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It is November 6, 1941, as you assume the role of Imperial Japan- ese Army (IJA) Lieutenant General Tomoyuki Yamashita. Earlier today you took command of 25th Army at its Saigon head- quarters in Japanese-occupied French Indochina. (See Indochina-Malaya map, p. 69.) The timing for your assumption of command is critical since

Japan’s leaders have decided that in three weeks the country will go to war against the Western powers, and 25th Army will play a vital role in the opening war offensive. Japan’s strategy will be to “strike south” and attempt to seize a vast, resource-rich area in Southeast Asia (principally British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies) to exploit its raw materials (oil, rubber, etc.), which Japan needs for industry and the Japanese war machine. To accomplish this goal, on December 8 (December 7 in Hawaii) Japan will simultaneously launch two major operations: a carrier-based airstrike by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) Fleet aimed at neutralizing the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; and an invasion by 25th Army targeting British Malaya, including Singapore, Britain’s heavily fortified naval base at the tip of the Malay Peninsula.

You are fully aware that your all-important campaign to conquer Malaya will likely determine whether Japan’s “strike south” gamble succeeds or fails.


Imperial Headquarters in Tokyo has assigned four divisions for your operation: Imperial Guards Division and IJA 5th, 18th and 56th divisions. Although guardsmen are specially selected for their more robust physiques, they are actually trained for ceremonial duties. The unit has not seen fighting since the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War, and thus its combat effectiveness remains unknown until it is committed to battle.

IJA 5th and 18th divisions consist of well-trained soldiers, including many who have experienced combat in the war in China that began in 1937. Both divisions were selected for this operation because of their exceptional esprit de corps compared to that of other Japanese units fighting in China. Since one of 18th Division’s brigades is unavailable for the campaign, 5th Division is your strongest unit. You decide to hold 56th Division in reserve in Indochina.

Other forces under the control of 25th Army include 3d Tank Brigade, which boasts 80 light and medium tanks; two heavy field artillery regiments with a total of 400 guns and mortars; plus engineers, signals units, a railroad detachment and supply troops. Your invasion force’s strength is 60,000 troops, not counting the men in your reserve unit.

Your army is supported by the ships and planes of the IJN 2d Fleet, whose 22d Air Flotilla has 159 aircraft. IJA 3d Air Group, with 459 planes, initially will support your operation from bases in southern Indochina until its aircraft can deploy to captured airfields in Malaya.

Malaya’s climate and terrain no doubt will prove difficult for your troops since they have no experience in jungle fighting. However, you have full confidence in their ability to adapt to the peninsula’s challenging environment.


The enemy force opposing your invasion is British Army Malaya Command, led by Lieutenant General Arthur Percival from his Singapore headquarters. The principal combat units your men will face are III Corps, composed of 9th and 11th Indian divisions, and 8th Australian Division, for a total of about 89,000 troops. Percival also has three Indian, two British and two Malay Volunteers brigades in reserve, bringing Malaya Command’s strength to 120,000.

British supporting weapons include Singapore’s heavy fortress guns, 150 anti-aircraft guns, 200 anti-tank guns, and 550 artillery guns and mortars. Although Malaya Command has 250 armored cars, it has no tanks since British commanders consider the jungle terrain unsuitable for armored operations.

Compared to your IJN and IJA air support, Percival’s air support is very weak. His Royal Air Force (RAF) and Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) aircraft are outdated and greatly outnumbered, consisting of 100 inferior Brewster “Buffalo” fighters, 130 obsolete bombers and 50 reconnaissance planes.

The British are expected to oppose the Japanese amphibious landings using troops already deployed in northern, central and southern Malaya. Thus, your landing forces could face strong counterattacks against any beachheads they seize on the Malayan coast.


The Malay Peninsula features strips of flat coastal plains along its east and west shorelines, which are separated by a steep-sloped, jungle-covered central mountain range. Roads run along the coastal plains, but the best roadrail system is located on the west coast. The surrounding jungle, however, greatly restricts off-road maneuvering. Although narrow, primitive jungle trails abound, they are difficult for large troop formations to negotiate and are considered impassable for vehicles.

