglobal.net

      • 75.2.1
        Kasey says:

        Yes I am extremely interested in what you found. It is defiantly him, my grandparents were Ollie and Bessie Hyche. I am so sorry for my delay in getting back with you. Thank you so much James.

  76. 76
    James LaVerdure says:

    Hi Kasey, About the besr book to read about the battle for Okinawa is: Okinawa:The Last Battle, you can google it and read it online, or buy it on ebay or amazon.com. I do have a form that you can fill out and send it in, it sometimes takes over 6 moths to get a reply, but it will say how he died, I would have to mail it to you because I don't know how to scan anything. It will probably need a serial number, if you don't have one you probably could check the county court house where he lived when he join the Marines. Here is my email address if you want to get back with more info on your fathers uncle, like where is was born, so I can check some other sites that I have access to, l do have his date of birth. I did find some ancestry info on the Hyche
    family, if you are interested in it.

    James
    josie56@sbcglobal.net

  77. 77
    James LaVerdure says:

    Kasey, You posted on this site asking for help, I gave you some info that I found on ancestry.com if you don't want to reply to anyone that has replied to your message that's fine. I'm getting a little tired wasting my time on someone who doesn't appreciates someone trying to help.

    James

    • 77.1
      Martin Beckner says:

      James

      Thank you. I was impressed with your efforts. Yours is a labor of love and respect.

      Don't sweat the small stuff.

      Marty

    • 77.2
      Kasey says:

      James I am so sorry that I did not have a chance to respond to your message in a timely manner. I meant no disrespect at all and I GREATLY APPRECIATE everything you have supplied me with. Like so many other I have had alot going on in the last month and like I said I am trying to help my Dad get this information. I apologize sincerely from the bottom of my heart. My great uncle was born in Tuscaloosa,AL October 16, 1945. He was a PVT 4 Marines 6th Marine Division. You can email me at kaseyburtohicks@gmail.com if you wish or we can continue communicated via this site. Once again please do not think your time and effort helping me was in vain or wasted. It truly was not. THANK YOU SO MUCH!!!

  78. 78
    James LaVerdure says:

    Hi Martin, Thank you for the kind words. I also want to thank you for the CriticalPast.com site you sent me.

    James

  79. 79
    James LaVerdure says:

    Hi Kasey, I tried to send you a email with the email address you gave, it came back to me. Please get back with me at josie56@sbcglobal.net

    James

  80. 80
    Ray pasquali says:

    Greetings- my father, Raymond A. Pasquali was also in the Okinawa conflict. He died in 2004. I was unable to learn much from him and it has bothered me. He was in the army from the beginning of the conflict until 6 months after. I have some pictures of him with some unidentified soldiers. Is there any chance someone out there would have any information about his actions while there?
    Thank you.
    His son,
    Raymond J. Pasquali

  81. 81
    James LaVerdure says:

    Ray, Please get back with me at josie56@sbcglobal.net as I might be able to help you. Did you father die on May 22 2004, and did he live in Michigan? Three army Divisions faught on Okinawa, the 7th, which my father was in, the 77th and the 96th, which faught on a a smaller island near Okinawa.

    James

  82. 82
    James Michael Pardee says:

    Dear Mr. White, My father, Ensign Russel E Pardee, serves on the Bell and landed troops and I believe also worked the engine room with his engineering degree. He returned to become a V.P. with Kaiser in Oakland. Needless to say, my sisters and I were always on time for anything where my father set the \up and at em'!\ time. A kitchen pot and spoon was standard and a \you've got exactly five minutes or you'll be left here.\ Never was or been late since. Unfortunately he passed in 1989 with a bad back from a net accident on the Bell. He never complained or told us of the details of what the troops went through and only told us the rare funny stories there were. He loved and respected the Marines and all who he landed. God Bless you and all who served. The Greatest Generation, Period. J Michael Pardee

  83. 83
    Raoul White says:

    I regretfully have lost one of the well spoken, dedicated men in my life 3 May 14 in Tallahasse Florida at 88 years old. I believe he probably was one of the last of the African Americans who might of served during this area. He was so active at this age, but cancer just hit him in just a short period of time. I was told so much about this war from my dad and it is such an honor to know how things were back then to see where we are now. I wish everyone who have fathers still here physically much happiness as I have had with my dad and also to take the time to sit and listen and learn what they have to offer. What a special time we all have experiencing history. God Bless

  84. 84
    Lynn Houser says:

    http://www.abmc.gov/search-abmc-burials-and-memorializations/detail/WWII_158296#.U4N7zHJdXxB

    I never met my Uncle Frank, my Dad's brother. He was killed May 18th 1945, in the battle of Okinawa.

