Facts, information and articles about Native American Indian Chiefs from the history of the Wild West List of Native American Chiefs and leaders: Crazy Horse: Crazy Horse will always be remembered as one of the great Native Indian warriors who fought to the last. He will always be remembered as a hero in the last battles against the all-conquering Europeans. Read more about Crazy Horse. Sitting Bull: Sitting Bull was a hero, a soldier and one of the best leaders of all time, who lived his life fighting for the rights of his people and died defending them. Read more about Sitting Bull. Sacagawea: Sacagawea was the Native American Woman who served as a guide for the Lewis and Clark expedition. Read more about Sacagawea. Pocahontas: Pocohontas was a Powhatan Indian who saved Captain John Smith’s life, married a colonist, and served as a peace activist between colonists and Native Americans. Read more about Pocahontas. Tecumseh: Tecumseh was the chief of the Shawnee Tribe and responsible for forming Tecumseh’s Confederacy. This was a vision to unite the tribes East of the Mississippi as an independent nation. Read more about Tecumseh. Geronimo: Geronimo was the leader of the Apache tribe. His wife and family were killed by Mexican soldiers and sparked is vengeance and resistance against them. Read more about Geronimo. Black Hawk: Black Hawk was the leader of a group of Sauk and Fox Indians. He was involved in the War of 1812 and integral to the Black Hawk war. Read more about Black Hawk. Cochise: Cochise was chief of the Apache Indians covering territory that expanded over New Mexico and Arizona. He maintained peace with Americans for several years until members of his family were killed. Read more about Cochise. Hiawatha: Hiawatha was the leader of either the Onondagas or the Mohawk tribe of Indians. He was an integral part to gathering the tribes as part of the Iroquois Confederacy. Read more about Hiawatha. Will Rogers: Will Rogers was one of the most famous performers of the 1930s. He started as a cowboy and then performed with the Wild West show before getting involved with movies. Read more about Will Rogers. Chief Pontiac: Pontiac was chief of the Ottawa Indian tribe. The tribe was allies to the French during the French and Indian war. Later they were involved in Pontiac’s Rebellion. Read more about Chief Pontiac. Red Cloud: Chief Red Cloud was leader of the Lakota tribe and a key player in the Red Cloud War. He was known for fighting for the rights of Indian chiefs rather than just fighting the army. Read more about Red Cloud. Chief Seattle: Chief Seattle was of the Duwamish people and reportedly gave a great speech in 1854 that brought everyone together. He was a large man and a great leader. Read more about Chief Seattle. Chief Two Sticks Chief Tall Bull Chief Spotted Tall Chief Ely Parker Chief Satanta Chief Gall Chief Black Kettle Articles Featuring Native American Indian Chiefs From History Net Magazines Featured Article Tecumseh, Red Cloud and Sitting Bull: Three Great Indian Leaders By J. Jay Myers Many brave and wise Indian leaders appeared and gained respect and fame in the late 18th and early 19th century. Only a few of them, however, had the diplomatic skills and charisma to go beyond leading their own bands and their own tribes to form and lead intertribal alliances. Tecumseh the Shawnee, Red Cloud the Oglala Sioux and Sitting Bull the Hunkpapa Sioux all had the right stuff to become legends. Born around 1768 somewhere near present-day Springfield, Ohio, Tecumseh developed an early hatred for the white man’s steady encroachment into Indian homelands. When he was 6 years old, after invading Virginia frontiersmen killed his father, his mother took him to the spot and cried out to him: ‘Avenge! Avenge!’ At age 12, too young to be a warrior, Tecumseh watched George Rogers Clark and some 1,000 men defeat his people and burn his town. Filled with bitterness, he swore vengeance on the Long Knives. By the early 1790s, white Americans were traveling down the Ohio River, turning north and settling on Shawnee hunting grounds. Tecumseh led raiding parties on white settlements and helped defeat two armies sent out to subdue the Indians. Officials in George Washington’s administration feared a great and powerful alliance of the tribes, and the president sent Maj. Gen. Anthony Wayne out to ‘tame’ the Indians. At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Tecumseh was the greatest rallying force for the Indians, many times stopping retreats and inspiring them to stand and fight, but he could not prevent a crushing defeat. Read More in Wild West Magazine Subscribe online and save nearly 40%!!! Nor could he prevent chiefs of other tribes from signing the Treaty of Greenville, thus ceding all of what is now the state of Ohio and part of Indiana to the whites. After that there was a period of relative peace between 1795 and 1809. But during those years, William Henry Harrison, a military man who became governor of Indiana Territory, used liquor, oratory and ceremonial pomp to persuade various chiefs to surrender 50 million acres. By 1805, Tecumseh was traveling between the Appalachians and the Mississippi persuading other tribes to join his confederacy. He told Harrison: ‘The Indians were once a happy race, but now are made miserable by the white people, who are never contented, but always encroaching. They have driven us from the great salt water, forced us over the mountains and would shortly push us into the lakes. But we are determined to go no farther.’ His oratory, of course, did not stop the white invasion, and Tecumseh decided to make use of the religious fervor being spread by his younger brother Tenskwatawa, called ‘the Shawnee Prophet.’ He planned to reform bad Indian habits, to abandon everything the white man had brought into the Indians’ lives, and to try to form a huge confederacy that would include every tribe in U.S. territory. Within three years the brothers had built Prophetsville, a very large town where the Tippecanoe River flows into the Wabash, and had persuaded many chiefs that this was the last chance to stop the white encroachment. But in 1809, some Ohio Valley chiefs signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne, ceding many square miles of land. Tecumseh decided it was time for action and told Harrison he must give back the land. The governor, of course, refused. Tecumseh thought the confederacy was not quite ready for military action and withdrew. He went south to get the final agreement from a number of tribes to join the alliance. British Indian agents were encouraging an Indian uprising against the Americans. In 1811, Harrison decided to take action while Tecumseh was away, visiting the southern tribes Tecumseh had instructed Tenskwatawa not to fight Harrison, but the strong-arm governor provoked a battle at Prophetstown by moving troops to within 600 yards of the town. Insulted, the young warriors fought on November 7, 1811. Harrison’s troops won the Battle of Tippecanoe, and the next day they burned the great town, center of the confederacy. The Americans had destroyed the great alliance. Tecumseh rallied many Indians to the British cause and helped capture Detroit during the War of 1812, but he fell on October 5, 1813, at the Battle of the Thames (near present-day Thamesville, Ontario, Canada), while shouting encouragement to his warriors. The leading proponent of Indian unity was gone, and there was no one to replace him to oppose white settlement east of the Mississippi River. Half a century passed, and whites began to appear in droves west of the Mississippi. Red Cloud, was born about a decade after Tecumseh’s death, and his Oglala Sioux followers were willing to talk with the whites. There could be peace if the white man stayed out of Sioux hunting grounds and stopped using the Bozeman Trail. The government called a council for the spring of 1866 at Fort Laramie, on the Platte River not far from the Wyoming-Nebraska border. Negotiations seemed to be going well until Red Cloud and his chiefs found out that Colonel Henry B. Carrington had arrived with 700 soldiers to build forts on the Bozeman Trail. The Federal peace commission learned that there could be no peace unless a treaty had the support of Red Cloud, who was respected not only by the Oglalas but also by the Bruls and other Sioux and by their Cheyenne allies. ‘The Great Father sends us presents and wants us to sell him the road, but the white chief goes with soldiers to steal the road before Indians say Yes or No,’ said Red Cloud. He then stormed out of the Laramie meeting. Read More in Wild West Magazine Subscribe online and save nearly 40%!!! A real war began, with Red Cloud the head soldier. Red Cloud was the only Plains Indian who could gather so many confederates and keep them together long enough to wage a successful campaign against the white man’s incursions. He gathered 250 lodges of Sioux and Cheyennes in the cause, which provided him with about 500 warriors, and carried on continuous guerrilla warfare along the length of the Bozeman Trail. Seventy white people were killed, 20 wounded, and 700 horses, mules and cattle were taken. The soldiers stuck close to their forts. The Great White Father had to do something, so in 1868 he sent out a peace commission. Whites, according to the Fort Laramie Treaty, were to be banned from Sioux hunting grounds, and their forts were to be abandoned. After the soldiers left, the Indians had the satisfaction of burning the hated forts. The so-called Red Cloud War had been a victory for the Indians. There was relative peace until gold was discovered in the Black Hills in the mid-1870s and the government failed to keep out the white prospectors. Red Cloud, who had come to recognize the hopelessness of challenging the overwhelming numbers of the white man, did not ‘go shooting,’ and that angered many of his people. Although he came to believe in compromise rather than war, Red Cloud never stopped fighting to protect the Sioux culture. Unlike Tecumseh, he did not go out in a blaze of glory. Red Cloud lived until 1909. But like Tecumseh, he had effectively resisted the white invasion…for a while. The Hunkpapa leader and holy man Sitting Bull replaced Red Cloud as the chief symbol of resistance on the northern Plains. Born in March 1831 near the Grand River (in today’s South Dakota), Sitting Bull tried to avoid whites until the situation became intolerable. Then he called for action, and many Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahos were happy to follow his lead. In 1868 many divisions of the Sioux rejected Red Cloud’s peace with the United States and did something they had never done before — choosing one man to be the leader of all the Teton Sioux. His name was Sitting Bull. Crazy Horse, a leading warrior, was essentially second in command. The Fort Laramie Treaty, however, largely kept an uneasy peace until all Indians were ordered to go to reservations by January 31, 1876, or be deemed ‘hostiles.’ That March, one of the columns of Brig. Gen. George Crook attacked a Cheyenne village not even on the list of hostiles. The survivors made their way to Sitting Bull up in Powder River country, and he gave them food and shelter. He decided the time for patience was gone. Sitting Bull sent messages to all Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho bands. He wanted them to join him. In the spring of 1876, he sent out small raiding parties to steal good horses, guns and ammunition, while the U.S. Army mounted a campaign to subdue all Plains Indians who were off their reservation. In June, Sitting Bull danced the Sun Dance until he fell unconscious and had a vision of soldiers falling like rain. Not only did he believe in his vision, but so, too, did most of the warriors around him. The Indians would fight the soldiers and be victorious! On June 17, Crazy Horse fought Crook to a standstill at the Rosebud. Sitting Bull’s vision had not yet come true, but one of the leading white fighting men had been knocked out of the picture. Sitting Bull moved his great allied camp to find more plentiful food for his people and horses. (see ‘Sitting Bull’s Movable Village’ in the December 2000 Wild West). He eventually chose a place along the Little Bighorn River where the grass was good and there was game nearby. That is where Lt. Col. George Custer and the 7th Cavalry found them. Although Sitting Bull and his allies won a great battle, on June 25-26 at the Little Bighorn, they could not win the war. Most of the Indians, hungry and desperate, returned to the reservations the next year. Sitting Bull instead went to Canada, where he found peace for a while. On July 19, 1881, he, along with 187 followers, turned himself in at Fort Buford, Dakota Territory. Sitting Bull mostly stayed at the Standing Rock Agency beginning in 1883 and continued to have much influence. When the Ghost Dance movement stirred up the Sioux in 1890, he became — at least in some eyes — a feared figure once more. On December 15, 1890, Sitting Bull died in a fight near his cabin on the Grand River when Indian police attempted to arrest him. Of Tecumseh, Red Cloud and Sitting Bull, which one was the greatest? Tecumseh’s widespread and powerful alliance was betrayed by his brother. Sitting Bull put together the most complete and famous single Indian victory. Red Cloud, however, actually defeated the U.S. Army over a long campaign and temporarily shamed it. The nod probably must go to Red Cloud. Read More in Wild West Magazine Subscribe online and save nearly 40%!!! This article was written by J. Jay Myers and originally appeared in the October 2001 issue of Wild West. For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Wild West magazine today! Articles 2 John Coleman – Art of the WestThe Prescott, Ariz., artist has captured Sitting Bull, Gall and Crazy Horse in his sculpture, "1876." The Battle of Rosebud, A to ZThe Battle of the Rosebud pitted the vaunted warrior Crazy Horse against the greatest Indian fighter the U.S. Army had at the time—that is, Crook not Custer Gunfights of the Arizona RangersOvershadowed by the famed Texas Rangers, this small band of lawmen roamed Arizona Territory in the early 1900s administering justice, sometimes in deadly frontier fashion MHQ Reviews: Robert Utley on GeronimoMHQ editor Drew Lindsay asks Robert Utley about fascination with Geronimo MHQ Reviews: Spring 2013MAIN REVIEWS AND EXCERPTS Furies: War in Europe, 1450-1700, by Lauro Martines, Reviewed by Paul D. Lockhart The Problem Solvers Who Turned the Tide in the Second World War, by Paul Kennedy, Reviewed by Jim Lacey EXCERPT: The Fall of the House of Dixie, by Bruce Levine INTERVIEW MHQ editor Drew Lindsay asks Robert Utley about […] Interview With Editor-Author Roy YoungRoy Young is editor of the Wild West History Association Journal and researches the West, including the tales of three Stil(l)wells. Interview With Biographer Paul MagidPaul Magid has completed one book of an authoritative two-volume biography about General George Crook. Book Review: Geronimo, by Robert M. UtleyEsteemed Western historian Robert Utley turns his attention to the legendary Apache warrior-shaman Geronimo. Letter From Wild West – February 2013Most Americans have heard the name Geronimo, but few know about the Apache warrior's reputation as a healer. Holiday Gift Guide 2012: Recommendations from World History Group’s EditorsDozens of recommended books, DVDs and more for history buffs, selected by Weider History Group's editors from among the year's best offerings. MHQ Reviews: Notable Books, Winter 2013MHQ editors pick the best books of the new releases The Sheriff Who Took on the Apache KidFrom hardy frontier stock and dedicated to law enforcement, Sheriff Glenn Reynolds was called to transport the dangerous Kid (at right) and eight other prisoners to Yuma Territorial Prison Maurice Turetsky – Art of the WestMaurice Turetsky moved to Santa Fe at middle age with no notion of Billy the Kid - the figure he found has become highly personal in his artwork. Book Review: Indian War Veterans, by Jerome A. GreeneRetired National Park Service historian Jerome A. Greene has put together an insightful collection of personal remembrances from soldiers who fought in the 19th-century Indian wars. War of 1812: Detroit ShowdownIn 1812, brash young British commander Isaac Brock took on the aging American hero William Hull. One of them earned victory laurels, the other a death sentence. MHQ Reviews, Autumn 2012MHQ Reviews, Autumn 2012 Hard War on the Southern PlainsThis story about Sherman's post-Civil War Indian campaign just won a top award from Army Historical Foundation Book Review: The Cherokee Nation in the Civil War, by Clarissa W. ConferClarissa Confer's book The Cherokee Nation in the Civil War gives the Indian perspective of the tribe's decision to side with the Confederacy and the dire consequences. Unknown Soldier: Manning Ferguson Force, the Hero of AtlantaHow a bookish Ohio attorney inspired a Union stand against a furious Confederate assault A History of U.S. Military