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Roman Empire

  • Military History Book Reviews

    Book Review: The Rise of Rome

    Kathryn Lomas takes in the broader Italian context to understand how the ancient city-state rose to dominate the peninsula...

  • Military History Magazine

    Can We Trust the Ancient Texts?

    Some were found lying alive with their thighs and hams cut, laying bare their necks and throats, bid them drain the blood that remained in them. Some were found with their heads plunged into the earth…having suffocated themselves by...

  • Military History Magazine

    What We Learned: from Cynoscephalae

    Cynoscephalae was the first battle in the campaign of Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean. It was also the first clash of two rival military systems: the Greek spear phalanx and the Roman sword legion. For 300...

  • Military History Magazine

    What We Learned: from the Teutoburg Forest

    In the summer of Publius Quintilius Varus assumed command of the army of the Rhine in AD 9, Roman general Germania. Rome had been dealing with a Pannonian tribal revolt and wanted to avoid similar uprisings. But serving under Varus was a...

  • Military History Book Reviews

    Book Review: Gaius Marius

    Marc Hayden presents the best extant account of Gaius Marius and his key role in the late Roman Republic...

  • Military History Magazine

    Trajan’s Column

    A 100-foot column in Rome records the 2nd Century military exploits of Trajan and his legions. Nineteen centuries after its construction, Trajan’s Column remains one of antiquity’s great works of architecture, a magnificent work of art...

  • Military History Magazine

    Rome’s Big Idea

    A grand long-term strategy allowed Roman rulers—both good and bad—to shape the empire’s destiny. Why did the Western Roman Empire collapse? The question has consumed historians, clergy and philosophers since its fall in the 5th...

  • Military History Magazine

    The Best Medicine

    Death came slowly to soldiers wounded on the battlefields of antiquity. The muscle-powered weapons that hacked at their flesh only rarely inflicted sudden death. Bodies pierced by spears or slashed by swords lingered in agony, sometimes...

  • Military History Magazine

    Hannibal’s Big Mistake

    In the Second Punic War the great Carthaginian general repeatedly defeated Rome’s best armies—but still lost. In November 218 BC, after invading Italy, Carthaginian military commander Hannibal defeated a Roman cavalry force at the...

  • Military History Magazine

    Decisions: Roman Folly at Edessa

    Treachery has often had a decisive impact on military operations. Great generals have founded tactical and even strategic plans upon it—and with good reason. Assassinations, betrayals and defections, if timed properly, can turn the...

  • HistoryNet

    Rome’s Parthian War, A.D. 161-166

    Old enemies battled in the ancient Middle East. Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (reigned A.D. 138-161) made sure his heirs stayed in Rome under his watchful eye. Thus both of his adoptive sons, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, achieved...

  • HistoryNet

    Julius Caesar at War

    Charismatic leadership and brilliant tactics gained Caesar an empire and made him ruler of Rome. PHARSALUS, GREECE, 48 B.C. For several days, Julius Caesar had watched the army of his fellow Roman but bitter enemy Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius...

  • HistoryNet

    The Great Siege of Jerusalem

    Roman legions crush The Zealots’ Revolt. Religious extremists within a traditional society in the Middle East rebel against powerful Western influences the fanatics view as threatening their faith. The society itself is torn between...

  • Military History Book Reviews

    Book Review: Caesar’s Greatest Victory

    John Sadler and Rosie Serdiville review the 52 BC siege of Alesia, fought in present-day central France...

  • Military History Book Reviews

    Book Review: Praetorian

    Guy de la Bédoyère details the history of ancient Rome's elite Praetorian Guard...

  • HistoryNet

    The Cimbrian War, 113-101 B.C.

    Roman victory marked the beginning of the end for Rome as a republic. For a third of a century after Rome destroyed Carthage in 146 B.C., it faced no seriously threatening enemies in the Mediterranean region. Yet a major challenge was...