Malaya contains swamps and numerous rivers, and 250 major bridges are situated between Thailand’s border in the north and Singapore in the south. The Japanese must capture these bridges intact, or quickly repair them if they have been destroyed, to maintain a speedy advance and keep vital supplies flowing.

The climate in Malaya is typical of the tropics, consisting of extreme humidity, oppressively high temperatures and seasonal heavy rains. The heat and humidity will quickly exhaust soldiers during intense combat, and the rains could contaminate or destroy unprotected supplies.

Once your troops have secured the invasion beaches and the fighting moves inland, British forces, relying on the jungle to act as a barrier to movement, will likely use delaying tactics such as roadblocks and blown bridges to slow or stop 25th Army’s advance. However, to speed troop movement over the roads and trails during this campaign, you plan to introduce an innovation: thousands of bicycles.


In the weeks before you took command of 25th Army, its staff had been developing several alternative invasion plans. Now, with Japan’s opening war offensive approaching, you must decide which option gives your army the best chance for success. You meet with your staff and supporting naval and air commanders for a briefing on three possible courses of action:

COURSE OF ACTION ONE: INVADE FROM THAILAND. Under this plan, leading elements of 5th and 18th divisions will seize the ports of Singora and Pattani in Thailand. By conducting the initial landings there, the invading troops will avoid confronting strong British forces when they are most vulnerable and will be able to provide secure beachheads, port facilities and airfields for subsequent landings of Imperial Guards and the remainder of 5th and 18th divisions. After securing a lodgment in Thailand, 25th Army’s divisions will attack across the border into Malaya and advance down the peninsula’s west coast toward Singapore using its best road-rail network.

COURSE OF ACTION TWO: INVADE FROM THAILAND AND NORTHERN MALAYA. This course of action calls for simultaneous landings by 5th Division at Singora and Pattani in Thailand and by 18th Division at Kota Bharu in northern Malaya. Imperial Guards will follow 5th Division, and then the two units will attack across the border into western Malaya before advancing south along the west coast. Meanwhile, after capturing Kota Bharu and its airfield, 18th Division will attack south along the east coast. This dual advance toward Singapore will fragment and disrupt enemy defenses by forcing the British to confront two major attacks at the same time.

COURSE OF ACTION THREE: INVADE FROM MALAYAN EAST COAST. The third option entails a phased series of amphibious landings at three locations along Malaya’s east coast. Initially, Imperial Guards will assault Kota Bharu and seize its port facilities and airfield before moving south to support subsequent landings. A week later, 18th Division will land 200 miles south at Kuantan to seize more airfields and then attack west to cut off enemy forces to the north. Finally, 10 days after that, 5th Division will land 150 miles south of Kuantan to cut off retreating enemy units and seize attack positions for 25th Army’s assault on Singapore.

What next, General Yamashita?


You decide that invading Malaya through the “back door” of Thailand eliminates the greatest risk to your amphibious operation – a defeat by strong British defenses at the beaches. Moreover, Imperial Headquarters in Tokyo has made clear that violating Thailand’s neutrality is of no consequence if it serves Japan’s military needs.

Hours before dawn on December 8, 1941, your invasion convoy, supported by air attacks and naval gunfire, lands the leading assault elements, placing 5th Division at Singora and 18th Division at Pattani. Although Thai forces initially resist, an official representative soon arrives and assures you that they will no longer oppose Japan’s military action.

Your landing forces come under British air attacks, resulting in one troop transport sunk and several others damaged. However, IJA 3d Air Group quickly eliminates this threat with airstrikes on enemy airfields in northern Malaya, including the major one at Kota Bharu. As 5th and 18th divisions’ main forces arrive, closely followed by Imperial Guards, your troops swiftly seize local airfields to use as forward bases for IJA fighters’ close air support.

Since your invasion violated Thailand’s neutrality, British 11th Indian Division near Jitra sends two brigades across the border, one advancing toward Singora and the other toward Pattani. Moving slowly and in broad daylight, the British units become targets and are battered by continuous Japanese air attacks. Their counterattacks fall apart and the enemy brigades retreat to Jitra.

Meanwhile, on December 10, IJN planes find the British battleships HMS Prince of Wales and Repulse in the sea off Kuantan as they steam north to attack your landing forces. Lacking air cover, both warships are quickly sunk by Japanese planes, ending any British naval threat to your vital sea supply lanes.

