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Red Cloud

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Red Cloud summary: Red Cloud was a Lakota Indian chief. He was born near the Platte River forks in 1822. He lived in Nebraska, and his early years were spent observing his tribe fight against neighboring tribes of Crow and Pawnee. In 1841, he killed a rival of his uncle, the chief who had raised him. This divided the tribe to a degree, but forged Red Cloud’s reputation as a warrior. Red Cloud’s territory included a large expanse of land, some of which contained gold. This brought miners and military men who began to set up forts and the Lakota resented the intrusion on their land. Red Cloud, not wanting to see a repeat of the pushing out of the Lakota from their own land that occurred in 1862 and 1863, planned an attack on the forts.

Their efforts were so successful that the government made the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1868, which gave the Lakota the Black Hills and other land in South Dakota, and the majority of both Wyoming and Montana. By 1874, however, the treaty was broken. War resumed, but a series of attempts at peace making occurred as well, both on the part of Red Cloud and the American government. Rather than fighting the army, as neighboring chiefs were doing, Red Cloud fought to preserve the rights of chiefs. He was integral to Red Cloud’s War which was a name that the US Army gave to a series of conflicts between their forces and Native Americans. He died in 1909.

Articles Featuring Red Cloud From History Net Magazines

Brulé Sioux Spotted Tail’s Pledge of PeaceWar and a terrible winter were fresh memories when Colonel Henry Maynadier allowed tearful Spotted Tail to bury his daughter at Fort Laramie, which, in turn, helped convince the Brulé Sioux leader to bury the hatchet forever.
Brulé Sioux Chief Spotted TailSpotted Tail, chief of the Brulés, fought well, but his diplomatic skills were even better.
Chiricahua Chief CochiseAt times cruel, Chiricahua Chief Cochise had courage and was devoted to the truth.
Wounded Knee Massacre: United States versus the Plains IndiansThe intermittent war between the United States and the Plains Indians that stretched across some three decades after the Civil War came to an end on December 29, 1890, at the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota.
The Last Stand of Crazy HorseAfter helping his people win the Battle of the Little Bighorn, the daring Oglala leader fought thesoldiers again at Slim Buttes in September 1876 and the Wolf Mountains in January 1877 before finally surrendering at Camp Robinson that May.
Marie Dorion and The Astoria ExpeditionThe only woman on the 1811-12 overland expedition led by Wilson Price Hunt, Marie Dorion endured more hardships than a more famous female Indian traveler, Sacagawea.
Cheyenne Chief Tall BullTall Bull led the Dog Soldiers in battle, but his death at Summit Springs ended Southern Cheyenne power.
Fort Laramie: Gateway to the Far WestThe fort, which became a military post 150 years ago, protected and supplied emigrants headed to the West Coast and was the site of several historic peace conferences between the northern tribes and the U.S. government.
George Crook: Indian FighterAgainst the Apaches in Arizona Territory and the Sioux and Cheyenne in the northern Plains, Crook did his job more effectively than most Army leaders on the Plains.
The Fatal Fetterman FightCalled a massacre at the time, the December 1866 clash near Fort Phil Kearny was, in fact, a military triumph by the Plains Indians and the Army's greatest blunder in the West until the Battle of the Little Bighorn 10 years later.
Book Review: Red Cloud: Warrior-Statesman of the Lakota Sioux (Robert W. Larson) : WWRed Cloud: Warrior-Statesman of the Lakota Sioux, by Robert W. Larson, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1997, $24.95. He was fierce in battle and negotiations, forcing the United States to close the important Bozeman Trail through Sioux territory in 1868. He fought for Sioux rights during his reservation years, and even though he survived Crazy …
Book Review: Lakota: An Illustrated History ( Sergio Macedo) : WWLakota: An Illustrated History, by Sergio Macedo, Treasure Chest Books, Tucson, Ariz., 1996,$18.95. The Lakota, or Teton Sioux, were prominent in the Indian wars, with such leaders as Red Cloud, Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, and their courageous deeds as warriors certainly look splendid in the beautiful illustrations that fill this all-color 56-page book. Brazil-born …

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