    18 years later, on May 18th, my Dad's 1st of 5 children, was born.

  85. 85
    Martin Beckner says:

    Mr. Jundt. If your uncle was in the USMC. 1st. Div. he may have been killed in action near the Shuri line. The Japanese launched a counter attack in early May in that area. My father was wounded on that same day. Many of his unit 3rd Batt. 5th Marines were killed.

  86. 86
    Joseph Runyan Jr. says:

    My father Joseph(little Joe) Runyan was with the 77th division during the battle for Oki. He was in all the battles the 77th fought in in the pacific. Guam, Layte, Karetta Rema, Is Shina and Okinawa. He was wounded on Oki and was in Hosp until 12/1945. This battle ruined my fathers life. He passed away in 1980. F-CK the japs we should have killed them all, was one of his most favorite sayings when WW2 came up in conversation. He would not buy items made in Japan and would not ride in Japanese made autos. To say my father was bitter is an understatement. I have never owned a Japanese import, to show support for my father.

  87. 87
    Marven J. Avilla says:

    I was wounded May 15,1945 on Sugar Loaf hill, I was in 1stBat29th C Co.Is there anyone living from our Company, I would like to hear from you. I understand that we had 100% casualties.I am 89 now and not much time left. All of my squad I think are dead now.
    Marven Avilla born in Reno NV now live in Fernley NV

  88. 88
    Dean Glorso says:

    The following is an article that was published in Side Shots Magazine Aug 2014.

    ARTHUR W. HIPP, USMC By: Dean F. Glorso, PLS 16109

    It has been almost seven years since founding editor, long time PLSC treasurer, and Side Shots originator Art Hipp passed away. Most every Professional Land Surveyor in the Rocky Mountain Region knows the land surveying legacy Art’s name commands. But for the newer members of our profession, I would like to point out some of the sacrifices Art made–and the courage he was able to muster–as a young 19 year old United States Marine in 1945.

    I first met Art Hipp at Metropolitan State College in 1976. He was teaching Boundary Law and Land Surveying Principles two or three nights a week. I felt honored to be learning from such an unassuming and eloquent man. He made every point of the complex Land Law crystal clear. Art patiently helped many of us young baby boomers become well informed Professional Land Surveyors by channeling all of his experience and knowledge into simple classroom discussion. He also provided wonderful typewritten hand-outs that we used as a study guide to prepare for the LS test. During this time as one of his students, I learned Art was also in the United States Marine Corps and served in WWII. Having also served in the Marines, in a different war, I gained a dual admiration for Art Hipp.

    When Art passed away, like many land surveyors, I attended Art’s funeral in September 2007. At the service I noticed several men with USMC lapel pins and struck up a conversation with them. One of the Marines I met that day was Robert L. Fischer, Colonel USMC (Retired).

    Art belonged to an Arvada, Colorado Marine Veteran’s Group called Cooper’s Troopers. When I told Art’s Marine buddies I also was in the Marines and had served in Vietnam, Bob Fischer graciously invited me to attend their monthly meetings. To phrase Bob’s exact words, he said, “Please come to our luncheon meetings, Dean, I also served in Nam. At Cooper’s Troopers, these World War II guys actually tolerate us Vietnam Vets.” Bob Fischer’s words really appealed to me, and I’ve been enjoying the luncheon meetings with Art’s peers ever since.

    At the Cooper’s Troopers meetings, I learned that Bob Fischer took it upon himself to interview all the willing WWII Marine Veterans of the luncheon group, and put his findings in a book, Voices of the Corps. In his book is a one page bio on Art Hipp. I now feel compelled to write what I’ve learned about Art’s Honorable Service in the United States Marine Corps.