Five days later, 25th Army has firmly established its lodgment, and Japanese planes, both in airstrikes on RAF/RAAF bases and in aerial combat against inferior British planes, have reduced Percival’s air support by half. On December 15, you begin the army’s attack south into Malaya. Imperial Guards and 5th Division lead the advance toward Jitra, while 18th Division, after sending a force to screen British units near Kota Bharu, attacks to the southwest to cut off Jitra’s defenders.

The speed of your advance appears to stun the enemy forces, and your bicycle innovation is working particularly well. Your tanks also seem to take the British by surprise, and without tanks of their own, their roadblocks are nearly powerless to stop your armor. Jitra falls to your soldiers on December 18, only three days after you began your attack into Malaya. British 11th Indian Division retreats to Butterworth but is hit in the flank by 18th Division’s advance, preventing the enemy from making a stand in the town. You order 18th Division to pursue 11th Indian Division as it retreats south and direct 5th Division and Imperial Guards at Jitra to continue their advance southward. So far, your campaign is exceeding all expectations.

On December 20, however, your forward units begin sending you troubling reports. Although your men continue to dominate their British opponents in combat actions, the sheer number of enemy troops retreating over – and clogging up – Malaya’s west coast road-rail system makes it impossible for your units to maintain the pace of their advance. Moreover, sending Imperial Guards and 5th Division units over the same overtaxed road network only adds to the congestion. This not only creates tactical problems but also seriously impedes the movement of supplies – particularly critically needed ammunition – that are being transported south from 25th Army’s operating base in Thailand.

In an effort to get your stalled advance moving, on December 22 you send Imperial Guards in commandeered enemy boats on an amphibious “end run” to seize a beachhead halfway between Butterworth and Kuala Lumpur. This proves a disastrous mistake; British 9th Indian Division repulses the landing attempt and Imperial Guards suffer heavy casualties. You withdraw the battered guards back to Singora to reconstitute and now must order 56th Division brought over from Indochina, which will cause even further delays.

Although 5th and 18th divisions continue moving south, their progress remains too slow, giving the British time to blow up bridges, bring up reinforcements and pre-position supporting units in the best tactical locations to delay your advance. The enemy troops also are quickly learning to adapt to the evolving battlefield conditions. For instance, they are using direct-fire artillery well forward to knock out your tanks and are hiding in thick jungle during airstrikes to avoid heavy casualties.

By mid-January 1942, your lead units still have not reached Kuala Lumpur and supply delays have left your forces critically short of ammunition. Moreover, although the Japanese have destroyed British 11th Indian Division, Percival’s 9th Indian and 8th Australian divisions are still intact and can oppose any further advance by your forces – and your British counterpart still has uncommitted reserve brigades in Singapore.

Although you may eventually capture Singapore, you realize it could take weeks or even months. Your plan to attack down the length of the peninsula along a single axis of advance has resulted in an extended, time-consuming campaign that puts Japan’s “strike south” offensive at grave risk of failure.


You decide the best option is to invade from Thailand and northern Malaya and then attack south along both sides of the peninsula. This dual advance will allow 25th Army to move as rapidly as possible while also keeping British defenders off balance as they confront the two-pronged offensive. Imperial Headquarters in Tokyo has granted you permission to violate Thailand’s neutrality if it serves Japan’s military needs.

The invasion begins shortly after midnight the night of December 7-8, 1941, with 5th Division landing at Singora and Pattani in Thailand, while 18th Division lands at Kota Bharu in northern Malaya. Although your forces initially face resistance in Thailand, you soon receive word that Thai leaders accept Japan’s military action. Imperial Guards follow 5th Division into Thailand, and your forces quickly seize the port facilities and airfields.

Meanwhile, a brigade of British 9th Indian Division strongly resists 18th Division’s amphibious assault at Kota Bharu. Both sides suffer heavy casualties and British planes sink a Japanese troop transport. Nonetheless, by midday, 18th Division has captured Kota Bharu and its important airfield. IJA 3d Air Group quickly occupies this airfield, as well as the ones in Thailand, to provide close air support.

