Oliver Cromwell crushes the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor.
Marshall Saxe leads the French forces to victory over an Anglo-Dutch force under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Lauffeld.
The Continental Congress resolves with the Declaration of Independence that the American colonies "are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States."
Denmark Vesey is executed in Charleston, South Carolina, for planning a massive slave revolt.
Charles J. Guiteau fatally wounds President James A. Garfield in Washington, D.C.
American aviation pioneer Amelia Earhart disappears in the Central Pacific during an attempt to fly around the world.
President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into law.