    OKINAWA – APRIL FOOL’S DAY/EASTER SUNDAY, 1945
    Art was standing on decks, waiting to disembark in Higgins landing boats with hundreds of his Marine brothers around him. Art was in awe, watching the pounding guns of the USS New Mexico battleship and hundreds of other ships and airplanes, softening up the beachhead and surrounding volcanic mountains. One of the more seasoned Marines in the group might have said to him, “In January of this year the kamikaze attacks destroyed her bridge, and killed the Captain of the New Mexico, in the Battle for Luzon, Philippines.” All the Marines must have been happy to see the battleship back from Pearl Harbor, where repairs to her bridge were made. Little did Art know then, but in a little over a month, he will personally witness more kamikaze attacks on the New Mexico, and this time devastating strikes will kill 58 and wound 119 of her crew.

    On this particular April Fool’s Day, Art is part of the largest island battle of World War II. The amphibious landing currently in progress involves 182,000 Army and 81,000 combat ready Marines. Imagine this force of Army and Marines filling six National Football League stadiums, then letting them all out at once, with each person carrying a 60 pound pack and weapon. With jeeps, trucks, tanks, accompanied with a month’s provisions of ammo, food, and fuel. To assist this contingent known as the 10th U.S. Army, all these materials were being unloaded from hundreds of ships and placed on a beach about 7 miles in breadth.

    Art’s unit, “E” Company, of the 2nd Battalion, of the 29th Marine Regiment, was part of the newly formed 6th Marine Division. The 6th Marine Division (6th MAR DIV) made up about 10% of the total force being deployment on this Easter Sunday Morning. The 6th MAR DIV, Commanded by Major General Lemuel Shephard – USMC, was a mixture of combat seasoned Marines, and green Marines like Art.

    The Pentagon decided to form and train the new 6th Marine Division in Guadalcanal over the previous five months to aid in the taking of Okinawa. With more Women Marines taking on the clerical and non-combat jobs back in the States, it freed up more able bodied men for overseas combat duties. Young Art Hipp was one of these men. As all Marines are first and primarily Riflemen, Art was also trained in Ordinance, and coupled with his infantry training, schooled in 60mm mortars. Upon being attached to the 6th MAR DIV, Art was designated Company Clerk and Company Runner for E Company.
    The Battle of Okinawa has been called the largest sea-land-air battle in history. It is also the last battle of the Pacific War. Three months of desperate combat leave Okinawa a "vast field of mud, lead, decay, and maggots." More than 100,000 Okinawan civilians perish, with over 72,000 American and 100,000 Japanese casualties. 2

    The Pentagon’s further plans for the 6th MAR DIV was for it to be part of the force in the final ground invasion into the Japanese mainland. Many historians believe it was this horrific battle (with over ¼ million casualties) that convinced U.S. leaders to force Japan’s surrender with a nuclear strike, rather than invade its main island. Therefore the 6th was the only Division in Marine Corps History to be formed and disbanded overseas, as after the Atomic Bombs, the mainland invasion was no longer necessary.

    Art’s unit landed on Green Beach 2 with the first wave of Marines. There was light and sporadic enemy fire, as was the plan of Japan’s General Mitsuru Ushijima. But the following summary gives us a deeper perspective:

    More mental health issues arose from the Battle of Okinawa than any other battle in the Pacific during World War II. The constant bombardment from artillery and mortars coupled with the high casualty rates led to a great deal of men coming down with combat fatigue. Additionally the rains caused mud that prevented tanks from moving and trucks from pulling out the dead, forcing Marines (who pride themselves on burying their dead in a proper and honorable manner) to leave their comrades where they lay. This, coupled with thousands of bodies both friend and foe littering the entire island, created a scent you could nearly taste. Morale was dangerously low by the month of May and the state of discipline on a moral basis had a new low barometer for acceptable behavior. The ruthless atrocities by the Japanese throughout the war had already brought on an altered behavior (deemed so by traditional standards) by many Americans resulting in the desecration of Japanese remains, but the Japanese tactic of using the Okinawan people as human shields brought about a new aspect of terror and torment to the psychological capacity of the Americans.