ManhuntsThe Osama bin Laden manhunt was just one of nearly a dozen in U.S. military history Interview With Historian Paul HedrenIn his new book After Custer, Paul Hedren draws on his extensive knowledge of the Great Sioux War to paint a picture of changing life on the Prairie in the wake of the Little Bighorn. Book Review: After Custer, by Paul L. HedrenPaul L. Hedren shares his unprecedented knowledge of the Great Sioux War in After Custer, an account of the rapid changes on the Plains in the wake of the Little Bighorn. Book Review: Judge William H. Stilwell, by Roy B. YoungRoy Young highlights Arizona Territory Judge William H. Stilwell in this biography, the first volume of a trilogy about the Stilwell family in the Wild West. 2012 Western Heritage Award: When Wynkoop Was SheriffThe Army officer best known for his vocal criticism of the 1864 Sand Creek massacre was once a ‘wildcat sort of fellow’ who dished out his own brand of frontier justice in Kansas Territory Wild West – April 2012 – Table of ContentsThe April 2012 issue of Wild West features stories about Lakota Sioux leader Red Cloud, California Ranger Harry Love and the grisly end of bandido Joaquin Murrieta, the 1874 locust plague on the Great Plains, the unusual early life of Bat Masterson's wife Emma, and shotgun messenger Clark Stocking. Articles 3 Wild West Discussion – April 2012Whom do you consider the most significant Lakota (Sioux) of the Old West: Sitting Bull, a warrior turned spiritual leader and Little Bighorn participant; Crazy Horse, another Little Bighorn participant and a relentless warrior in other battles; Red Cloud, a warrior and chief who beat the U.S. Army in a war named for him; or […] Interview With Author Johnny D. BoggsProlific writer Johnny D. Boggs excels at stories of Jesse James, Billy the Kid, the Civil War, baseball and Western films. Letter from Wild West – April 2012Red Cloud often gets third billing—behind Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse—in the annals of Sioux history, but that is selling short his historic contributions, says R. Eli Paul, editor of the great chief's autobiography American Experience: Custer’s Last Stand – Television ReviewStephen Ives' "Custer's Last Stand" on American Experience is more concerned with exploring the myth of Custer and the Battle of the Little Bighorn than in presenting a blow-by-blow description. TV Series Review: American ExperiencePBS' American Experience adds to its lineup of Western offerings with new episodes on Billy the Kid and Custer's Last Stand. Interview With Author Lee SilvaCalifornia-based author Lee Silva has earned his reputation as a Western historian, Old West firearms expert and Wyatt Earp authority. Wounds from the Washita: The Major Elliott AffairThe death of popular 7th U.S. Cavalry officer Major Joel Elliott at the 1868 Battle of the Washita—and Lt. Col. George Custer's response to it—spawned disunity within the ill-starred unit Book Review: Captain John R. Hughes, by Chuck Parsons, and Rawhide Ranger, Ira Aten, by Bob AlexanderChuck Parsons' book Captain John R. Hughes and Bob Alexander's book Rawhide Ranger, Ira Aten pay tribute to two of the celebrated cadre of Texas Rangers who tamed the Old West. Tim Trask – Art of the WestSculptor Tim Trask gives Tombstone founder Ed Schieffelin another marker. Wild West – October 2011 – Letters from ReadersIn the October issue of Wild West, readers bend our ears about Baseball in the West. Dead or Alive: U.S. Military ManhuntsThe United States has deployed its military 11 times to kill or capture a single man. Letter From American History – August 2011Elliott West, Soothsayer, from Editorial Edward S. Curtis and the Soul of the WarriorA crusading photographer captured the solemn pride of chiefs and braves after the Indian Wars. Interview With Author John KosterNo survivors with George Armstrong Custer at the Little Bighorn in June 1876? John Koster, author of Custer Survivor, says otherwise. Letter from Wild West – June 2011Baseball and the West remain editor Greg Lalire's lifelong obsessions - but he's not alone. Wild West – April 2011 – Table of ContentsThe April 2011 issue of Wild West features stories about Nate Champion's role in the Johnson County War, the Yellow Rose of Texas, the show posters of Buffalo Bill and other Wild West entertainers, the deadly Indian attack and fire at New Ulm during the 1862 Minnesota Uprising, and the early life of Edward "Ned" Wynkoop. Interview With Author/Historian Mark van de LogtPawnee Scouts in the U.S. Army get their due, thanks to Van de Logt, a Kansan researcher born in the Netherlands. Interview With Author S.C. GwynneAuthor S.C. Gwynne addresses Quanah Parker's role in the history of the Comanche Nation is his New York Times best seller "Empire of the Summer Moon." The Calamities of Calamity JaneLate in life Calamity Jane, the legendary frontierswoman, lived in a world of saloons, dance halls and brothels. Actually, it wasn't so different from her younger days. Gib Singleton – Art of the WestGib Singleton's bronze "Tombstone" captures the emotional charge of that fateful day at the O.K. Corral in October 1881. Interview with Author-Editor-Filmmaker Candy MoultonWyoming-based author-editor-filmmaker and general renaissance woman Candy Moulton has devoted her life to telling the story of the American West. The Falsehoods of Fetterman’s FightCaptain William Fetterman has been portrayed as an arrogant fire-eater who disobeyed orders and met disaster at Fort Phil Kearny in December 1866. But that familiar picture is distorted. Paul Sheldon – Art of the WestArtist Paul Sheldon became fascinated with the American Southwest as a child and shares that fascination in his