Today in History: October 1

Today in History: October 1

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September 30 October 2

0331

Alexander the Great decisively shatters King Darius III's Persian army at Gaugamela (Arbela), in a tactical masterstroke that leaves him master of the Persian Empire.

1273

Rudolf of Hapsburg is elected emperor in Germany.

1588

The feeble Sultan Mohammed Shah of Persia, hands over power to his 17-year old son Abbas.

1791

In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly holds its first meeting.

1839

The British government decides to send a punitive naval expedition to China.

1847

Maria Mitchell, American astronomer, discovers a comet and is elected the same day to the American Academy of Arts---the first woman to be so honored. The King of Denmark awarded her a gold medal for her discovery.

1856

The first installment of Gustav Flaubert's novel Madame Bovary appears in the Revue de Paris after the publisher refuses to print a passage in which the character Emma has a tryst in the back seat of a carriage.

1864

The Condor, a British blockade-runner, is grounded near Fort Fisher, North Carolina.

1878

General Lew Wallace is sworn in as governor of New Mexico Territory. He went on to deal with the Lincoln County War, Billy the Kid and write Ben-Hur. His Civil War heroics earned him the moniker Savior of Cincinnati.

1890

Yosemite National Park is dedicated in California.

1908

The Ford Model T, the first car for millions of Americans, hits the market. Over 15 million Model Ts are eventually sold, all of them black.

1942

The German Army grinds to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad.

1943

British troops in Italy enter Naples and occupy Foggia airfield.

1944

The U.S. First Army begins the siege Aachen, Germany.

1946

Eleven Nazi war criminals are sentenced to be hanged at Nuremberg trials---Hermann Goring, Alfred Jodl, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachin von Ribbentrop, Fritz Saukel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher, and Alfred Rosenberg.

1947

First flight of F-86 Sabre jet fighter, which would win fame in the Korean War.

1949

Mao Zedong establishes the People's Republic of China.

1957

""In God We Trust" appears on US paper currency as an act to distinguish the US from the officially atheist USSR; the motto had appeared on coins at various times since 1864.

1958

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) replaces the 43-year-old National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in the US.

1960

Nigeria becomes independent from the UK.

1961

The Federal Republic of Cameroon is formed by the merger of East and West Cameroon.

1962

The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson debuts; Carson will remain The Tonight Show host until 1992.

1964

The first Free Speech Movement protest erupts spontaneously on the University of California, Berkeley campus; students demanded an end to the ban of on-campus political activities.

1964

Japanese "bullet trains" (Shinkansen) begin high-speed rail transit between Tokyo and Osaka.

1971

Walt Disney World opens near Orlando, Florida, the second of Disney's "Magic Kingdoms."

1971

First CT or CAT brain scan performed, at Atkinson Morley Hospital in Wimbledon, London.

1974

Five Nixon aides--Kenneth Parkinson, Robert Mardian, Nixon's Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell--go on trial for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation.

1975

Legendary boxing match: Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Frazier in the "Thrilla in Manila."

1979

US returns sovereignty of the Panama Canal to Panama.

1982

First compact disc player, released by Sony.

1989

Denmark introduces the world's first "civil union" law granting same-sex couples certain legal rights and responsibilities but stopping short of recognizing same-sex marriages.

1991

Siege of Dubrovnik begins in the Croatian War of Independence.

2009

The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom takes over judicial functions of the House of Lords.