Lt. Col. John E. Gross Recalls the Tet Battles of Bien Hoa and Long Binh | HistoryNet

Lt. Col. John E. Gross Recalls the Tet Battles of Bien Hoa and Long Binh

6/12/2006 • Vietnam

A great deal has been written about the battles of Tet 1968 and the political firestorm that resulted from them. Less has been written about the danger, turmoil, chaos, confusion, contradictions and outright lunacy that confronted individual units as they responded to VC attacks on the morning of January 31. This is the story of one rifle company, and what it faced on that decisive day. Mainly it is the story of some of the finest solders to ever wear the uniform of the U.S. Army and how they reacted not only to fierce combat, but also to the fog of war.

In April 1967 I was a first lieutenant commanding a rifle company in the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, N.C. I had been in command for five months and had been assured that I would be in command for one year, which suited me fine. My plan was to make captain and go to Vietnam as an experienced company commander. Since I was in an airborne unit, I was sure I would go to the 173rd Airborne Brigade or the 101st Airborne Division.

I was disappointed when I received orders to join the 9th Infantry Division. Not only would I not finish my command tour, I was being assigned to a leg division. When I arrived at 9th Division in June, I was shocked to learn that I was going to a mechanized battalion. I had assumed I would be assigned to one of the battalions in the Delta where I could use my light infantry and Ranger school experience. The only contact I had had with M-113 armored personnel carriers (APCs) was during a training exercise at the officers’ basic course just after I entered the Army.

When I arrived at the 2nd Battalion (Mechanized), 47th Infantry, nicknamed the Panthers, Lt. Col. Arthur Moreland, the commander, asked me what job I wanted. I told him that I wanted to command a company. He said I would have to wait. I was to be a platoon leader again, in Charlie Company, commanded by Captain John Ionoff. After commanding 180 paratroopers, taking on four APCs and 40 troops seemed like a dream–except that now I was responsible for troops in combat, not training.

In mid-September, when Ionoff moved to battalion to become the operations officer (S3), I assumed command of Charlie Company. In October, the 2-47 was given the mission of securing engineers as they cleared Highway 1 from Xuan Loc to the II Corps boundary near Phan Thiet. During this time, the battalion made only sporadic contact and suffered few casualties.

As my airborne mentality faded, I learned to love the M-113–or ‘track,’ as we called it. We could haul more personal gear, live more comfortably and walk less than straight-leg troops. Each APC could carry almost as much ammunition as a dismounted rifle company, and in a fight, the company had 22 .50-caliber machine guns, a 106mm and several 90mm recoilless rifles, and more radios and M-60 machine guns than a walking company could ever carry. In addition, we were tremendously flexible. We could ride, walk or be airlifted to war, travel great distances in a short amount of time, and arrive with many times the ammunition and equipment that could be lifted in by helicopter. We could use our tracks as a base of fire or in a blocking position as the company maneuvered dismounted. We carried concertina wire, sand bags and hundreds of Claymores and trip flares to make our defensive positions practically impenetrable.

As time passed, I became a mechanized soldier. So, when I was offered a chance to go to II Field Force to help establish a new long-range reconnaissance patrol outfit, I actually turned it down to stay with the company.


Dismounted troops of the 2nd Battalion (Mechanized), 47th Regiment, 9th Infantry Division, stay close to their M-113 armored personnel carriers (APCs) as they clear Widow’s Village, near Long Binh Army Post, of Viet Cong who had overrun it during the Communist 1968 Tet Offensive (National Archives).

During December we made little enemy contact, probably because the Communists were lying low preparing for Tet. In January 1968, our battalion relocated to the area between Xuan Loc and Bien Hoa, where intelligence had located a VC battalion. On January 23, during a battalion sweep of a heavily jungled area south of Highway 1, Alpha Company walked into a well-camouflaged, well-defended enemy bunker system and was badly mauled, losing four men killed and more than 20 wounded, including almost all of the officers. Charlie Company reacted quickly to reinforce Alpha, and a daylong fight ensued. Toward dark, airstrikes had to be called in to blast the VC from the hill. The battle was significant, since Alpha’s leadership was seriously depleted during the days immediately prior to Tet.

Following that fight, the 2-47 was ordered south of the 9th Division’s base camp. During the last week of January, the battalion patrolled the jungles east of Highway 15, near the Binh Son rubber plantation.

When the Tet cease-fire period began on January 28, the battalion was called back to the vicinity of Bear Cat, and Charlie Company was ordered to a large open field across Highway 15 from the Long Tan airfield. From our positions, we could see and hear the fireworks lighting the sky over Saigon to the west. Besides the fireworks, ARVN soldiers had linked tracer bullets together and were stitching the darkness with weaving streams of machine gun fire.

The II Field Force commander, Lt. Gen. Frederick C. Weyand, had correctly guessed that a major attack was going to come during Tet, and his anticipation of the attacks no doubt saved Long Binh and Saigon from being overrun. The 2-47 was one of several units General Weyand pulled in from the jungles to guard the Long Binh headquarters and logistical complex 15 miles northeast of Saigon.

During the morning of January 30, the 2-47 Mech was notified that the Tet cease-fire was canceled, and the unit was deployed into a defensive line along the road that ran around the east side of the Long Binh base. The recon platoon was ordered to establish a blocking position south of Long Binh on Highway 15. The 1st Platoon of Bravo Company was made the II Field Force reaction force and was placed in the PX parking lot at Long Binh. Charlie Company’s 3rd Platoon was also detached for a security mission inside the base. Alpha Company, still licking its wounds from the January 23 fight, was left intact.