    Art was assigned as Company Clerk and Runner for E Company on Okinawa. I asked one of Art’s Cooper’s Troopers peers, Jim Blane, who had the same job description as Art during the battle of Iwo Jima. What were some of the jobs Art had to perform on Okinawa as Company Clerk & Runner? I asked. Jim replied, “Any stupid, nasty job that had to be done, Art would have to do it. From hauling ammo and medical supplies to fellow Marines pinned down, to retrieving bodies and body parts from the sea, in battle Marine Clerks filled in wherever necessary. Art would have to go any place where elements of his company needed him. His duties would change from day to day and from place to place.”

    The map of Art’s movements (Figure 1), across Okinawa is my best guess based on information I have gathered from various sources. Corporal Hugh C. Lipsius, USMC, father of Cynthia Lipsius of Buffalo, NY, was in the 3rd Platoon, E Company, 2nd Battalion, 29th Marine Regiment, 6th Marine Division, (Same Company as Art). Cynthia assembled very detailed writings of her father’s movements during the battle. The following is a portion of a letter Cynthia provided written by her father Hugh Lipsius dated July 4, 1945:

    I will give a brief resume of my stay here. We landed about 12:30 on April 1, 1945. On April 3rd we moved West of Yontan Airfield. On about the 6th of April we started to move North. We walked 30 miles in two days (whew). We had our first fight on the 12th. On the 15th we had the worst one of the Northern Campaign. The morning of the 16th our squad was sent on patrol. We were hit with mortar fire and returned to our C. P. (command post). We were sent out on another patrol and almost got trapped but managed to get out O.K. Our next battle was “Sugar Loaf Hill”. I can’t put into words to describe it, but most of the men in the cemetery were from that battle and also the hospitals. In the next one, I was hit and got back in time to come in on the Oroku Peninsula. Five days later, I was back in the hospital and got back here (to Okinawa) for the last 2 days (of the battle for Okinawa).

    Art was wounded at Oroku Village on June 14th and evacuated, therefore he would have been involved in the second unprecedented shore to shore amphibious landing on June 4th. This was done to avoid the Japanese stronghold on the high ground dividing the southern portion of the island. The shore to shore landing surprised the Japanese and is credited with saving American lives. About a week after Art was wounded the Battle for Okinawa was all but won: Japanese General Ushijima refused a personal plea from the American General Simon Buckner to surrender. Instead, hearing the sounds of the systematic destruction of positions nearby on Hill 89, Ushijima and General Cho committed ritual suicide, each disemboweling himself with a short sword followed by his beheading by his principal aide.

    For his combat performance Art received the following commendation from his division commander: For gallantry in action and extraordinary achievement during operations against the enemy on Okinawa Shima from April 1st to June 21st, 1945, your courage was a constant source of inspiration to your associates, and your conduct throughout was in keeping with the highest traditions of the Naval Service”. LEMUEL SHEPHARD, MAJGEN – USMC. (Commanding General 6th Marine Division,, Major General Shephard, was a veteran of the First World War, and would go on to become the 20th “Commandant of the Marine Corps – 4 star general “Top Marine” during the Korean War ).

    The words by Lemuel Shepherd are evidence of Art’s high ethical standards, and his superior dedication to The Professional Land Surveyors of Colorado and probably all his lifetime duties and accomplishments. Semper Fidelis . To Art Hipp, a mentor and Marine of the Greatest Generation.

