Mary, Queen of Scots is beheaded in Fotheringhay Castle for her alleged part in the conspiracy to usurp Elizabeth I.
At Eylau, Napoleon's Marshal Pierre Agureau attacks Russian forces in a heavy snowstorm.
Delegates from seceded states adopt a provisional Confederate Constitution.
Union troops under Gen. Ambrose Burnside defeat a Confederate defense force at the Battle of Roanoke Island, N.C.
Confederate raider William Quantrill and men attack a group of Federal wagons at New Market, Kentucky.
Congress passes the Dawes Act, which gives citizenship to Indians living apart from their tribe.
British General Buller is beaten at Ladysmith, South Africa as the British flee over the Tugela River.
The Japanese land on Singapore.
British General Orde Wingate leads a guerrilla force of "Chindits" against the Japanese in Burma.
The U.S. Defense Department reports the creation of the Military Assistance Command in South Vietnam.
South Vietnamese ground forces, backed by American air power, begin Operation Lam Son 719, a 17,000 man incursion into Laos that ends three weeks later in a disaster.