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Ancient-Medieval

  • MHQ Magazine

    Tactical Exercises: Fear the Phalanx

    The Macedonian formation terrified opponents— and at times overwhelmed the vaunted Roman legion. ONE DAY in late June 168 Rome and Macedon were encamped be- tween Mount Olympus and the port city BC, the armies of of Pydna in Macedonia....

  • MHQ Magazine

    The End of Athens

    A demagogue, a treacherous ally, and a brutal Roman general destroyed the city-state—and democracy—in the first century BC. Two scenes from Athens in the first century BC: Early summer, 88 BC A cheering crowd surrounds the envoy...

  • MHQ Magazine

    The Maccabees of St. Gall

    Ninth-century Benedictine monks created a beautifully illustrated account of the Jewish revolt of 174 BC. In the modern imagination, the medieval knight is a glamorous figure. No other warrior in Western history seems so admirable, so...

  • Military History Magazine

    The Great Greek Turncoat

    During the 431–404 BC Peloponnesian War, the unscrupulous Alcibiades was a victorious general—for all sides. In one of his lesser-known plays, Timon of Athens, William Shakespeare put a speech in the mouth of a supporting character...

  • Military History Magazine

    Military History Book Review: Song of Wrath

    Song of Wrath: The Peloponnesian War Begins  by J.E. Lendon, Basic Books, 2010, $35 For more than a generation Peloponnesian War studies have been an educational staple for diplomats and soldiers alike. Readers of Thucydides’...

  • Military History Magazine

    Arsenal of Venice: World’s First Weapons Factory

    Venice’s maritime power arose from a shipyard that with mass-production techniques, superb organization and skilled workers could launch two new ships a day. In 1202, at the outset of the Fourth Crusade, the city-state of Venice accepted...

  • Military History Magazine

    Buddha: Enlightened Warrior

    In his youth Siddhartha Gautama was a brawny, six-foot warrior prince, trained in the art of war—and perhaps touched by tragedy. It is a curious fact of military history that the founders of three of the world’s four major religions...

  • Military History Magazine

    The Best Medicine

    Death came slowly to soldiers wounded on the battlefields of antiquity. The muscle-powered weapons that hacked at their flesh only rarely inflicted sudden death. Bodies pierced by spears or slashed by swords lingered in agony, sometimes...

  • Military History Magazine

    Decisions: Lionheart’s Crossroads

    On July 4, 1187, disaster struck the Christian world. That day Muslim and Christian armies battled on a plateau by an extinct volcano called the Horns of Hattin, near the Sea of Galilee. The Christian crusaders fought desperately but...

  • Military History Book Reviews

    Book Review: Hannibal’s Oath

    John Prevas present a readable, entertaining biography of Hannibal for the lay person...

  • Military History Book Reviews

    Book Review: The Templars

    Dan Jones peers behind the veil of the secretive Crusades-era Knights Templar...

  • MHQ Magazine

    The Greatest Ancient Leader

    When Theodore Ayrault Dodge, the American Civil War historian known for his love of the ancient generals, dubbed Alexander, Hannibal, and Caesar “great captains” in 1889, imperial ambition was some- thing to be admired. Today, after...

  • MHQ Magazine

    Unknown Soldier: Georgia’s Renaissance Man

    A boy king vanquished the Turks and ushered in a golden age. In the late 11th century, the European nation-state of Georgia was on the brink of annihilation. Over the previous century Seljuk Turks had invaded and annexed much of the...

  • Military History Magazine

    What We Learned: from the Capture of Guînes

    Medieval sieges were arduous and expensive. Besieging armies had to be fed and paid, and the drawn-out process sapped military strength that could be used for more glorious battles. To circumvent a fortified town or castle’s defenses was...

  • Military History Magazine

    The Persian Fallacy

    In the hit fantasy action film 300 the valiant Greeks defending the pass at Thermopylae in 480 BC are portrayed as the epitome of heroic manliness. Their Persian opponents, on the other hand, are depicted as effeminate slaves led by...

  • HistoryNet

    Greek Hoplites, 700-300 B.C.

    These citizen-soldiers of ancient Greece were nearly unstoppable. Greek hoplites were infantry warriors who carried shields, were primarily armed with spears, and fought in the disciplined ranks of a phalanx formation – a solid mass of...