King Francis of France defeats the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthaus Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy.
On the verge of attacking Pedro Menendez's Spanish settlement at San Agostin, Florida, Jean Ribault's French fleet is scattered by a devastating storm.
Anne Robert Turgot, the new controller of finances, urges the king of France to restore the free circulation of grain in the kingdom.
The Constitutional Convention authorizes the first federal election resolving that electors in all the states will be appointed on January 7, 1789.
General Winfield Scott takes Chapultepec, removing the last obstacle to U.S. troops moving on Mexico City.
Union troops in Frederick, Maryland, discover General Robert E. Lee's attack plans for the invasion of Maryland wrapped around a pack of cigars. They give the plans to General George B. McClellan who sends the Army of the Potomac to confront Lee but only after a delay of more than half a day.
The Loudoun County Rangers route a company of Confederate cavalry at Catoctin Mountain in Virginia.
U.S. warships head to Nicaragua on behalf of American William Albers, who was accused of evading tobacco taxes.
U.S. and French forces take St. Mihiel, France in America's first action as a standing army.
In Korea, U.S. Army troops begin their assault in Heartbreak Ridge. The month-long struggle will cost 3,700 casualties.
Hurricane Gilbert becomes the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere, based on barometric pressure. Hurricane Wilma will break that record in 2005.
The Oslo Accords, granting limited Palestinian autonomy, are signed by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat at the White House.
Hurricane Ike makes landfall in Texas; it had already been the most costly storm in Cuba's history and becomes the third costliest in the US.