The Pope names Henry VIII of England Defender of the Faith after defending the seven sacraments against Luther.
Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats his enemies in battle and affirms his position as Japan's most powerful warlord.
Vice Admiral and Viscount Horatio Nelson wins his greatest victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar, fought off Cape Trafalgar, Spain. Nelson is fatally wounded in the battle, but lives long enough to see victory.
Under a flag of truce during peace talks, U.S. troops siege the Indian Seminole Chief Osceola in Florida.
The Battle of Ball's Bluff, Va. begins, a disastrous Union defeat which sparks Congressional investigations.
Many leaders of the Kiowa, Comanche and Kiowa-Apache sign a peace treaty at Medicine Lodge, Kan. Comanche Chief Quanah Parker refused to accept the treaty terms.
After 14 months of testing, Thomas Edison first demonstrates his electric lamp, hoping to one day compete with gaslight.
As war heats up with Germany, the British war cabinet holds its first meeting in the underground war room in London.
Eight American and British officers land from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.
North Korean Premier Kim Il-Sung establishes a new capital at Sinuiju on the Yalu River opposite the Chinese City of Antung.
The "March on the Pentagon," protesting American involvement in Vietnam , draws 50,000 protesters.
Israel's Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan resigns over disagreements with Prime Minister Menachem Begin over policies related to the Palestinians.