With all your invasion forces ashore and in secure bases, and as Japanese aircraft literally sweep the skies clear of British planes, you order your divisions to begin their advance south. Imperial Guards and 5th Division move toward the Thailand-Malaya border, using speed and maneuver along with highly effective close air support to brush aside British forces sent north to intercept them. From Kota Bharu, 18th Division advances south along Malaya’s east coast while being screened by detachments it sends into central Malaya.

On December 10, IJN planes score a stunning triumph, easily sinking the British battleships HMS Prince of Wales and Repulse, which are caught sailing without air cover. Thus, the British naval threat to your sea supply lanes is eliminated.

Led by 5th Division, your forces advancing in western Malaya capture Jitra, defeating British 11th Indian Division, which then retreats southward. By December 13, your forces capture more airfields on Malaya’s west coast, while your advances along both coasts proceed rapidly. British forces seem stunned by the mobility of your units – retreating British soldiers can’t get away from your bicycle troops to regroup. Your tanks are also a nasty surprise to British defenders, who, without tanks of their own, find their roadblocks and strongpoints vulnerable to armored attacks. Moreover, even when the British blow up some of Malaya’s numerous bridges, your engineers repair them within hours.

To propel your advances along even more quickly, on December 23 you order “end run” amphibious landings to envelop British defensive lines and keep the enemy off balance. Using confiscated boats, Imperial Guards on the west coast and 18th Division on the east coast conduct successful amphibious landings in British rear areas that disrupt the enemy’s orderly withdrawal and demoralize British troops.

When Percival’s forces attempt to make a stand, your encircling maneuvers and superior firepower defeat them. By the closing days of January 1942, your “jungle blitzkrieg” has reached the Johor Strait, the narrow strip of water separating Malaya from Singapore. As the last British troops in Malaya cross over to Singapore on January 31, they blow up the connecting causeway.

Although your campaign has exceeded expectations thus far, your force, now reduced to 36,000 soldiers, is still greatly outnumbered by Percival’s 85,000 defenders in Singapore. Moreover, 25th Army is getting desperately low on ammunition and supplies. You must capture Singapore quickly, before Percival realizes these weaknesses.

On the night of February 8, you direct Imperial Guards to conduct a feint on Singapore’s northeast side, while 5th and 18th divisions launch amphibious attacks on the island’s northwest shore. The surprise attack succeeds, and heavy fighting over the next week steadily pushes British defenders into a shrinking area in southeast Singapore. Your ammunition is now nearly exhausted.

On the morning of February 15, in a daring gamble to convince Percival your force has plentiful ammunition, you order all guns fired to the last round. Later that day – oblivious to your bluff – Percival surrenders. Your capture of Malaya and Singapore results in a stunning triumph for the key operation in Japan’s opening war offensive.


You judge that a phased series of amphibious landings along Malaya’s east coast allows 25th Army to avoid fighting its way down the entire length of the 500-mile-long peninsula, shortens the distance that critical supplies must be transported to forward units, and offers you the opportunity to cut off major enemy units in northern and western Malaya. If successful, this plan will position your army to capture Singapore in the shortest possible time.

Before dawn on December 8, 1941, Imperial Guards, supported by naval gunfire and airstrikes, launch your army’s initial amphibious invasion by assaulting Kota Bharu. Despite superior Japanese air strength, British air attacks sink one troop transport and damage several others. As the landing craft approach the invasion beach, the guards suffer significant casualties after coming under heavy fire from a brigade of British 9th Indian Division. Leading units of Imperial Guards manage to get ashore but are immediately counterattacked by British defenders.

Japanese airstrikes and naval gunfire prevent the enemy counterattack from overrunning the landing forces, but your Imperial Guards have only a tenuous hold on the beachhead, preventing the Japanese from landing tanks, artillery and ammunition. That night under cover of darkness, Imperial Guards launch a desperate attack out of the beachhead and advance to Kota Bharu, but in the process they sustain heavy casualties.

From December 9-11, the fighting is intense and costly to both sides. Moreover, the delay in capturing Kota Bharu allows the British to add another 9th Indian Division brigade to the battle. By December 12, the much depleted Imperial Guards Division has captured most of Kota Bharu, but British defenders still control the airfield and block any Japanese advance.