paintings of Apaches, cowboys and the land itself. Letter from Wild West – August 2010Cheyenne Indians are often overlooked in the chronicles of the 19th century Indian wars, despite having engaged in almost as many fights as the heralded Sioux warriors. Interview with Author Mark Lee GardnerMark Lee Gardner, author, historian and general renaissance man of the West, has written a dual biography of Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid. Articles 4 Ambush and Siege at Paint RockIn March 1846, Jack Hays and a company of Texas Rangers ambushed a large raiding party on sacred Comanche ground, but the outnumbered Texians soon found themselves under siege. Kevin Red Star – Art of the WestCrow artist Kevin Red Star paints historical Indian subjects with strength, power and passion. Wild West – April 2010 – Letters from Readers‘I was rather shocked to read the interview with Boyer and not see a single mention of the fact that the University of Arizona Press dropped I Married Wyatt Earp from publication’ Walker Look-Alike If you shaved off the beard, cut the hair and trimmed the eyebrows, Western trailblazer/explorer Joseph Rutherford Walker would pass for […] The Red-Haired Captive and the Fight at Pinta Trail CrossingIn 1841 Chief Yellow Wolf and his Comanche raiders were heading back to Hill Country with an Irish prisoner when Captain Jack Hays and his company of Texas Rangers attacked. Glenn Boyer Answers Six Questions About Wyatt EarpAuthor Glenn Boyer answers some of the oft-asked questions posed by Wyatt Earp fans. Wild West – December 2009 – Letters from Readers‘Thus the sources these authors cite do not hold up to scrutiny when closely examined as to any role Crazy Horse definitely and personally played in the Fetterman Fight’ Crazy Horse Image I read the news item on P. 8 of your “Roundup” section in the June issue about the “Crazy Horse” picture. Surfing the […] Interview with Author-Playwright Louis KraftAuthor/Playwright Louis Kraft turns his attention to Indian agent Ned Wynkoop, portraying him onstage. The Cowboy Brigade’s Roosevelt Inaugural InvasionIn March 1905, Seth Bullock, onetime Deadwood sheriff, brought rough-and-ready Westerners to Washington, D.C., to ride in Teddy Roosevelt's inaugural parade. Interview with Fetterman Fight Author John MonnettFetterman Fight expert John Monnett explains his fascination with Plains Indians and speaks about his new book, Where a Hundred Soldiers Were Killed. We Shall Remain – Interview with Ric Burns and Chris EyreDirectors Ric Burns and Chris Eyre talk in an exclusive interview about the making of We Shall Remain and the determination to tell the story of Native Americans in a way it has never been told before, neither demonizing nor deifying their subject. Wild West – June 2009 – Table of ContentsGeorge and Libbie Custer, the 1876 Centennial International Exhibition, scout Medicine Bill Comstock, Doc Holliday's nemesis Perry Mallon, and Monument Valley are all featured in the June 2009 issue of Wild West magazine. Medicine Bill Comstock – Saga of the Leatherstocking ScoutMedicine Bill Comstock, descendant of James Fenimore Cooper, brought his uncle's mythical Natty Bumppo to life on the Great Plains as a hunter, trapper and cultural go-between. Interview with George Custer Expert James DonovanJames Donovan, author and George Custer expert, covers new ground in the story of the 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn in his new book A Terrible Glory. Art of the West – Mick B. Harrison’s ‘Deadwood Freight’South Dakota artist Mick Harrison's 'Deadwood Freight' captures the down-and-dirty mining town in its 1870s heyday. Ten Myths of the Little BighornSeveral hundred people witnessed the Sioux and Cheyenne defeat of Lt. Col. George Custer at the June 25, 1876, Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory, so why do so many myths persist about the events that fateful day? The Lowdown on ‘Quarrelsome’ Bill DowningShortly after Bill Downing arrived in Willcox, Arizona Territory, in the 1890s, he shot a man, robbed a train and faced off with Ranger Billy Speed Interview with Cherokee Author Robert J. ConleyRobert J. Conley, a Cherokee from Oklahoma, is an acclaimed short story writer, novelist, historian and essayist who has won three Spur Awards from Western Writers of America. In this interview with Wild West magazine he discusses his work. Decision at The Battle of Five Forks – 1865The headstrong Gen. Philip Sheridan (left) had little patience for the careful battle tactics of Gen. Gouverneur Warren (right) and replaced him at Five Forks. But in 1880 Sheridan would be forced to justify his actions before a court of inquiry in New York. Photograph: Library of Congress Did Philip Sheridan forever tarnish a major […] 100 Greatest Western MoviesA panel of experts selected the 100 greatest Western movies of all time. History Net offers you a chance to vote for your top choice and asks what movies were overlooked, which ones don't belong, and what is the most historically accurate Western. Wild West – February 2009 – Table of ContentsBuffalo Bill Cody, Wells Fargo guard Eugene Blair, Charley Nebo, buffalo and mules are featured in the February 2009 issue of Wild West magazine Victorio’s WarFor Apache chief Victorio, the decision to make war on the United States was a matter of rights and spirituality. Known as the "greatest Indian general" ever, he terrorized settlers and the army, surpassing Geronimo's feats and ferocity. The Originial Reality Show – Buffalo Bill’s Wild West ExtravaganzaBuffalo Bill’s traveling circus of real-life cowboys and Indians revived the mythical West for audiences that, for the most part, had never experienced it. But