The three companies formed a line almost three kilometers long, facing to the east, with their backs to the Long Binh wire. All of these placements were made with the wrongful assumption that the VC would attack from the jungles outside the base. In fact, the Communists had already infiltrated the city of Bien Hoa, suburban Ho Nai village and Widow’s Village, where pensioned families of deceased ARVN soldiers lived. Widow’s Village made a perfect attack position for the VC, since it lay directly across Highway 316 from II Field Force headquarters in the Long Binh complex. Dressed as travelers returning to ancestral homes for the Tet holiday, the guerrillas had quietly drifted into their urban assembly areas and put together their weapons.

As the afternoon of January 30 drifted toward dusk, Charlie Company soldiers stripped to the waist and dug bunkers next to their M-113s. Later, as the sun sank over the Long Binh base, they tossed a football and ate cold C rations. That night, no one slept, but instead scanned the jungles with Starlight scopes, seeing nothing.

At 0300 hours I received a call from Major Bill Jones, who had recently taken Ionoff’s place as S3, stating that Bien Hoa airbase, the Long Binh facility, the II Field Force headquarters and the 199th Light Infantry Brigade (LIB) base camp were under heavy mortar and rocket attack. This was no surprise to us, since we could plainly hear the enemy rounds slamming into Long Binh.

As was our normal practice, each company had sent two ambush patrols into the jungle to our front. At 0400 Jones ordered us to pull in our ambushes and be prepared to move. The S3 also told Charlie Company’s noncombatants to report to battalion headquarters. We all knew that these moves were more than just precautionary. Something was definitely about to happen.

We packed up all of our gear, rolled up our concertina wire and waited. I was not sure what to do about the bunkers we had dug. Battalion policy was that we had to fill in all holes and empty our sandbags each time we left a position. The idea was to leave nothing the VC might use against us. I called battalion headquarters and asked what to do about the bunkers. I was told to forget about them, which reinforced our feeling that this situation was different and that combat was certainly imminent.

At about 0600, Lt. Col. John Tower, the new battalion commander, called with orders. Normally, operations orders issued over the radio were encoded and sent by the S3’s radio operator. Here was another sign that the situation was serious: The battalion commander personally gave out map coordinates of company objectives in the clear.Alpha Company was ordered to the 199th LIB compound, which was under attack. Now commanded by a brand-new second lieutenant, the men of Alpha Company balked when they were told to move. Tower sent the battalion S3, Major Jones, to take command, and once Alpha got moving, it did a magnificent job. Bravo Company was sent to protect the Long Binh ammunition dump, and Charlie Company was ordered into downtown Bien Hoa, where the ARVN III Corps headquarters was in danger of being overrun.

After I received the coordinates of our objective, I yelled, ‘Crank ’em up!’ into the radio handset, and we moved out. We rolled through Long Binh and out the main gate, then turned left onto Highway 316. The 2nd Platoon, under Lieutenant Fred Casper, led the way, followed by my track, then Lieutenant Howard Jones’ 1st Platoon and, finally, the weapons platoon under Lieutenant Don Muir. The Commo track, C-007, nicknamed Abdula and the Rug Merchants, with then- Pfc (and current Vietnam editor) David Zabecki behind the .50-caliber, brought up the rear. We charged southeast down Highway 316 to the Highway 15 intersection, located on a small hill overlooking the 90th Replacement Company. As we rolled by, we looked down into the compound and saw soldiers in khakis, boarding passes in hand, milling about. But no one would be leaving the country that day.

As we turned right onto Highway 15, an unbelievable spectacle stretched before us. Having been struck by mortars or rockets, the fuel tanks at the air base, as well as several buildings throughout Bien Hoa, were burning brightly. Flames illuminated the clouds, forming an eerie glow; flares hung in the sky and helicopter gunships crossed back and forth firing red streams of tracers into the city.

Through sporadic fire, we continued northwest on Highway 15 to where it intersected Highway 1 on the western edge of Bien Hoa. As we made the turn eastward on Highway 1, the lead platoon was ambushed. We opened up with everything we had and kept driving. We had run through the rear of the 274th VC Regiment, which was attacking the airfield. As we cleared the ambush, the column suddenly came to a halt because of some kind of block in the road; simultaneously, someone keyed the company net. With a push-to-talk button stuck in the transmit position, no one could use the radio. I jumped down and ran from track to track, pounding on the sides and yelling, ‘Check your handsets!’ As I ran back through the weapons platoon, I came upon an unbelievable sight. With small-arms fire cracking overhead, young girls carrying bottles of Coca-Cola were trying to sell them to the troops.


M-113 APCs of the 9th Infantry Division storm VC positions 200 meters outside II Field Force headquarters at Long Binh on February 1, 1968. (National Archives)

After the roadblock was cleared and communications restored, Charlie Company continued toward its objective. At 0700, as daylight was breaking, my track rolled past the ARVN III Corps compound gate. Realizing we were driving past our objective, I halted the company and called for the 2nd Platoon to find a place to turn around. As the C-23 track Stormy, which was in the lead, turned into a side street, an RPG slammed into its front, smashing the radiator and wounding several soldiers. A VC guerrilla hiding behind a parked ARVN jeep had fired the rocket. Despite the confusion and wounds, our troops returned fire. The VC who had fired the RPG slipped away, but Pfc Jim Love, who was tossed into a sewage ditch by the explosion, remembers ‘killing the jeep’ with his M-16.

Several soldiers gathered in front of the track to help the wounded, and Love climbed up to man the .50-caliber. Just then a three-man VC RPG team calmly walked across the street right in front of the damaged APC. Love was so startled, he didn’t fire.

‘I realize now that the track was high enough that the rounds would have passed over’ the troops in front of the vehicle, Love recalls. ‘I yelled at Lieutenant Casper and everybody looked around as the VC tore out running the last few yards to safety. We threw grenades over the wall behind them, but hit nothing.’

