The last great Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ends in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bayezid I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
British troops capture Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, when he and a handful of Americans try to invade Canada.
The 12th Amendment is ratified, changing the procedure of choosing the president and vice-president.
President Franklin Roosevelt urges negotiations between Hitler and Czech President Edvard Benes over the Sudetenland.
The Red Army retakes Smolensk from the Germans who are retreating to the Dnieper River in the Soviet Union.
President Dwight Eisenhower and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev begin Camp David talks.
Scientists warn that continued use of aerosol sprays will cause ozone depletion, which will lead to an increased risk of skin cancer and global weather changes.
Sandra Day O'Connor, the first female Supreme Court Justice, is sworn in.
Maze Prison escape, County Antrim, Northern Ireland; 38 IRA prisoners escape in the largest prison breakout in British history; known among Irish republicans as the Great Escape.
Ireland's last Magdalene laundry closes; begun as asylums to rehabilitate "fallen women," they increasingly took on prison-like qualities.
China launches Shenzhou 7 spacecraft; crew performs China's first extra-vehicular activity (EVA).