    FOOTNOTES:
    1) 2001 Interview with Art Hipp, by Cooper’s Troopers Col. Robert Fischer USMC (Retired)

    2) Battle of Okinawa, by Ted Tsukiyama

    3) Woodland’s Joe Casillas recalls battle for Okinawa on TV, By Larry Shapiro (Daily Democrat.com Woodland, CA)

    4) SSgt Rudy R. Frame, Jr. "Okinawa: The Final Great Battle of World War II | Marine Corps Gazette". Mca-marines.org

    5) http://wwiletters.blogspot.com/2011/04wwii-letters-of-hugh-c-lipsius-of-e.html

    7) 2001 Interview with Art Hipp, by Cooper’s Troopers Col. Robert Fischer USMC (Retired)

    8) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitsuru Ushijima

    9) Semper Fidelis distinguishes the Marine Corps bond from any other. It goes beyond teamwork—it is a brotherhood that can always be counted on. Latin for "always faithful," Semper Fidelis became the Marine Corps motto in 1883. It guides Marines to remain faithful to the mission at hand, to each other, to the Corps and to country, no matter what. Becoming a Marine is a transformation that cannot be undone, and Semper Fidelis is a permanent reminder of that. Once made, a Marine will forever live by the ethics and values of the Corps.

  89. 89
    James LaVerdure says:

    Theresa, Where was your uncle from? I found a Manuel F. Sylvia, he was from Connecticut, serial number 2045162 Navy. Did not find any that was killed during the battle for Okinawa, found one that died in 1946, might of been wounded during the battle but died later, I have seen a lot of this happening. A date of birth and where he was born and living at the time he enter the service. If you want to get back with me you can josie56@sbcglobal.net.

    James

  90. 90
    Denise M Srewart says:

    My father, John H. \Jack\ Stewart was a Sixth Division, Fox Company, 29th Battalion machine gunner on Okinowa involved in Sugar Loaf and Naga battles to name a few, when he was just 17. We just lost my Dad September 11, 2014 Patriots Day I imagine a fitting day to take up his next assignment guarding heaven's gates. His was a breed and generation of proud Americans, with unwavering loyalty to The Corp – his Brothers. The Sixth Division website has valuable info and shares pictures and info with all through its newsletters. They hold regular reunions that are wonderful, amazing chances to hear the real stories of history told by the men who made history. Unfortunately their ranks are dwindling fast, but the legacy they leave us should never be lost. One of my fathers Marine buddy's Harold Stephens has a website and is a prolific author. His book \Take China, Last of the China Marines\ concentrates on their adventures after leaving Okinowa to head to Tsingtao, China and is definitely recommended reading, as a first-hand account if young Marines in WWII. The Marines I ve been privileged enough to meet at the reunions and their families have left a life long impression on me as some of the most interesting , yet down to earth, most heroic yet humble people I've ever met. Semper Fi to all these special people who have done so much to secure and preserve our freedom!

  91. 91
    maurice pownall says:

    to whom it may concern how would i go about finding out about how my uncle died on okinawa during ww2 he was a pvt in the army infantry his name was edward benchec….thank you

  92. 92
    James LaVerdure says:

    Maurice, I have a form that you can fill out and send it in. It's called the, Individuald Deceased Personnel 293/file, it will give in detail, how and when your uncle died. Do you have any idea what army unit your uncle was in, the two major infantry divisions were the 96th and 7th, which my father was in, other smaller army units also fought on Okinawa. You can try and google IDP 293/file to see if you can find it , or I can mail you a copy, I don't know how to scan anything. You can get back with me at josie56@sbcglobal.net

  93. 93
    Kathy Cole says:

    I am always amazed by the courage they showed in the face of utter horror. My father was so proud to be a marine and he died in 1987. PFC Lafaya Lynch from Louisiana and he said he was the driver of the first amphib to hit the beach on Easter Sunday 1945 at Okinawa. I asked him if he was scared and he always said that if anyone tells you they weren't scared then they were lying. The only picture I have of his military service is from basic training in San Diego before deployment to the south pacific. My gratitude is everlasting for his service and all the wonderful men who are mentioned here.

  94. 94
    James LaVerdure says:

    Hi Kathy, I found on ancestry.com that your father enlisted 4 Sept 1942 and was release 3 Nov 1945. He was Company C I Corps Motor Transport Battalion Amphibiqus Corps. I found some rosters showing where he was at. His serial number was 433898

    I also found that his parents were John Henry Lynch b. about 1886 Tennessee married Lilly Lee Tyson b. Louisiana.

    My father was in the 7th Infantry Division, he also was on Okinawa, he was wounded May 22nd, and was sent home.

    James



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