Under fire, Staff Sgt. Benny Toney, the 2nd Platoon sergeant, hooked a tow cable to Stormy. The 2nd Platoon pulled the damaged track out of the side street and towed it back to the III Corps compound. There, Charlie Company soldiers joined ARVN and U.S. MACV soldiers manning the walls. Zabecki remembers taking his place on the wall with his M-79. Our arrival had canceled fears that III Corps headquarters might be overrun.

As our medics treated the wounded, I reported to the American lieutenant colonel who was the III Corps G3 adviser. Tower had called and told me that Charlie Company was under the operational control of III Corps and I was to take my orders from them. Those orders were for us to clear the VC from the houses surrounding the corps headquarters. I assigned areas of operation to my two rifle platoons and positioned the weapons platoon inside the compound as a reserve and security force. Their 81mm mortars were useless, since we were told we could not put any indirect fire into the town.

Charlie Company soldiers, used to months of patrolling and fighting in the jungles, suddenly found themselves fighting house to house as their fathers had done in World War II. During this fighting, both platoon leaders were wounded, Lieutenant Casper in the leg and Lieutenant Jones in the foot. The two of them refused evacuation and neither reported his wound. They both hobbled through the rest of the day’s fighting.

The combat around III Corps headquarters was intense. According to the official history of the VC 5th Division, the 3rd Battalion, 5th VC Regiment, supported by the Bien Hoa Sapper Company, had the mission of overrunning the compound, which was defended by about 15 ARVN soldiers and a smattering of MACV advisers. Charlie Company slammed into the VC before they could get their attack organized.

Sergeant John Ax, squad leader of 1st Squad, 2nd Platoon, recalls what the fighting near III Corps was like: ‘An RPG hit Shocker, the C-21 track, in the side; but it must have been a glancing blow, because it did not explode. It knocked a dimple in the side of the track as I fired up the gunner.’

Later in the fighting, Casper and several 2nd Platoon troops were pinned down next to a building. Casper rose from a prone position and yelled for his troops to follow him. ‘When Lieutenant Casper jumped up, our legs became entangled and I tripped him,’ Ax remembers. ‘As he fell, a burst of automatic weapons fire stitched the wall right where he would have been had he not fallen.’

Fred Casper, one of the bravest of the brave, was killed during the May offensive at the Y Bridge in Saigon, leading from the front as was his custom.

After we finished clearing the area around the compound and as our wounded were being dusted off, I received an absolutely incredible order from III Corps. The G3 adviser told me that they had received intelligence that Vo Nguyen Giap, the North Vietnamese commanding general (the enemy equivalent of General William Westmoreland), had his command post in a Catholic church about a kilometer east of III Corps. We were ordered to go to that church and detain every male between the ages of 16 and 80. To get to the church, we had to run a gantlet of fire, through the VC 238th Regiment and into the flank of the 275th, which was fighting the 2-47’s scout platoon in Widow’s Village. We fired everything we had into the buildings lining the roadway and took several wounded while getting to the church.

When we arrived, we found the churchyard packed with thousands of civilians seeking refuge. I called III Corps and reported that we had detained all of these people, and was told to wait until the Vietnamese National Police arrived to take charge. A few minutes later, a jeep drove up carrying two extremely frightened white-shirted policemen. As best I could, I explained that they were to take charge and that General Giap might be among the civilians. They bowed and looked confused.

Meanwhile, Charlie Company was ordered back to III Corps. As we turned around to head back west, a tremendous blast shook the whole city of Bien Hoa. The Long Binh ammunition dump had exploded. Sappers had placed satchel charges on pallets of artillery ammunition, and the resulting mushroom cloud caused all its witnesses to think the VC had employed a tactical nuclear weapon.

We suffered more wounded during the trip back to III Corps, where I was called to a meeting in the headquarters. As I walked around the front of a track, the .50-caliber gunner accidentally hit the trigger and pumped five rounds into the ground about three feet in front of me. All I could think of to say was, ‘Please clear that weapon!’During the meeting, a master sergeant adviser to a Vietnamese ranger battalion ran into the compound. His battalion was in heavy contact and he had several wounded rangers he needed to evacuate. He wanted to borrow one of our tracks. When the G3 adviser told me to lend the rangers a track, I told the sergeant that the M-113 was not a tank and to be extremely careful with it. He manned the .50 and, with a Charlie Company driver, started off down Highway 1. About 30 minutes later, the track came back with only the driver, who reported the ranger sergeant had been killed and that it had been impossible to evacuate the wounded.


On February 2, 12968, an APC passes buildings damaged by the Americans in the course of flushing out enemy troops from their hiding places in Bien Hoa. (National Archives)

At the meeting I was joined by the S3 of a battalion from the 101st Airborne Division. The Vietnamese brigadier general, who was the ranking man at III Corps, drew circles around two equal-sized areas of downtown Bien Hoa. He assigned one to the airborne battalion and the other to Charlie Company. When I pointed out that the 101st Battalion had more than 500 troops and I had only two line platoons and fewer than 90 troops, he said, ‘You’re mechanized, you’re very strong.’

I told him we could not take the tracks off Highway 1 and into town because the streets and alleys were too narrow. He waved me off. Charlie Company would get the mission. I walked back to my track, thinking this was going to be a real nightmare. I told the platoon leaders to prepare to dismount and to take all the ammunition and grenades they could carry. At that time, I received a call on my company frequency from the battalion commander, Colonel Tower, asking how things were going. I told him about the order to clear an area of operations equal in size to that assigned the airborne battalion.He said: ‘Forget that. I’ve just been told you work for me again. Come back up on the battalion freq.’

I was never so happy in my life. The Vietnamese general and the III Corps G3 adviser, however, were not very happy when we pulled out. We left the clearing of Bien Hoa City in the capable hands of the 2nd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry.

