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Spain

  • American History Magazine

    I See Your Cahokia and Raise You My Quivira

    A Spanish musket ball found outside Arkansas City, Arkansas, burnishes a local academic’s claim that the area was the site of Quivira, a fabled Native American metropolis (“Losing the West,” August 2017), reports the Wichita Eagle....

  • MHQ Magazine

    Taking Tarragona

    In 1811, General Louis-Gabriel Suchet sought his marshal’s baton in the breach of a Spanish fortress. On the sweltering afternoon of Friday, June 28, 1811, French engineers surveyed the 10-meter- wide breach in the wall surrounding...

  • Military History Magazine

    Guernica

    The 1937 bombing of the medieval Basque town had dire consequences, affecting the outcome of the Spanish Civil War and the future course of military conduct...

  • MHQ Magazine

    The Persistent Myths of Guernica

    After a Spanish town was bombed in 1937, overheated—and inaccurate—accounts of civilian deaths shook the world. On April 26, 1937, in the midst of the Spanish Civil War, German war – planes bombed Guernica, the ancient Basque...

  • Military History Magazine

    Untouchable Agent 13

    James Wilkinson served as commanding general of the U.S. Army under the first four presidents—all the while engaging in a treasonous intrigue with Spain During its fight for independence from Great Britain, and through its early days as...

  • MHQ Magazine

    Artists | Eyewitness to Horror

    Published 35 years after his death, Goya’s The Disasters of War has etched the cruel suffering of war into our collective memory....

  • Wild West Magazine

    Missions, Sea Otters and California Indians

    The Spanish wanted to convert the local Indians, while the Russians chose to exploit the coastal marine life. Guess which Europeans the Indians preferred? In October 1771, within a month of the founding of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel (in...

  • HistoryNet

    You Command: Spanish Blue Division in Russia, 1943

    YOU command a regiment of Spanish volunteers fighting for Germany against a powerful Red Army attack. The German army did not fight alone against the Red Army on World War II’s vast Eastern Front. Fighting alongside the Wehrmacht were...

  • Military History Magazine

    Reconquista

    When Ferdinand and Isabella retook Granada in 1492, they ended eight centuries of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula. In Western minds 1492 resonates as the year Christopher Columbus arrived on the Atlantic and Caribbean shores of the...

  • Aviation History Magazine

    Aviation History Book Review: Stukas Over Spain

    Stukas Over Spain: Dive Bomber Aircraft and Units of the Legion Condor by Rafael A. Permuy and Lucas Molina, Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, Pa., 2013, $34.99.  The Spanish Civil War saw a contingent of Nazi Germany’s Luftwaffe, which...

  • Aviation History Magazine

    Aviation History Book Review: Spanish Republican Aces

    Spanish Republican Aces  by Rafael A. Permuy López, Osprey Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2012, $22.95.  Despite the Cold War, McCarthyism and the general disrepute into which communism has fallen in America, there remains a lingering...

  • MHQ Magazine

    A Rock and a Hard Place

    Painting the Battle of Gibraltar, John Singleton Copley was caught between his own desires and his subjects’. The fall of 1783 marked a low point for the British Empire. For two years its military had suffered defeat after...

  • MHQ Magazine

    The Rock of Legend: Gibraltar

    The world’s premier natural fortress, Gibraltar has always been a tough nut to crack. The Rock. For centuries the term meant only one place: The Rock of Gibraltar. In ancient times it formed the northern- most of the famed twin Pillars...

  • MHQ Magazine

    Martyrs for God and Spain

    An Indian attack on a mission in New Spain thwarts colonial aspirations and inspires a fantastical piece of art. New Spain held uncertain control over the frontier region of eastern Texas in the mid- 18th century. While French incursions...

  • Military History

    Hernán Cortés: Master of the Conquest

    Hernán Cortés himself—not Spanish arms, smallpox or Mesoamerican allies—was the catalyst behind the stunning defeat of the Aztec empire...

  • Military History Book Reviews

    Book Review: Rough Riders

    Mark Lee Gardner reveals lesser-known chapters of the oft-told Spanish-American War narrative of Theodore Roosevelt and the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry...