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Ancient-Medieval

  • MHQ Magazine

    Citizen Tyrants

    Athenian generals, elected to their positions, found that appeasing citizen overlords can spell disaster in the field. The Sicilian expedition of 415–413 BC proved disastrous for the Athenians. They had undertaken the venture during what...

  • Military History Magazine

    The Genius of Philip II

    Western warfare that united Greece and enabled his son Alexander to conquer the world. The full moon cast long shadows across the 3,000 dead and wounded sprawled in grotesque piles throughout the meadow. Moans disturbed the night’s...

  • Military History Magazine

    What We Learned: from the Battle of Gaza

    Following Alexander the Great’s death in 323 BC, his generals began fighting over the empire he had created. Within a decade two leading factions emerged. The first, led by the grizzled Macedonian veteran Antigonus the One-Eyed and his...

  • Military History Magazine

    What We Learned: from the Battle of Thessaly

    In 353 BC Philip of Macedon marched into Thessaly at the request of the Thessalian League to attack the city  of Pherae, which had allied itself with Phocis against Thebes in the Third Sacred War. Upon learning of Philip’s...

  • Military History Magazine

    What We Learned: from the Battle of Salamis

    In the spring of 480 Xerxes led 180,000 soldiers over a pontoon bridge across the Hellespont BC, Persia’s King and invaded Greece. Accompanied by 1,207 warships and 3,000 transports, Xerxes intended to destroy Athens to avenge the defeat...

  • MHQ Magazine

    Peltasts: The Other Greek Warriors

    On ancient battlefields formerly dominated by heavily armed, well-protected hoplites, a once scorned class of fighting man changed the face of warfare. The prevailing image of ancient Greek warfare typically involves tight formations of...

  • MHQ Magazine

    The War-Torn History of the Bayeux Tapestry

    A timeless tale of William the Conqueror’s Norman invasion of England, in colored yarn. Associated with such bellicose figures as William the Conqueror, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Heinrich Himmler, it is surprising that the delicate fabric...

  • MHQ Magazine

    Julian’s Gamble in the Desert

    Inspired by Alexander the Great, the Roman emperor set out to conquer Persia with a massive army, a bold plan, and a thirst for glory. One day in early April, stood on an earthen mound and looked out upon a magnificent array of military...

  • MHQ Magazine

    Arms and Men: Simple but Deadly

    In the century before guns, the longbow brought a lethal efficiency to medieval warfare and gave England an early advantage in the Hundred Years’ War. In July 1333, Edward III stood at Halidon Hill, on the English border of Scotland,...

  • Military History Book Reviews

    Book Review: Gaius Marius

    Marc Hayden presents the best extant account of Gaius Marius and his key role in the late Roman Republic...

  • Military History Magazine

    Military History Review: Heroes

    “Heroes: Mortals and Myths in Ancient Greece” Through Jan. 3, 2010 Walters Art Museum 600 N. Charles St. Baltimore, Md., (410) 547-9000, www.thewalters.org Heroes—mortal and mythological— garnered godlike reverence in ancient...

  • Military History Magazine

    Price of Victory

    Historically, cash—or credit—conquers all. Savvy military leaders have long known that money is the root of all victories. And when the funds run out, the war is over. There is an old saying in military circles: “Amateurs talk...

  • Military History Magazine

    1215 and All That

    In the bitter 13th Century struggle between King John and the upstart English barons, the Magna Carta was far from the last word. Vengeance has been called the true sport of kings, and few monarchs have taken it as seriously as England’s...

  • Military History Magazine

    Military History Book Review: The Poison King

    The Poison King: The Life and Legend of Mithradates, Rome’s Deadliest Enemy by Adrienne Mayor, Princeton University Press, 2009, $29.95 This is an enjoyable but strange book. The introduction claims it is “the first full-scale...

  • Military History Magazine

    Trajan’s Column

    A 100-foot column in Rome records the 2nd Century military exploits of Trajan and his legions. Nineteen centuries after its construction, Trajan’s Column remains one of antiquity’s great works of architecture, a magnificent work of art...

  • Military History Magazine

    Rome’s Big Idea

    A grand long-term strategy allowed Roman rulers—both good and bad—to shape the empire’s destiny. Why did the Western Roman Empire collapse? The question has consumed historians, clergy and philosophers since its fall in the 5th...