Your plan to capture Kota Bharu and its airfield and then rapidly move Imperial Guards Division south to support the second invasion at Kuantan has failed. You realize that entrusting this key initial invasion to the combat-inexperienced Imperial Guards was a mistake. However, you decide that 18th Division’s amphibious invasion of Kuantan will proceed as scheduled on December 15.

Two hours before dawn on December 15, 18th Division’s assault troops land at Kuantan, supported by airstrikes and naval gunfire. Japanese planes drive off British air attacks, and although the brigade defending Kuantan puts up a spirited resistance, 18th Division defeats it and forces it to retreat. The invasion is a success, and Japanese tanks, artillery and supplies are quickly brought ashore.

On December 17, you order 18th Division to begin its advance west toward Kuala Lumpur to cut off British forces in northern and central Malaya. The defenders try to delay the division by using roadblocks and blowing up bridges; however, Japanese tanks, airstrikes and superior tactics defeat all attempts to slow the advance. On December 19, the division’s leading troops reach Kuala Lumpur’s outskirts, but an unpleasant surprise awaits them – British 11th Indian Division is occupying the city.

You had assumed 11th Indian Division was still far to the north near Jitra and Butterworth. You are mystified by how it was able to move over 200 miles south undetected by Japanese air reconnaissance to oppose your attack on Kuala Lumpur. You can only surmise that by taking advantage of the peninsula’s best road-rail network along the west coast, the division must have traveled at night and hid in the jungle during the daytime to avoid detection.

Despite the strong British defenses at Kuala Lumpur, you have no choice but to order 18th Division to attack and capture it at all costs. Overwhelming Japanese airpower and artillery fire turns much of the city into rubble – yet this works to the defenders’ advantage by preventing the effective use of Japanese tanks and by creating countless defensive positions that must be stormed one by one. The urban combat drags on through December 25, the date 5th Division is supposed to conduct the third amphibious invasion, so you instead order it to land at Kuantan and then move west to assist 18th Division.

As the battle for Kuala Lumpur continues into mid-January 1942, you realize that your phased triple invasion plan has only resulted in 25th Army being committed piecemeal, which prevents your divisions from providing mutual support and allows British defenders to engage them individually.

Percival, meanwhile, still has his uncommitted 8th Australian Division, several reserve brigades and sufficient time to bring up thousands of reinforcements. Unfortunately, you doubt your greatly depleted force is capable of capturing Singapore against such daunting odds.


Yamashita chose COURSE OF ACTION TWO: INVADE FROM THAILAND AND NORTHERN MALAYA and the fighting unfolded as described in the COA Two narrative. In a lightning-fast campaign that began December 8, 1941, and moved down both sides of the 500-mile-long Malay Peninsula, 25th Army destroyed or outflanked British positions, crossed the Johor Strait in a daring amphibious assault, and captured Singapore by February 15, 1942. Despite having no experience in jungle warfare, Japanese troops quickly adapted to Malaya’s grueling weather and terrain conditions, fighting over 95 engagements while advancing an average of more than 12.5 miles a day.

This astounding campaign, conducted by an outnumbered force led by an aggressive commander, gave Japan a great victory and handed Britain a humiliating defeat at the outset of World War II in the Asia-Pacific Theater. Indeed, Britain’s Prime Minister Winston Churchill lamented the fall of Singapore as “the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British military history.”

Yamashita earned the nickname “Tiger of Malaya” for his stunning “jungle blitzkrieg” campaign; however, this high point was followed by a wave of atrocities committed by Japanese troops and the Gestapo-like Kempeitai secret police. These included the murder of 50,000-100,000 of Singapore’s Chinese civilian residents and the brutalization of the city’s Malay and Indian populations. British and Australian prisoners of war captured in Malaya and Singapore also endured horrific conditions for years before liberation in 1945. Many of the POWs perished, including over 10,000 who died while working as forced laborers on the infamous Burma “Death Railway.”


 Colonel (Ret.) Richard N. Armstrong, author of “Soviet Operational Deception: The Red Cloak,” is an adjunct history professor at the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor.

Originally published in the May 2014 issue of Armchair General.