Tower ordered Charlie Company to attack eastward to clear the village of Ho Nai, a suburb of Bien Hoa. I had learned no tactic at infantry school that fit the situation we were faced with, so we improvised. What we came up with was a ‘T’ formation. I dismounted the platoons and placed them on line on each side of the road: the second on the left, or north, and the first on the right, or south. The platoons attacked by successive bounds through the village as the company’s tracks, forming the base of the ‘T’ on the highway, provided fire support from the .50s and resupplied the troops with ammunition.

The progress was slow and ammunition was becoming a scarce, particularly grenades, which city fighting consumes at an enormous rate. As the 2nd Platoon began to run short, Spc. 4 Joseph Dames was tasked to return to the tracks for more grenades. ‘Sugar Bear’ Dames, as he was called by his many friends, walked down a side alley toward the highway. Suddenly he came upon a VC RPG team drawing a bead on my command track, which was marked as a prime target by the number of radio antennas jutting from it. Unfortunately for them, the hapless VC had no weapons other than the RPG launcher, and Dames dispatched them with a burst from his M-16. His action probably saved the lives of everyone on my track.

As enemy resistance stiffened, we realized we had bottled at least a company of the VC 275th Regiment in the village. The 2-47’s scout platoon had just finished a brutal fight in Widow’s Village, and at 1600 hours, it was ordered to move to the junction of Highways 1 and 316, and to attack westward through the village of Ho Nai toward Charlie Company, in the hope of pinning the VC between us. As 1st Lt. Brice Barnes led his scout platoon into the edge of Ho Nai, he ran full speed into a hornet’s nest. Several of his tracks were hit by RPGs and surrounded by the enemy. Listening to the scouts’ desperate fight on the radio, Charlie Company attacked with renewed vigor as we tried to get to Barnes and his men.

As we fought our way toward the scout platoon, we were blocked by two large churches that were directly across Highway 1 from each other, both occupied by the VC. The 2nd Platoon took on the one on the north side of the road, and the 1st Platoon attacked the other. Troops opened their attacks with volleys of grenades, then went in shooting. The churches were cleared in short order.

After the battles for the churches, there occurred one of the most bizarre incidents of the day. An MP full colonel, along with a deputy sheriff from Los Angeles (dressed in his deputy uniform) and two jeeploads of Vietnamese National Police, drove up to my track. The colonel explained that since we were infantry soldiers and did not know the proper method of searching a house, he and his crew had come to teach us. I explained to the colonel that this was not a police action, and that we weren’t searching houses, we were in combat. He ignored me and proceeded to a nearby house where he and the deputy sheriff kicked in the front door. A burst of VC machine gun fire erupted nearby, causing the colonel, the deputy and their Vietnamese escorts to pile into their vehicles and roar off in the direction from whence they had come. We never saw them again.

As the sun sank low, we closed within a few hundred meters of the scout platoon and watched as helicopter gunships destroyed a large yellow house from which the VC were pinning down Barnes’ troops. As the Hueys’ rockets smashed the VC strongpoint, the scouts fought their way out of the encirclement and evacuated their dead and wounded. Lieutenant Barnes and one of his soldiers would be awarded Distinguished Service Crosses for their heroism that day.

As the scouts escaped, the volume of enemy fire began to slacken, then died altogether. All day civilians had been darting from their homes and running from the fighting. Now someone pointed out that there were a lot of young men, all dressed in black pants and white shirts, among the refugees. Simultaneously, platoon leaders reported finding discarded AK-47s. Then a report came in that a body had been found wearing a white shirt under a black pajama tunic. It then dawned on us that the VC were throwing down their weapons, changing clothes and slipping away. We began detaining the well-dressed young men among the refugees.

Meanwhile, Huey gunships reported VC running from the village. The armed helicopter teams had a field day shooting guerrillas who tried to escape to the nearby jungles. We found out later from captured VC that many guerrillas had been given only two magazines for their weapons. They had been told that the population would rise up against the Americans and that there would be plenty of captured U.S. weapons to fight with. The VC had run out of ammunition and were trying to escape.

As darkness settled in, Charlie Company was ordered to move back the way it had come, to the junction of Highways 1 and 316, where we would form a screen in front of the 199th LIB base camp. As we rolled back through Bien Hoa, we were astounded to find the battalion S4, Captain Leroy Brown, in the middle of town with a 5,000-gallon fuel tanker and several ammunition trucks. Bringing that volatile convoy through the city, which had not been totally cleared and was still burning in many places, was a tremendously heroic act. We topped off our fuel tanks, replenished our ammo and continued to move toward our assigned blocking position.

That night, frightened bunker guards in the 199th compound shot into the darkness to their front. The only trouble was that Charlie Company tracks were sitting in the road right in front of their bunkers. We began to pop hand-held flares so they could see we were there, but the shooting persisted, one round actually hitting my track. After much frequency changing, I finally got the commander of the bunker guards on the radio. I remember telling him that if the shooting persisted, or if they hit one of my troops, I wouldn’t be responsible if my troops shot back.

Specialist 4 Bill Rambo, assistant driver and .50-gunner on my command track, remembers my response to the firing as being absolutely irate. Rambo claims that the bunker guards were MPs with the call sign of ‘Filmy Milker.’ According to him, I told their commander that any fool could see that the VC did not have M-113s, and that we had 22 .50-calibers and a 106mm recoilless rifle and they, for sure, did not want us to return fire. Soon we could hear leaders moving up and down the bunker line yelling for the guards to stop firing.

Jim Love recalls lying in a ditch near a dead civilian as the friendly fire cracked over our heads. All night he stared at the body, which had one arm grotesquely sticking in the air, and wondered why nobody had taken the gold wristwatch off the arm.

As dawn broke, everything was deathly quiet. The village of Ho Nai, now a ghost town, was still smoldering. Realizing I had not eaten for 24 hours, I looked for some breakfast, but all I could find was a bag of pistachio nuts. I sat behind the .50-caliber, munching and giving thanks for the fact that, incredibly, nobody in Charlie Company had been killed.