the story of glorious conquest was a familiar one. How the West was Spun – Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West ShowBuffalo Bill Cody heralded the closing of the frontier by reassuring Americans that they would never be too civilized to beat the braves and bullies of the world at their own game. Table of Contents – June 2008 – Wild WestJune 2008 Wild West Cover Subscribe to Wild West magazine today! FEATURES Cover Story: Ten Myths of the Little Bighorn By Gregory Michno Most folks know that not all of George Custer’s men were killed on June 25, 1876, and that the lieutenant colonel did not disobey orders, but the other eight battle myths presented […] Lakota Indians Withdraw Treaties Signed With U.S. 150 Years Agonews.com.au | 2007-12-20 Articles 5 Smithsonian Returns Sitting Bull RelicsNY Times | 2007-09-18 Daily Quiz for September 12, 2007He led the attack in the first Battle of Adobe Walls: Daily Quiz for August 21, 2007This one-time scout in the Apache wars was hanged in Cheyenne, Wyo., for the alleged murder of 14-year-old Willie Nickell on July 18, 1901: Last Stand To Save Grave Of Sitting BullTelegraph (UK) | 2007-08-06 Wild West: Rescue of the Mountain Meadows OrphansIn the fall of 1857, a party of emigrants from Arkansas camped in southern Utah Territory at Mountain Meadows, a lush alpine oasis on the Spanish Trail where wagon trains rested before crossing the Mojave Desert. The party was made up of about a dozen large, prosperous families and their hiredhands, driving about 18 wagons […] Dodge City’s Grand BullfightBy J.R. Sanders Geronimo’s great-grandson wants bones returnedThe Boston Globe | 2007-06-18 Daily Quiz for May 26, 2007He led the attack in the first Battle of Adobe Walls. Survivor Frank Finkel’s Lasting StandMany men claimed to have been survivors of Custer's command at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, but Frank Finkel was the genuine article. Custer’s Last Stand Still Stands UpThe Battle of the Little Bighorn is like a 10,000-piece jigsaw puzzle on the south-central Montana landscape - the stuff of legend and historical gamesmanship. Comanche CaptivesYoung Dot and Bianca Babb experienced the good and bad of life in native camps after being captured from their parents' Texas ranch by Comanches. An article by Gregory F. Michno in Wild West magazine. Wyatt Earp’s Vendetta PosseAt about 11:30 p.m. on December 28, 1881, some two months after the so-called Gunfight at the O.K. Corral had rocked Tombstone, assassins opened fire on City Police Chief Virgil Earp outside the Oriental Saloon in that same divided community. At least three men fired double-barrel shotguns from their dark hiding place across the street. […] Billy the Kid and the U.S. Marshals ServiceDeputy U.S. marshals served on both sides during the Lincoln County War, and for a short time, in February 1878, William Bonney served as a federally deputized posseman.By David S. Turk Warm Springs Apache Leader Nana: The 80-Year-Old Warrior Turned the TablesOn August 19, 1881, in a remote New Mexico Territory canyon, Warm Springs Apache leader Nana ambushed a combined military and civilian force that was out to get him. By Daniel D. Aranda George Armstrong Custer: Changing Views of an American LegendAlthough he was already a popular figure in his own time, the disaster that doomed George Armstrong Custer on the Little Bighorn forever secured his place in the American mind and mythology. War of 1812: Battle of the ThamesA rare American land victory in the War of 1812, the Battle of the Thames helped the winning commander -- William Henry Harrison -- to the presidency and deprived the Indians of one of their greatest leaders -- Shawnee Chief Tecumseh.By William Francis Freehoff Cheyenne Chief Black KettleAlthough usually portrayed as a man of peace, Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle may have been an ineffective leader at best.By Gregory Michno General Nelson Miles and the Expedition to Capture GeronimoGeneral Nelson Miles summoned Lieutenant Charles Gatewood to Albuquerque in July 1886 and ordered the reluctant veteran of the Apache wars to go find the elusive Chiricahua leader down in the mountains of Mexico.By Louis Kraft Spirit Lake MassacreWith most of her family and neighbors at the northern Iowa settlement wiped out, Abbie Gardner clung to life at the mercy of Dakota Chief Inkpaduta and his unremorseful band. Sioux Chief GallSoldiers gave the Hunkpapa leader his nickname because he was a dashing warrior who effectively teamed up with Sitting Bull in the 1870s. But after his surrender in 1881, Gall stood up for cooperation and peace at Standing Rock. Revolt of the MétisIn 1885, Canadian troops had to deal with a bloody uprising that had barely been averted in 1870. Its leader was once more Louis Riel, but the man to worry about was Gabriel Dumont. The Colonel and Little Missie: Buffalo Bill, Annie Oakley, and the Beginnings of Superstardom in America (Book Review)Reviewed by Alexander CookBy Larry McMurtrySimon & Schuster, New York, 2005 In the 1880s and 1890s, William "Buffalo Bill" Cody and Annie Oakley, who specialized in Western entertainment, achieved international fame and, according to Larry McMurtry, became the first American superstars. He’s probably right, although cases could probably be made for such earlier 19th-century celebrities […] White Justice in Arizona: Apache Murder Trials in the Nineteenth Century (Book Review)Reviewed by Luc NettletonBy Clare V. McKanna Jr.Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock, 2005 Indians in the 19th century often could not live by "white men’s law," but they could die by it. The author, who teaches American Indian history at San Diego State, concentrates on four late 19th-century cases, in each of which an Apache […] Trail of Black HawkOutnumbered and harried through trackless swamps, Black Hawk's starving band of Sauk and Fox Indians made a desperate stand along the Mississippi. Estanislao: Rebellious Indian WarriorNamed after a Polish saint, Estanislao became an Indian official with a mission--flee Mission San Jose and lead one of the largest Indian forces ever to fight against whites in California. Articles 6 Soldiers vs. Apaches: One Last Time at Guadalupe CanyonNearly 10 years after Geronimo called it quits following a massive manhunt, the U.S. Army began a smaller campaign against renegade Apaches. Kiowa Chief SatantaKiowa chief Satanta was one of the most complicated men ever to rise from the Great Plains--a diplomat and orator of his people who did his share of killing. The Indian Tax Rebellion of 1851When San Diego County officials slapped a property tax on the dirt-poor Indians of the area, the natives complied in 1850, but then trouble came a year later when Major General Joshua Bean instructed them not to pay. The Tule River WarFrom their earth-and-rock fortification at the base of a small, solitary mountain, the Yokuts of central California were determined to defend their land. The Battle of White Bird Canyon: First Fight of the Nez PerceAfter young warriors killed some settlers in Idaho Territory, General O.O. Howard ordered Captain David Perry at Fort Lapwai to go get them, telling him, 'You must not get whipped.' 1902 Gunfight at SpokogeeThe long-simmering feud between the Brooks and McFarland clans erupted into gunfire on September 22, 1902, at the new railroad town in Indian Territory. Lieutenant Casper Collins: Fighting the Odds at Platte BridgeLieutenant Casper Collins and 20 others faced at least 1,000 Indians in the 1865 Running Battle, and on its heels came another lopsided encounter on the North Platte -- Custard's Last Stand. Chief SeattleDid Chief Seattle really say, 'the earth does not belong to man; man belongs to the earth'? Apache Captives’ OrdealWhen Apache warriors swooped down on the defenseless Oatman family in sunbleached Arizona in 1851, the harrowing nightmare was just beginning for Olive Oatman and her little sister Mary Ann. War of 1812: Corps of Canadian VoyageursThe Corps of Canadian Voyageurs maintained Britain's frontier during the War of 1812. Brulé Sioux Spotted Tail’s Pledge of PeaceWar and a terrible winter were fresh memories when Colonel Henry Maynadier allowed tearful Spotted Tail to bury his daughter at Fort Laramie, which, in turn, helped convince the Brulé Sioux leader to bury the hatchet forever. Brulé Sioux Chief Spotted TailSpotted Tail, chief of the Brulés, fought well, but his diplomatic skills were even better. Butch Cassidy’s Surrender OfferTired of being on the run, the Wild Bunch leader considered a number of options before deciding it was best to leave the country. War of 1812: Battle of Lake Erie — Oliver Perry PrevailsWith Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's flagship unable to fight, an outmatched British flotilla faced the prospect of a remarkable victory. But Perry only transferred his pennant to another ship and fought on. The Republic of the Rio GrandeAfter Texas gained its independence from Mexico, some Texans and Mexicans were ready to fight for a new buffer nation. Chiricahua Chief CochiseAt times cruel, Chiricahua Chief Cochise had courage and was devoted to the truth. Battle of Pierre’s HoleStill bleary-eyed from their annual rendezvous, Bill and Milton Sublette's mountain men were ill-prepared for battle. But the dreaded Gros Ventre--'Big Bellies'--could not be avoided without a fight. Wounded Knee Massacre: United States versus the Plains IndiansThe intermittent war between the United States and the Plains Indians that stretched across some three decades after the Civil War came to an end on December 29, 1890, at the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Battle of Champion’s HillWith Ulysses S. Grant's army steadily menacing Vicksburg, Confederate General John Pemberton left the town's comforting defenses to seek out the enemy army. Too late, he found it, at Champion's Hill. Oregon Trail: Wagon Tracks WestFor the Applegates and their fellow travelers, the Oregon Trail promised a golden ticket to the land of milk and honey. The reality, however, proved to be far grimmer. The 7th U.S. Cavalry Regiment Fought in the Battle of the Little BighornAmong the troopers advancing with Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer on the Little Bighorn in June 1876 were 1st Lt. Charles DeRudio and Privates John Martin and Augustus De Voto. Mason County WarThe 1875 blood feud, also known as the Hoodoo War and featuring the likes of former Texas Ranger Scott Cooley and up-and-coming legend John Ringo, pitted German settlers against American-born cowboys. Frederick W. BenteenBenteen, though he displayed daring and audacity during his military career, would probably not be remembered today if not for his supporting role at the Little Bighorn more than 125 years ago. Battle of Little Bighorn: Were the Weapons the Deciding FactorGeorge A. Custer's 7th Cavalry had Springfield carbines and Colt .45 revolvers; the Lakota and Cheyenne Indians had a variety of long arms, including repeaters. But were the weapons used on June 25, 1876, the deciding factor in the famous battle? Paddle-wheelers Appeared on the Colorado River in 1852When a steamboat first appeared on the Colorado River in 1852, some Indians were afraid, but they would get plenty of chances to become used to the belching boats during the next 25 years. Articles 7 Black Kettle: The Cheyenne Chief Who Sought Peace but Found War (Book Review)Reviewed by Chrys Ankeny By Thom HatchJohn Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J., 2004 Although not as well known as Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, Cochise or Geronimo, who all had some measure of success fighting white intruders, the peace chief extraordinaire, Black Kettle, is hardly a stranger to anyone with a passing interest in […] The Last Stand of Crazy HorseAfter helping his people win the Battle of the Little Bighorn, the daring Oglala leader fought thesoldiers again at Slim Buttes in September 1876 and the Wolf Mountains in January 1877 before finally surrendering at Camp Robinson that May. African American Troops of Company K, 9th Cavalry Fought in the Battle of Fort LancasterCaptain William Frohock, Lieutenant Frederick Smith and the black troopers of Company K, 9th Cavalry, received an after-Christmas surprise from Kickapoo raiders in 1867. Utah War: U.S. Government Versus Mormon SettlersThe federal expedition into Utah Territory in 1857-58, which pitted President James Buchanan's U.S. Army against Brigham Young's Nauvoo Legion, was largely a bloodless affair, but misjudgments, embarrassments and expenses abounded. King Philip’s War: Indian Chieftain’s War Against the New England ColoniesThree hundred thirty years ago, a great Indian chieftain known as King Philip led a strong native American confederation in a bloody war to obliterate the New England colonies, nearly succeeding in dramatically altering the course of American history. Lakotas: Feared Fighters of the PlainsThe Teton Sioux, or Lakotas, battled other tribes to become the dominant force on the Northern Plains and then took on the U.S. Army in an effort to maintain their way of life. Marie Dorion and The Astoria ExpeditionThe only woman on the 1811-12 overland expedition led by Wilson Price Hunt, Marie Dorion endured more hardships than a more famous female Indian traveler, Sacagawea. Spanish-American War: Battle of San Juan HillAmerican plans to take the heights outside Santiago de Cuba went awry almost from the onset, but the initiative of regimental commanders carried their troops to victory. Mexican Expedition: 1st Aero Squadron in Pursuit of Pancho VillaTaking part in Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing's 1916 Mexican expedition was a learning experience for the U.S. Army's first air arm -- mainly in regard to its own deficiencies. Cheyenne Chief Tall BullTall Bull led the Dog Soldiers in battle, but his death at Summit Springs ended Southern Cheyenne power. Nellie Cashman: Female Miner, Prospector and PhilanthropistAlthough known for her charity, Nellie Cashman was a dedicated and knowledgeable miner who searched the west for the 'Big Bonanza.' Kit Carson: The Legendary Frontiersman Remains an American HeroThe small but courageous adventurer made his mark on the frontier as a mountain man, guide, scout, Indian fighter and Indian protector. Fort Laramie: Gateway to the Far WestThe fort, which became a military post 150 years ago, protected and supplied emigrants headed to the West Coast and was the site of several historic peace conferences between the northern tribes and the U.S. government. Death at Summit Springs: Susanna Alderdice and the CheyennesIn May 1869, Tall Bull's Cheyenne Dog Soldiers carried out a series of brutal raids in north-central Kansas, and though the white soldiers later caught up with them, vengeance could not make everything right. Louis L’Amour’s New MexicoSeven of the popular Western author's many novels are set in the 'Land of Enchantment,' and they offer real history and real geography for adventuresome historic travelers. Tecumseh, Red Cloud and Sitting Bull: Three Great Indian LeadersDiplomacy, courage and charisma were among the attributes of this trio of great Indian leaders. Sioux Chief Two SticksTwo years after Wounded Knee, Chief Two Sticks was Ghost Dancing and more. Warren Earp: The Little BrotherOvershadowed by his older brothers, Warren Earp struggled to live up to the Earp name. George Crook: Indian FighterAgainst the Apaches in Arizona Territory and the Sioux and Cheyenne in the northern Plains, Crook did his job more effectively than most Army leaders on the Plains. Sitting Bull and the MountiesAfter the Little Bighorn and other 1876 confrontations with the U.S. Army, the great Hunkpapa Sioux Leader took his people north into Canada, where James Walsh and other scarlet-clad lawmen insisted on enforcing the white mother's laws. Sacagawea: Assisted the Lewis and Clark ExpeditionDetails of her life remain sketchy, and the time and place of her death are still debated, but the young Indian woman who assisted Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on their great journey west has a secure place in history. War of 1812: Battle of Lake Erie: Oliver Perry’s Miraculous VictoryWith Oliver Hazard Perry's flagship dead in the water, the British had apparently won the 1813 Battle of Lake Erie. But then the quick-thinking American commander turned the tables and snatched an astounding victory in the bloodiest naval fight of the War of 1812. Buffalo Bill’s Skirmish At Warbonnet CreekThree weeks after the disaster at the Little Bighorn, Buffalo Bill claimed he had taken 'the first scalp for Custer!' And soon the famous scout was doing it all over again on the stage. Cherokee Stand WatieCherokee Stand Watie exhibited great bravery and strong leadership while fighting for two lost causes. War of 1812: Turning Point at Fort MeigsAfter a succession of disasters, Maj. Gen. William Henry Harrison's stand along the Maumee River became a turning point in the War of 1812 on the Northwestern frontier.