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Cover Story
Crossing the Great Divide
A timeline tracing the long, troubled history of race relations in the American armed forces. PLUS, a conversation with Clifford Alexander Jr., the first black secretary of the U.S. Army.

The Mystery of Pearl Harbor
By Jeffrey Record
Dec. 7, 1941, the date Japan started a war it could not win. Why?

By Dennis Showalter
Was Nathan Bedford Forrest history’s most fearsome general?

American Proconsul
By Stanley Weintraub
Douglas MacArthur reshaped postwar Japanthen got fired

Portfolio: Faces of a Revolution
American photographer Susan Meiselas captured searing images of Nicaragua at war

Dragging Canoe’s War
By Albert Bender
How a Cherokee war chief fought for his people and their land


On the cover: Tuskegee airman Edward C. Gleed stands beside a P-51 in Italy in March 1945. (Tony Frissell/Library of Congress; colorization by John Roche/Slingshot Studio)


Great Escapes, John Wayne’s Twin and Lionheart

Walter Reed AMC Closes, Pearl Harbor Skull

Andrew Roberts: World War II Re-examined

By Stephen Harding
Doris Miller: Pearl Harbor’s Unlikely Hero

What We Learned…
By Chris Alsop and Florian Graf
from the Capture of Guînes

By Edward G. Lengel
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare


Hand Tool
By Jon Guttman
Samurai Daisho

Power Tool
By Jon Guttman
Japanese Type 95 Torpedo

Letter from Military History


Hallowed Ground
By Wade G. Dudley
Oahu Hawaii

War Games

Weapons We’re Glad They Never Built
By Rick Meyerowitz
Secret Weapons of the CIA (Part 1)


Military History Reader Poll:

Compare the strategic objective of the Dec. 7, 1941, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (to compel the United States to sue for peace) with that of the Sept. 11, 2001, al Qaeda terrorist attacks (to provoke a global religious war).


Pearl Harbor Attack: Why weren’t we warned?

Postwar Japan: MacArthur’s troubled history project

Nicaragua: Ronald Reagan’s Cold War strategy

Civil War: More about Nathan Bedford Forrest