At the end of the previous day, Charlie Company had reported 38 VC killed, at the cost of only 11 U.S. wounded and three APCs damaged by RPGs. In addition we detained more than 20 probable VC fighters dressed in civilian clothes. The 2-47’s enemy body count came in at over 200, while the battalion suffered only four KIA. An accurate body count could never be compiled since so many VC bodies were dragged away or were burned in the many fires in the towns and villages. In addition, gunships killed many more as they tried to escape from the villages.

Besides the actions of Charlie Company, under the leadership of the S3, Major Bill Jones, Alpha had conducted an assault on VC positions in a cemetery. According to Jones, that assault went so perfectly that it could have served as a demonstration at the infantry school. Bravo Company (one member of which was Spc. 4 and future U.S. senator from Nebraska Chuck Hagel) had defended the Long Binh ammo dump and had helped in the Widow’s Village fight. The scout platoon had fought valiantly all day long in Widow’s Village and in Ho Nai. Company B, 4th Battalion, 39th Infantry, which was placed under the operational control of the 2-47, made a combat air assault under fire into the middle of the Widow’s Village battle and fought bravely beside the Panthers all day long.

Although initially surprised, U.S. forces had reacted quickly and, despite what was reported in the press, American and ARVN forces handed the VC a devastating defeat during Tet. In fact, VC effectiveness was so degraded that, after 1968, they were mainly replaced on the battlefield by North Vietnamese regulars, and were never a viable force after that. The VC attacks on Bien Hoa and the Long Binh complex were abject failures, due in part to the fact that on January 31, 1968, they had run into the Panthers of the 2nd Battalion (Mechanized), 47th Infantry.


John Gross received the Silver Star for his actions in command of Charlie Company on the first day of the Tet Offensive. He retired from the U.S. Army as a lieutenant colonel. For additional reading, see: The Battle for Saigon, Tet 1968, by Keith Nolan; and History of the 5th Division, by Ho Son Dai and Nguyen Van Hung.

This article was originally published in the February 2006 issue of Vietnam Magazine.

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42 Responses to Lt. Col. John E. Gross Recalls the Tet Battles of Bien Hoa and Long Binh

  1. terry ferguson says:


    • Arnold Butler says:

      Bein woa AB 1966 – 1967-1968 what did they call the area where they loaded the 20mm shells in the cans that would go into the F 4 C’s and F 100’s I spent two tours working in that building loading those Aircraft cans.
      The building was a half circle dome building with stacks of empty ammo
      cans out side.. We were close to the flight line and aircraft. On the other side of the base was the ammo dump. Dose any body know what I’m talking about.. I sure would like to know what its called and possibly be able to contact some of the Air force troops stationed with me..
      Also if there are troops that had medical issues related to the spraying of agent orange. I remember seeing them spray around the outside of the base. But back then I didn’t no what it was. Agent Orange issues.

      • HENRY F.MILLER says:

        Arnold, are you talking about the bomb holding area along with the fuse shop? The fuse shop was just across the road from the quansite hut type bldg. where they linked 7.62 and 20mm rounds. I was a ssgt. in the 303rd munitions. I was there for two tours. I got in country Dec.67′ and left spring of 70′. I was there for 3 Tet’s. I was working nightshift in the holding area during Tet of 68′. Sometime after midnight the VC started walking mortars in from the east perimeter fence. The holding area was located on a slight hill and we had a good vantage point to watch as things happened on the east perimeter. We heard that the VC had broken through the fence and had taken control of the run-up pad at the east end of the runway. The spooky gunships were still able to land on the other end of the runway and then cross over at midpoint over to the taxiway. I helped keep Spooky supplied with parachute flares and 7.62 rounds the rest of the night. That night they also pulled all non-essential personel back to the center of the base around the headquarters area. When sunrise came next morning it was all over for the VC. I don’t think I have ever seen a prettier sunrise as that morning.. About the Agent Orange, I know we had a Ranchhand outfit there at Bien Hoa. I’ve got Neurapathy in my feet and and toes that no one can explain. I just had a gluecose tolerance test done and I don’t have a sugar problem. If you want to, contact me by email.

  2. Joe Talbert, Cwo.Ret says:

    I Rember that day,like yesterday,Got a reptured left ear drum when the Ammo dump blew,my ubit was about 400’yds across the street from widows villege,I was assigned to Hq 2d FFV Arty. We had just started building bunkers and sandbagging our hutches, I flew out of Red Carpet and we could expect to get a greeting or two from charlie,A Rpg or 122’mm just about anytime,that was my 4th trip to nam and at 37 years of age I left a total wreck, I am still hoping along on 2’crutches and a little scooter now 77. Joe Talbert

  3. Ken Jackson says:

    Ken Jackson (Sp4) 1966-1968 (18 mos.)
    I have been searching for years for information about the ammo dump explosion in 1967. I was stationed across Hwy. 15 in 169 Engr. Btn. It blew at about 10 pm and the next morning at 10 am it was still blowing, but not with the same intensity. The shock wave knocked me to the floor of the commo shack. There was like an armageddon of fire, white phosphorous, plasma balls and smoke than can easily be described, or believed. My ears have been ringing ever since. I sure would like to get some photos of the event. It seems that the veterans publications have overlooked that explosion because I have yet to see a written account or pictures. Does anyone have any information they would be willing to share?

    • reynado de la garza says:

      hey ken this is rey from san antonio,texas. i was in long binh when the ammo dump explosion in 1967.please call me @ 210-842-0844.

      • jeff kessen says:

        Rey it was great talking with you today…Welcome home, if you get to oregon call me… Jeff Kessen 541 765 2425

    • Jim Miller says:

      I was with 64th BN 512QM in Long Binh when the dump went up. We ran the filling station and petroleum supply yard in Long Binh(Bien) As I remember the dump went off for a few days with a large black cloud of smoke lingering Long Binh for days.This web site might be able to provide photos of the explosion.
      might be able to provide photos. Welcome Home

      • Jim Miller says:

        The Long Binh Ammo dump going up I spoke of was in the fall of 1967 I believe. Thanks to Col. Gross for detail of this battle. I am sure the men I severed with in the 64th Battalion 512th QM in Long Binh took casualties.

  4. R Caporiccio says:

    John Gross – please contact me.

  5. Gerry Ellenson says:

    I’d like to echo Terry Ferguson’s thanks. I was in a tiny medical unit (20th PMU) in Bien Hoa when the Tet offensive took place. Being a small, forgotten unit, we had only old M14s with two magazines each and one grenade per squad with which to defend our compound. As it happened, the VC never made it as far as our compound, which was on the other side of Bien Hoa base from Bien Hoa village.

    Much belated but none-the-less sincere thanks, Col. Gross!

    Gerry Ellenson, Sp5/E5
    20th PMU
    44th Medical Brigade

  6. LTC (Ret) Sean M. Leeman says:

    LTC (Ret) John Gross, Well written article. I enjoyed reading it. My 11 months in Iraq were tame by comparison. I will do my best w/ your jrotc program. ALL THE WAY! LTC (Ret) Sean Leeman FA

  7. Cherri says:

    LTC (Ret) John Gross, are you the same LTC (Ret) John Gross who taught JROTC in McMinnville, TN in ’92?

  8. john says:

    The first platoon of Bravo 2/47th were the first ones into Widow’s
    Village. We were not “guarding” a PX. Our Lt. (Henry Jezek) was told to clean out some snipers. Instead of “some snipers), the first platoon ran into a force of two-hundred NVA. With no air support or artillery we held out for almost three hours. Eventually the Scout’s joined us along with a company from the 4/39th.
    Our platoon was reduced from 26 to perhaps eleven men. You owe the men of the first platoon, both living and dead, an apology.
    John Driessler

  9. Barbra Newberry says:

    I was quite pleased and surprised to come across this article.
    Lt. Fred Casper was my uncle and it brought tears to my eyes knowing that he was part of this.

  10. jimmy ray jouhnson says:

    i was on the way out of the 90th replaclement on the bus heading to my new assignment with b co 504 mp bn . did not get for out of the gate when one of the mp escorts jumped on the bus and told the driver to get the hell back to the 90th. because bien hoa air base was under attack now. as soon as we entered the 90th replacement the rockets and every thing else started to go off , soon the ammo dump blew. i do not believe the bus load of unarmed soldiers would have made it to bien hoa that night. thank you and your men and every one else for saving our unarmed asses at the 90th replacement that night..i would still like to shoot the the people that decided to send the bus out in the early hours of jan 31, 1968. thanks again for the article.

  11. Carter Ku says:

    I was a crew chief on the F100DCB777 90th Tactical Ftr Sq.My pilot was Brig. General Hansen.I was trapped @ the west end of the airfield facing the perimeter in a little sandbag bunker.I saw the entire battle before me @ 3am Jan 31 1968.Thanks to the 145th Aviation Battalion Cobra Attack Helicopters they did a super Job straffing the perimeter with 50cal cutting the VC regiment to pieces.Thanks to you Colonel and your entire mechanize unit for saving our asses as well.

    • JOHN QUIRK says:

      Carter.. I remember you by name but not sight. I was assigned to the 90th on 3 June 1968. I was assigned to the hanger ( much to my dismay) The aircraft you mention was I believe the squadron “pet” triple seven ( later flown thru some rather low palm trees by Lt Roger Rice).
      I rotated out in June of ,69 and haven’t seen or hear of anyone from the 90th since.

      Hope you are well and prosperous


  12. Armand Latour SP5 says:

    Yes I was on 3 Corps Compound during the Battle of Tet 68 with 5 other men of the 6th PSYOPS Bn. night printing crew. My Lt talked to me before we left for work telling me that were to be likely attacted over night, so it was steel pots and flack jackets to work. Everything was fine until the rockets and morters started at 3AM. it was off to the bunkers ours was the concrete communications bunker for 3 Corps. We had some very close hits inside the compound, after the rockets were over I went to check on our CQ for the batallion maning the phone about 300 ft away. As I started to run I herd rounds flying over the buildings and even striking them. I found the CQ barracaded in the locked supply room, after reasurring him that we were ok and would check on him it was back to my men. After 4 AM we could see the tracers skipping off the runway over at the Bien Hoa airbase. It was not long before thoes rounds ment for the advancing VC found the oxegen plant near the end of the runway it went up and it was like daylight, brighter than any illumination flair you ever seen.
    Shortly after that the first Huey Cobra from the 118 AvBN took up position right above us, spraying our perimiter and the end of the runways. The minny guns that close and the brass falling was a new experience, About daylight the 11th Cav. moved into the compound and set up a CP near us with APCs and tanks throught the streets of the compound. About 10 AM a tank was moved to the main gate of 3 Corps compound it was still taking fire from the buildings accross the road it finally opened up with the big gun at point blank range several rounds were used. This battle went on well into the night and TAC air support was used later in the day.
    About 2PM our CQ was told to get everyone to the chopper pad for extraction to MACV Train Compound where we lived. I have some photos taken that morrning and cherish them and the memories of that Tet 68.

    • John W. Conroy says:

      I’ve been looking for information on the Train Compound which I was familiar with in 1967 when stationed in Long Binh at the l85th Maint. Bn. They had a great bar, mess hall and pool. Am working on a book and need information on the layout and location. Been back to VN many times but couldn’t locate the exact site. Tam Hiep and Ho Nai still there and being rapidly built up as the Long Binh site becomes a major industrial park. For a number of years my brother Mark Conroy, the Director of East Meets West Foundation which was founded by Le Ly Hayslip had a bar on China Beach outside Danang called ‘Conroy’s Pub’. We called it the only Irish American bar in Viet Nam. I’ve been to Iraq five times and Afghanistan 3 times as an embedded reporter. Going back to Afghanistan in a couple of weeks. These operations in no way resemble Viet Nam. There is no opposition army in either country. And ofcourse no Navy or Air Force. I did go on an operation in Afghanistan in Kunar Province in 2007 that had the feel of VN but action was limited. This was ‘Rock Avalanche’ of ‘Restrepo’ fame and was conducted by the same 173rd Airborne that was stationed at Bien Hoa. I’ve a few articles from there and present day VN on my blog – – if anyone is interested. And life goes on.

      • Gene Young says:

        John, I have some photos I took while assigned to Train Compound in 1938. I was there from Dec67 to Jan 69 as a redio repaireman of the FAC jeeps used througout III corps area. I was with the 19th TASS and traveled all over III corps. I remember Train Compound as it was “Home” for those wretched months.
        If you want I can email you the photos. They are all black and white as I developed them myself in the photo lab Upstairs in the main building at Train Compound.

      • Jay Falls says:

        I spent all of 1970 at Train Compund in Bien Hoa. I’m sure you know it was named after KIA American soldier Robert Train; there was a bronze plague mounted on one of the bldgs. I was with MACV and traveled throughout III Corps. I wrote & photographed for our in-country newspaper for MACV called The III Corps Advisor. I have copies of all 1970 editions. I could draw a very accurate map of Train Compound. Write back.
        Kent, Ohio

      • Steve Sims says:

        I was stationed AT III Corp ARVN Hq assign to 602d I &R Co (ARVN).
        Stayed at Train Compound when not out in the field with my little friends as an Advisor.

        Was there for TET Off of “68. Have a few Pix’s of Train Compound if interested. Remember the abandoned factory & large storage tanks adjacent to Train. Went outide wire around the compound often as thats where most of our 602d troops lived.

        Had topo maps of area round train but finally ditched a few years ago.

        Let me
        know If I can help.


  13. Frank E. Duncan says:

    No finer man ever lived than John Gross. He is a great friend and a super guitar player. He is the epitome of an Airborne Ranger Infantry leader. Hard as nails, smart, articulate and very capable but willing to help anyone. Those of you that were saved that day by John and his men were in good hands. I wish you could hear all the wonderful stories I know about him and were lucky enough to share with him. He leads with what seemed to me to be no effort. Yet, he always did what he said he would do and then a lot more. He deserves to be in everyone’s Hall of Fame.

    • Deuke Eukel says:

      My brother, David D. Eukel, a PFC, Charlie Co. 3rdBN 7th Inf. 199th Light; must have been in the firefights LTC Gross wrote about – I’ve tracked his location from several reports and from what I can tell he was there during the battles which took Bein Hoa back from the VC. Officially, he was determined KIA on Feb. 8, 1968, but since I can find nothing about the events of Feb. 8, I’m not so sure now.

      He’d been in-country for more than 11mos – a Vet in Vietnam standards. I’m pretty sure he was a fighter till the end, but I’d sure like to have contact with anyone who was there during Tet and may know about him or how he died.

      I went later to Nam, part of evacs in 72-73 in the Navy and so understand much, but would like to have more info. If anyone knows how to contact LTC Gross or has any info they could share with me, I’d appreciate it.
      My email is

  14. tom mulroe says:

    Location;Bien Hoa airbase. Time; Location: control tower. I was the air traffic controller on duty in the tower. (The TET Offensive)
    After 35 to 40 rockets pounded us the vc attacked the east end of the airfield. 3RD Security Police Sqdn; Air Force security men manned the old french buncker in the wires on the approach end of the runway.
    The all eventually were killed or wounded BUT they bought us time.
    The front end loaders put over 150 vc in a hole out there; some with there “Back packs” still on them… One of the security guys (Capt. R.V. Maisey) was nominated for the Congressional; posthumously. I have the complete written history. Its never been told as we were Air Force on an RVn base, we weren’t supposed to fight.

    • Jim Cochenour says:

      Tom in all the stories I’ve read yours made me feel closer to what happened than anyones. See I would see those security police qutie frequently as I moved trucks around that end of the runway. The bomb dump was right by the 173rd. You mention you have the complete written history. Is it in book form or just in a letter?? I would love to see it as I’m still trying to find out any airmen that was killed in the bomb dump. I left in August 1966; however the way they were rotating back there, it’s a good chance I might have known some of them. Any information you can give me would be greatly appreciated!

    • Doug Connaughton says:

      Tom, I was in Baker Flight, 3rd Security Police Sq. the night the Tet Offensive started. That was “Bunker Hill 10” at the east end of the base, our men there put up one hell of a fight. The Army did a great job, but the Security Police personnel there showed great courage. I was deployed from our Sq. area near Baker Ramp (where the cargo aircraft and “Freedom Birds” came in) to a fall back line along the two runways.
      Ten of us were moved up to within a couple of hundred yards of the big fight at the bunker, but then pulled back and moved to a position directly in front of the ramps and revetments where the fighters were parked. I did not know the Air Force security police captain who was killed, but we got the news later that morning. He was from Sonoma, California. I read the citation for his award and he should have received the Medal of Honor! In my whole time at Bien Hoa, 18 months (yea, I extended) I can recall a number of rocket and mortar attacks, but there was nothing like that first six hours of Tet. The VC were told the Air Force security forces were “paper tigers” and would cut and run when it got hot. Well, in the over all picture of things, it wasn’t a prolonged battle, but the Air Force Security Police Sq. at Bien Hoa did their job. The Army infantry and chopper support units were outstanding. We can all be proud! It helps a bit to talk about this after all these years. God bless the USA!

  15. baidu678 says:

    Thank you for letting me know your thoughts and comments, they are much appreciated by me!

  16. Deuke Eukel says:

    In my above post I inadvertantly wrote “7th” Infantry – it was 9th Infantry.
    I would still love to hear from anyone who may have information about my brother.


  17. Jim Cochenour says:

    Tom Mulroe you mentioned the Air Force security men that were killed or wounded. I was stationed at Bien Hoa in 1966 in the bomb dump on the north side of the runway. Does anyone have any information who and how many were killed at the bomb dump?? I possibly might be able to recall a name or two. When I was moving
    napalm around the east end of the runway in 1966 and running without my lights, some of those same Air Force security flashed their lights at me and caused me to drive my Ward-LaFrance off into a swamp. Anyone with any names of Air Force personnel killed in the bomb dump please contact me. My rank was A1c at the time.

  18. Les Beck says:

    I was at IIFF on 31 Jan 68. 552 MP Co. Entered Widows Village after sunrise with my Lt. Started receiving fire and drove back to Gate #6 at II FF. Got pinned down from fire across the Hwy at the Village. Took a round in my left foot. Was pulled through the Gate and off to the hospital. Gunships were hosing the Village down and empty rounds were raining on us from above. While we were in the Village the ammo dump blew and a shock wave was seen coming our way and knoced us to the ground. I actually thought someone had dropped the “big one”. That is about the time we headed back to Gate #6 and got pinned outside our perimeter. Wild times for sure. I do recall the 11ARCav and 9th Inf doing the job very well. Bless all, Les Beck

  19. Joseph Bodnar says:

    I was with aux.police AirForce the night of tet offensive near Bunker Hill-10 in Bien Hoa airbase,i remember a jeep with 3 men bringing amoa to b.h 10,forget what they where called had a m60 mounted in the rear,also the motars keep going off around Bunker Hill#10,also the mushroom cloud the day after and seeing what i though was heat wave,but was a sound wave from the amoa dump but i believe was a sound wave,those guys in bunker hill10 didnot have a easy night,also believe there was a airticle in the airmen magazine about it,wish i knew how to get that airmen mag.with the story

  20. Laura huckaby says:

    Well I think im am old enough to read your stories now Ltc gross and iam proud to have had your as a teacher you area truly awesome person and I am better of having spent time in the classroom with you.

  21. Les Beck says:

    Each year at this time as the anniversay of this battle nears, I vividly remember what happened on 31 Jan 68 in Widows Village. Thanks to all for doing your part over there and God Bless.

  22. Bob "Bhudda" Trusley says:

    Les, I just wanted to say I witnessed the heroics of you and another individual from 30 meters to the rear of your position in the ditch, when you both gave cover fire and pulled that woman villager and her infant child into the ditch with you. Great job, Dude!

  23. D. Deuke says:

    Does anyone have info about the 199th – stationed at Bien Hoa during and after the TET that LTC. John Gross wrote about? As I wrote earlier, my brother, Pfc. David D. Eukel was there and in the middle of it all. He was KIA – officially, Feb. 8, 1968.

    Please email me.

  24. Les Beck says:

    D. Deuke: The 199th was right next door to us (IIFF HQ) When I volunteered for Vietnam I was originally given orders to the 152nd MP Platoon. They were a support unit to the 199th LIB. They all shipped from Ft Benning around Nov 66. I was still on a scheduled leave and when I reported to Ft Benning, they had all shipped out. I was temp assigned to a Ft Benning MP Co.(139th) and volunteered a second time. I received orders to VN in April 67. I was eventually assigned to the 552nd MP CO. who provided bunker and patrol security for the IIFF HQ base camp. (known by some as the Plantation). The 199th was next door. I visited the 199th to see a cook named Price who had shipped over in Nov 66. He had been our cook stateside. They lived in tents and we had hooches. Luck of the draw. The 199th LIB was very active immediately after and during TET of 68. They helicoptered into Saigon and I believe Bien Hoa to repel the VC and did a bank up job. Sorry to hear of your loss. That was a very busy couple of weeks. I took a round on 31 Jan 68 and have a couple of stories to tell my grandkids. Long time ago when we were young and foolish. Les

    • Phat says:


      I saw you mentioned the 552nd unit. I am looking for a father of my friend named Ed Reynolds. I’ve been looking for 3 months now. I’ve been collected as much information as I can to help the search. Do you happen to have any information on this case? Please email me @

      Thank you so much.


  25. Ivan Christensen says:

    I was at Bien Hoa/Long Bin on or about February 14, 1968 when the ammo dump blew up. I was caught up in the shock wave which catapulted me into the side of a building head first. I have never been the same since. Is there anyone out there who was there at that time who could corroborate my recollection as to time and place so I can get the VA to believe me on this one? Thanks! Ivan Christensen

  26. Les Beck says:

    Hello Phat
    I just attended a reunion for the 552nd MP Co for Vietnam veterans. I obtained a roster of names of prior servicemen who served with the 552nd MP Co. These are veterans who have either once attended a reunion or contacted the Reunion Committee. The only person listed as having contacted the Committee is a William Reynolds who served with the 552nd MP Co in Vietnam in 1978-1980. He lives in the Colorado Springs, Colorado area. Les

  27. Lewis Waters says:

    I was with the 3rd security police at Bien Hoa during tet 68. We got hit pretty hard and was over run on the east end. Our squadron commander and one SP was killed and several wounded. We picked up 139 bodies and 25 prisioners in side the wire. In 2011 I was diagnosed with CCL cancer from agent orange. I am drawing 100 % disablility.

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